# Minecraft

Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game designer Markus Persson, better known as Notch, who later went on to found Mojang, which has since been the developer and publisher of Minecraft. The creative and building aspects of Minecraft allow players to build with a variety of different cubes in a 3D procedurally generated world. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering, crafting, and combat.

Minecraft
Developer(s) Mojang[a]
Publisher(s)
Designer(s)
Artist(s) Markus Toivonen
Composer(s) C418
Platform(s)
Release
Genre(s) Sandbox, survival
Mode(s) Single-player, multiplayer

Multiple gameplay modes are available, including a survival mode where the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, a creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, an adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players, a spectator mode where players can freely move throughout a world without being affected by gravity or collisions, and a hardcore mode, where the player is only given one life. The PC version of the game is noted for its modding scene, where users create new gameplay mechanics, items, and assets for the game.

Minecraft received praise from critics and has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, parodies, adaptations, merchandise, and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game. It has also been used in educational environments, especially in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By early 2018, over 144 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US\$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. Spin-off games, such as Minecraft: Story Mode, have also been released.

## Gameplay

Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no specific goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game.[14] However, there is an achievement system.[15] Gameplay is in the first-person perspective by default, but players have the option for third-person perspective.[16] The game world is composed of rough 3D objects—mainly cubes and fluids—representing various materials, such as dirt, stone, ores, tree trunks, water, and lava. The core gameplay revolves around picking up and placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move freely around the world. Players can "mine" blocks and then place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things.[17]

The game world is virtually infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed that is obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation (or manually specified by the player).[18][19][20] There are limits on vertical movement, but Minecraft allows an infinitely large game world to be generated on the horizontal plane, only running into technical problems when extremely distant locations are reached.[nb 1] The game achieves this by splitting the world data into smaller sections called "chunks" that are only created or loaded when players are nearby.[18] The world is divided into biomes ranging from deserts to jungles to snowfields;[21][22] the terrain includes plains, mountains, forests, caves, and various water bodies.[20] The in-game time system follows a day and night cycle, and one full cycle lasts 20 real-time minutes.

A few of the hostile monsters in Minecraft, displayed from left to right: zombie, spider, enderman, creeper, and skeleton

Players encounter various non-player characters known as mobs, such as animals, villagers, and hostile creatures.[23] Passive mobs can be hunted for food and crafting materials, such as cows, pigs, and chickens. They spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves—including large spiders, skeletons, and zombies.[20] Some hostile mobs, such as zombies and skeletons, burn under the sun.[24] Some creatures unique to Minecraft have been noted by reviewers, including the creeper (an exploding creature that sneaks up on the player) and the enderman (a creature with the ability to teleport and pick up blocks).[25]

Many commentators have described the game's physics system as unrealistic.[26] Liquids continuously flow for a limited horizontal distance from source blocks, which can be removed by placing a solid block in its place or by scooping it into a bucket. Complex systems can be built using primitive mechanical devices, electrical circuits, and logic gates built with an in-game material known as redstone.[27]

Minecraft has two alternate dimensions besides the main world: the Nether and the End.[25] The Nether is a hell-like dimension accessed via player-built portals; it contains many unique resources and can be used to travel great distances in the overworld.[28] The player can build an optional boss mob called the Wither out of materials found in the Nether.[29] The End is a barren land consisting of many islands. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island.[30] Killing the dragon cues the game's ending credits, written by Irish novelist Julian Gough.[31] Players are then allowed to teleport back to their original spawn point in the overworld and continue the game indefinitely.[32]

The game consists of five game modes: survival, creative, adventure, hardcore, and spectator. It also has a changeable difficulty system of four levels. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile creatures from spawning, and when playing on the hard difficulty players can starve to death if their hunger bar is depleted.[33][34]

### Survival mode

The Minecraft crafting screen, showing the crafting pattern of a stone axe

In survival mode, players have to gather natural resources such as wood and stone found in the environment in order to craft certain blocks and items.[20] Depending on the difficulty, monsters spawn in darker areas outside a certain radius of the character, requiring players to build a shelter at night.[20] The mode also has a health bar which is depleted by attacks from monsters, falls, drowning, falling into lava, suffocation, starvation, and other events. Players also have a hunger bar, which must be periodically refilled by eating food in-game, except in peaceful difficulty. If the hunger bar is depleted, automatic healing will stop and eventually health will deplete.[34] Health replenishes when players have a nearly full hunger bar or continuously on peaceful difficulty.

Players can craft a wide variety of items in Minecraft.[35] Players can craft armour, which can help mitigate damage from attacks, while weapons such as swords can be crafted to kill enemies and other animals more easily. Players acquire resources to craft tools, such as axes, shovels, or pickaxes, used to chop down trees, dig soil, and mine ores, respectively; e.g. tools made of iron perform their tasks more quickly than tools made of stone or wood and can be used more heavily before they break. Players can construct furnaces which can smelt food, process ores and materials, among others.[36] Players may also trade goods with villager NPCs through a bartering system involving trading emeralds for different goods, and vice versa.[37][23][37]

The game has an inventory system, and players can carry a limited number of items. Upon dying, items in the players' inventories are dropped, and players re-spawn at their spawn point, which is set by default where players begin the game, and can be reset if players sleep in a bed.[38] Dropped items can be recovered if players can reach them before they despawn. Players may acquire experience points by killing mobs and other players, mining, smelting ores, breeding animals, and cooking food. Experience can then be spent on enchanting tools, armour and weapons.[33] Enchanted items are generally more powerful, last longer, or have other special effects.[33]

Hardcore mode is a survival mode variant that is locked to the hardest setting, and has permadeath, permanently deleting the world when the player dies[39] When a player dies on a server set to hardcore mode, the player is put into spectator mode.[40]

### Creative mode

An example of a creation constructed in Minecraft

In creative mode, players have access to all resources and items in the game through the inventory menu, and can place or remove them instantly.[41] Players can toggle the ability to fly freely around the game world at will, and their characters do not take any damage and are not affected by hunger.[42][43] The game mode helps players focus on building and creating large projects.[41]

Adventure mode was added to Minecraft in version 1.3; it was designed specifically so that players could experience user-crafted custom maps and adventures.[44][45][46] Gameplay is similar to survival mode but introduces various player restrictions, which can be applied to the game world by the creator of the map. This forces players to obtain the required items and experience adventures in the way that the map maker intended.[46] Another addition designed for custom maps is the command block; this block allows map makers to expand interactions with players through scripted server commands.[47]

### Spectator mode

Spectator mode allows players to fly around through blocks and watch gameplay without directly interacting. In this mode, instead of having an inventory, players have the ability to teleport to other players. It is also possible to view from the perspective of another player or creature.[48]

### Multiplayer

Multiplayer in Minecraft is available through direct game-to-game multiplayer, LAN play, local split screen, and servers (player-hosted and business-hosted). It enables multiple players to interact and communicate with each other on a single world.[49] Players can run their own servers, use a hosting provider, or connect directly to another player's game via Xbox Live. Single-player worlds have local area network support, allowing players to join a world on locally interconnected computers without a server setup.[50] Minecraft multiplayer servers are guided by server operators (op for short), who have access to server commands such as setting the time of day and teleporting players. Operators can also set up restrictions concerning which usernames or IP addresses are allowed or disallowed to enter the server.[49] Multiplayer servers have a wide range of activities, with some servers having their own unique rules and customs. Player versus player combat (PvP) can be enabled to allow fighting between players.[51] Many servers have custom plugins that allow actions that are not normally possible. In 2013, Mojang announced Minecraft Realms, a server hosting service intended to enable players to run server multiplayer games easily and safely without having to set up their own.[52] Unlike a standard server, only invited players can join Realms servers, and these servers do not use IP addresses. Minecraft: Java Edition Realms server owners can invite up to twenty people to play on their server, with up to ten players online at a time. Minecraft Realms server owners can invite up to 3000 people to play on their server, with up to ten players online at one time. [53] The Minecraft: Java Edition Realms servers do not support user-made plugins, but players can play custom Minecraft maps.[54] Minecraft Realms servers support user-made add-ons, resource packs, behavior packs, and custom Minecraft maps. [55] At Electronic Entertainment Expo 2016, it was announced that Realms would enable Minecraft to support cross-platform play between Windows 10, iOS, and Android platforms starting in June 2016,[56] with Xbox One and Nintendo Switch support to come later in 2017,[57] and support for virtual reality devices. On 31 July 2017, Mojang released the beta version of the update allowing cross-platform play.[58] Realms also supports the Xbox One, Windows 10, Android, iOS, and Kindle platforms.[59]

## Development

Markus "Notch" Persson, the creator of Minecraft, at GDC in 2011

Markus "Notch" Persson began developing the game as a project.[60] He was inspired to create Minecraft by several other games such as Dwarf Fortress, Dungeon Keeper, and later Infiniminer. At the time, he had visualised an isometric 3D building game that would be a cross between his inspirations and had made some early prototypes.[60] Infiniminer heavily influenced the style of gameplay, including the first-person aspect of the game, the "blocky" visual style and the block-building fundamentals. However, unlike Infiniminer, Persson wanted Minecraft to have RPG elements.[61]

Minecraft was first released to the public on 17 May 2009, as a developmental release on TIGSource forums,[62] later becoming known as the Classic version. Further milestones dubbed as Survival Test, Indev and Infdev were released between September 2009 and February 2010, although the game saw updates in-between. The first major update, dubbed alpha version, was released on 28 June 2010. Although Persson maintained a day job with Jalbum.net at first, he later quit in order to work on Minecraft full-time as sales of the alpha version of the game expanded.[63] Persson continued to update the game with releases distributed to users automatically. These updates included new items, new blocks, new mobs, survival mode, and changes to the game's behaviour (e.g. how water flows).[63]

To back the development of Minecraft, Persson set up a video game company, Mojang, with the money earned from the game.[64][65][66] On 11 December 2010, Persson announced that Minecraft was entering its beta testing phase on 20 December 2010. He further stated that bug fixes and all updates leading up to and including the release would still be free.[67] Over the course of the development, Mojang hired several new employees to work on the project.[68]

### Soundtrack

Minecraft's music and sound effects were produced by German musician C418 (Daniel Rosenfeld).[81] The background music in Minecraft is instrumental ambient music. On 4 March 2011, Rosenfeld released a soundtrack, titled Minecraft – Volume Alpha; it includes most of the tracks featured in Minecraft, as well as other music not featured in the game.[82] The video game blog Kotaku chose the music in Minecraft as one of the best video game soundtracks of 2011.[83] On 9 November 2013, Rosenfeld released the second official soundtrack, titled Minecraft – Volume Beta, which includes the music that was added in later versions of the game.[84][85] A physical release of Volume Alpha, consisting of CDs, black vinyl, and limited-edition transparent green vinyl LPs, was issued by acclaimed indie electronic label Ghostly International on 21 August 2015.[86][87]

## Release

### Personal computer versions

The game can run on multiple operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux.[49][88] Apart from Minecraft: Java Edition and Minecraft for Windows 10, there are other versions of Minecraft for PC, including Minecraft Classic, Minecraft 4k, and Minecraft: Education Edition.

Minecraft Classic is an older version of Minecraft that was first available online and can currently be played through the launcher. Unlike newer versions of Minecraft, the classic version is free to play, though it is no longer updated. It functions much the same as creative mode, allowing players to build and destroy any and all parts of the world either alone or in a multiplayer server. There are no computer creatures in this mode, and environmental hazards such as lava do not damage players. Some blocks function differently since their behaviour was later changed during development.[89][90][91]

Minecraft 4k is a simplified version of Minecraft similar to the classic version that was developed for the Java 4K game programming contest "in way less than 4 kilobytes".[92] The map itself is finite—composed of 64×64×64 blocks—and the same world is generated every time. Players are restricted to placing or destroying blocks, which consist of grass, dirt, stone, wood, leaves, and brick.[93]

Minecraft: Education Edition is a version of Minecraft created specifically for educational institutions and was launched 1 November 2016. [94] It includes a Chemistry Resource Pack [95], free lesson plans on the Minecraft Education website, and two free companion applications: Code Connection and Classroom Mode.[96]

Minecraft for Windows 10 is currently exclusive to Microsoft's Windows 10 operating system. The beta for it launched on the Windows Store on 29 July 2015.[97] This version has the ability to play with Xbox Live friends, and to play local multiplayer with owners of Minecraft on mobile platforms. Other features include the ability to use multiple control schemes, such as a gamepad, keyboard, or touchscreen (for Microsoft Surface and other touchscreen-enabled devices), virtual reality support, and to record and take screenshots in-game via the built-in GameDVR.[98]

### Console versions

An Xbox 360 version of the game, developed by 4J Studios, was released on 9 May 2012.[99][100] On 22 March 2012, it was announced that Minecraft would be the flagship game in a new Xbox Live promotion called Arcade NEXT.[100] The game differs from the home computer versions in a number of ways, including a newly designed crafting system, the control interface, in-game tutorials, split-screen multiplayer, and the ability to play with friends via Xbox Live.[101][102] The worlds in the Xbox 360 version are also not "infinite", and are essentially barricaded by invisible walls.[102] The Xbox 360 version was originally similar in content to older PC versions, but is being gradually updated to bring it closer to the current PC version.[99][103][104] An Xbox One version featuring larger worlds among other enhancements[105] was released on 5 September 2014.[105]

Versions of the game for the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 were released on 17 December 2013 and 4 September 2014 respectively.[6] The PlayStation 4 version was announced as a launch title, though it was eventually delayed.[106][107] A version for PS Vita was also released in October 2014.[108] Like the Xbox versions, the PlayStation versions were developed by 4J Studios.[109]

On 17 December 2015, Minecraft: Wii U Edition was released. The Wii U version received a physical release on 17 June 2016 in North America,[110] in Japan on 23 June 2016,[111] and in Europe on 30 June 2016.[112] A Nintendo Switch version of the game was released on the Nintendo eShop on 11 May 2017, along with a physical retail version set for a later date.[113] During a Nintendo Direct presentation on 13 September 2017, Nintendo announced that Minecraft: New Nintendo 3DS Edition would be available for download immediately after the livestream, and a physical copy available on a later date. The game is only compatible with the "New" versions of the 3DS and 2DS systems, and does not work with the original 3DS, 3DS XL, or 2DS models.[13]

### Pocket Edition

On 16 August 2011, Minecraft: Pocket Edition was released for the Xperia Play on the Android Market as an early alpha version. It was then released for several other compatible devices on 8 October 2011.[114][115] An iOS version of Minecraft was released on 17 November 2011.[116]

A port was made available for Windows Phones shortly after Microsoft acquired Mojang.[117] The port concentrates on the creative building and the primitive survival aspect of the game, and does not contain all the features of the PC release. On his Twitter account, Jens Bergensten said that the Pocket Edition of Minecraft is written in C++ and not Java, due to iOS not being able to support Java.[118] Gradual updates are periodically released to bring the port closer to the PC version.[119] On 10 December 2014, in observance of Mojang's acquisition by Microsoft, a port of Pocket Edition was released for Windows Phone 8.1.[120] On 18 January 2017, Microsoft announced that it would no longer maintain the Windows Phone versions of Pocket Edition.[121]

On 2 April 2014, a version of Minecraft based on the Pocket Edition was released for the Amazon Fire.[122] On 29 July 2015, a version of Minecraft based on the Pocket Edition was released for Windows 10.[123] On 19 December 2016, the full version of Minecraft: Pocket Edition was released on iOS, Android, Windows Phone and Windows 10, along with the release of the game based on the Pocket Edition for the Apple TV.[12]

On 31 July 2017, the Pocket Edition portion of the name was dropped and the apps were renamed to Minecraft.[124]. The mobile version of Minecraft was renamed to the Bedrock Edition.

### Raspberry Pi

A version of Minecraft for the Raspberry Pi was officially revealed at MineCon 2012. Mojang stated that the Pi Edition is similar to the Pocket Edition except that it is downgraded to an older version, and with the added ability of using text commands to edit the game world. Players can open the game code and use programming languages to manipulate things in the game world.[125] The game was leaked on 20 December 2012, but was quickly pulled off.[126] It was officially released on 11 February 2013.[127] It was announced that there would be no further updates for this version in 2016.[128]

### Virtual reality

Early on, Persson planned to support the Oculus Rift with a port of Minecraft, however after Facebook acquired Oculus in 2013 he abruptly canceled plans noting "Facebook creeps me out."[129][130] A community-made modification known as Minecraft VR was developed in 2016 to provide virtual reality support to Minecraft: Java Edition oriented towards Oculus Rift hardware. A fork of the Minecraft VR modification known as Vivecraft ported the mod to OpenVR, and is oriented towards supporting HTC Vive hardware.[131] On 15 August 2016, Microsoft launched official Oculus Rift support for Minecraft on Windows 10.[131] Upon its release, the Minecraft VR mod was discontinued by its developer due to trademark complaints issued by Microsoft, and Vivecraft was endorsed by the community makers of the Minecraft VR modification due to its Rift support and being superior to the original Minecraft VR mod.[131] Also available is a Gear VR version, titled Minecraft: Gear VR Edition.[132] Windows Mixed Reality support was added in 2017. The only officially supported VR versions of Minecraft are Minecraft: Gear VR Edition and Minecraft on Windows 10 for Oculus Rift and Windows Mixed Reality headsets.[133]

A wide variety of user-generated downloadable content for Minecraft, such as modifications, texture packs and custom maps, exists and is available on the Internet. Modifications of the Minecraft code, called mods, add a variety of gameplay changes, ranging from new blocks, new items, new mobs to entire arrays of mechanisms to craft.[134][135] The modding community is responsible for a substantial supply of mods from ones that enhance gameplay, such as minimaps, waypoints, and durability counters, to ones that add to the game elements from Pokémon, Portal, and The Hunger Games. To make mods easier to create and install, Mojang announced in November 2012 that it planned to add an official modding application programming interface (API).[51]

Texture packs that alter the game's textures and HUD are also available, as created by the community.[136] In July 2013, texture packs were replaced with "resource packs", which have the same role as texture packs, but allow custom audio as well.[137] Players are also create their own maps, which often contain specific rules, challenges, puzzles and quests, and share them for others to play.[44] In August 2012, Mojang added adventure mode[45] for custom maps and in October 2012, Mojang added command blocks,[47] which were created specially for custom maps. In February 2016, Mojang added 2 new versions (Repeat, and Chain) of the classic command block, which were also created specifically for custom maps.[138][139]

The Xbox 360 Edition supports downloadable content, which is available to purchase via the Xbox Games Store; these content packs usually contain additional character skins.[140] It later received support for texture packs in its twelfth title update while introducing "mash-up packs", which combines texture packs with skin packs and changes to the game's sounds, music and user interface.[141] The first mash-up pack (and by extension, the first texture pack) for the Xbox 360 Edition was released on 4 September 2013, and was themed after the Mass Effect franchise.[142] Unlike the PC version, however, the Xbox 360 Edition does not support player-made mods or custom maps.[143] A cross-promotional resource pack based on the Super Mario franchise by Nintendo was released for the Wii U Edition worldwide on 17 May 2016.[144] A mash-up pack based on Fallout was announced for release on the Wii U Edition.[145]

In June 2017, Mojang released an update known as the "Discovery Update".[146] The update includes a new map, a new game mode, the "Marketplace", a catalogue of user-generated content that gives Minecraft creators "another way to make a living from the game", and more.[147][148]

## Spin-off games

### Minecraft: Story Mode

Minecraft: Story Mode, an episodic spin-off game developed by Telltale Games in collaboration with Mojang, was announced in December 2014. Consisting of five episodes plus three additional downloadable episodes, the standalone game is a narrative and player choice-driven, and it was released on Microsoft Windows, OS X, iOS, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360 and Xbox One via download on 13 October 2015.[149][150][151] A physical disc that grants access to all episodes was released for the aforementioned four consoles on 27 October.[151] Wii U [152] and Nintendo Switch version were also later released [153][154] The first trailer for the game was shown at MineCon on 4 July 2015, revealing some of the game's features. In Minecraft: Story Mode, players control Jesse (voiced by Patton Oswalt and Catherine Taber),[151] who sets out on a journey with his or her friends to find The Order of the Stone—four adventurers who slayed an Ender Dragon—in order to save their world. Brian Posehn, Ashley Johnson, Scott Porter, Martha Plimpton, Dave Fennoy, Corey Feldman, Billy West and Paul Reubens portray the rest of the cast.[155]

### Minecraft: Education Edition

In January 2016, Microsoft announced a new tool for education, called Minecraft: Education Edition, which was released on November 1, 2016. Minecraft has already been used in classrooms around the world to teach subjects ranging from core STEM topics to arts and poetry. Minecraft: Education Edition is designed specifically for classroom use. The Education Edition gives teachers the tools they need to use Minecraft on an everyday basis.[156][157]

There are few differences between regular Minecraft and the Education Edition. The main concept is the same – the game is an open sandbox world. The students' characters in Education Edition are able to retain characteristics. Students are be able to download the game at home, without having to buy their own version of the game. The last large difference is that students can take in-game photos with a camera item. These photos are stored in an online notebook with the students' online notes. These online notebooks can be shared with other students.[158]

Education Edition has brought some partnerships from other traditional publishers to bring educational content within the game. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt developed a full version of The Oregon Trail within Education Edition, keeping the entirety of the original game while adding other educational activities alongside it.[159]

## Reception

Reception
Aggregate score
Aggregator Score
Metacritic (PC) 93/100[160]
(PS4) 89/100[161]
(XONE) 88/100[162]
(PS3) 86/100[163]
(NS) 86/100[164]
(PSV) 84/100[165]
(X360) 82/100[166]
(WU) 77/100[167]
(N3DS) 63/100[168]
(PE) 53/100[169]
Review scores
Publication Score
1UP.com A+ (PC)[170]
Edge 9/10 (PC)[171]
Eurogamer 10/10 (PC)[25]
9/10 (Xbox 360)[172]
Game Informer 9.25/10 (PC)[178]
8.75/10 (Xbox 360)[179]
GameSpot 8.5/10 (PC)[173]
7.0/10 (Xbox 360)[102]
GameSpy       (PC)[174]
IGN 9.0/10 (PC)[14]
7.5/10 (mobile)[175]
8.5/10 (Xbox 360)[143]
9.5/10 (PS3)[176]
9.7/10 (PS4)[177]
9.7/10 (Xbox One)[177]
9.5/10 (PSV)[176]
PC Gamer (US) 96/100[180]

Minecraft has been praised for the creative freedom it grants players in-game, as well as the ease of enabling emergent gameplay.[181][182][183] Critics have praised Minecraft's complex crafting system, commenting that it is an important aspect of the game's open-ended gameplay.[173] Most publications were impressed by the game's "blocky" graphics, with IGN describing them as "instantly memorable".[14] Reviewers also liked the game's adventure elements, noting that the game creates a good balance between exploring and building.[173] The game's multiplayer feature has been generally received favourably, with IGN commenting that "adventuring is always better with friends".[14] Jaz McDougall of PC Gamer commended Minecraft, deeming it "intuitively interesting and contagiously fun, with an unparalleled scope for creativity and memorable experiences".[180] It has been regarded as having introduced millions of children to the digital world, insofar as its basic game mechanics are logically analogous to computer commands. [184]

Reviewers have said the game's lack of in-game tutorials and instructions make it difficult for new players to learn how to play the game. IGN was disappointed about the troublesome steps needed to set up multiplayer servers, calling it a "hassle".[14] Critics also said visual glitches that occur periodically.[173] In 2009, GameSpot said the game has an "unfinished feel", adding that "some game elements seem incomplete or thrown together in haste".[173]

A review of the alpha version, by Scott Munro of the Daily Record, called it "already something special" and urged readers to buy it.[185] Jim Rossignol of Rock, Paper, Shotgun also recommended the alpha of the game, calling it "a kind of generative 8-bit Lego Stalker".[186] On 17 September 2010, gaming webcomic Penny Arcade began a series of comics and news posts about the addictiveness of the game.[187]

The Xbox 360 version was generally received positively by critics, but did not receive as much praise as the PC version. Although reviewers were disappointed by the lack of features such as mod support and content from the PC version, they acclaimed the port's addition of a tutorial and in-game tips and crafting recipes, saying that they make the game more user-friendly.[143]

Minecraft: Pocket Edition initially received mixed reviews from critics. Although reviewers appreciated the game's intuitive controls, they were disappointed by the lack of content. The inability to collect resources and craft items, as well as the limited types of blocks and lack of hostile mobs, were especially criticised.[175][188][189] After updates adding more content, Pocket Edition started receiving more positive reviews. Reviewers complimented the controls and the graphics, but still noted a lack of content.[175]

### Sales

Minecraft surpassed over a million purchases less than a month after entering its beta phase in early 2011.[190][191] At the same time, the game had no publisher backing and has never been commercially advertised except through word of mouth,[192] and various unpaid references in popular media such as the Penny Arcade webcomic.[193] By April 2011, Persson estimated that Minecraft had made €23 million (US\$33 million) in revenue, with 800,000 sales of the alpha version of the game, and over 1 million sales of the beta version.[194] In November 2011, prior to the game's full release, Minecraft beta surpassed 16 million registered users and 4 million purchases.[195] By March 2012, Minecraft had become the 6th best-selling PC game of all time.[196] As of 10 October 2014, the game has sold 17 million copies on PC, becoming the best-selling PC game of all time.[197] As of 10 October 2014, the game has sold approximately 60 million copies across all platforms, making it one of the best-selling video games of all time.[197][198] On 25 February 2014, the game reached 100 million registered users.[199] As of January 2018, over 144 million copies had been sold across all platforms,[200] making it the second best-selling video game of all time behind Tetris.

The Xbox 360 version of Minecraft became profitable within the first day of the game's release in 2012, when the game broke the Xbox Live sales records with 400,000 players online.[201] Within a week of being on the Xbox Live Marketplace, Minecraft sold upwards of a million copies.[202] GameSpot announced in December 2012 that Minecraft sold over 4.48 million copies since the game debuted on Xbox Live Arcade in May 2012.[203] In 2012, Minecraft was the most purchased title on Xbox Live Arcade; it was also the fourth most played title on Xbox Live based on average unique users per day.[204] As of 4 April 2014, the Xbox 360 version has sold 12 million copies.[205] In addition, Minecraft: Pocket Edition has reached a figure of 21 million in sales.[206] The PlayStation 3 version sold one million copies in five weeks.[207] The release of the game's PlayStation Vita version boosted Minecraft sales by 79%, outselling both PS3 and PS4 debut releases and becoming the largest Minecraft launch on a PlayStation console.[208] The PS Vita version sold 100,000 digital copies in Japan within the first two months of release, according to an announcement by SCE Japan Asia.[209] By January 2015, 500,000 digital copies of Minecraft were sold in Japan across all PlayStation platforms, with a surge in primary school children purchasing the PS Vita version.[210] Minecraft helped improve Microsoft's total first-party revenue by \$63 million for the 2015 second quarter.[211]

### Awards

Minecraft was nominated for the 2013 Kids' Choice Awards for Favorite App, but lost to Temple Run.[235] It was nominated for the 2014 Kids' Choice Awards for Favorite Video Game, but lost to Just Dance 2014.[236] The game later won the award for the Most Addicting Game at the 2015 Kids' Choice Awards.[237] In addition, the Java Edition was nominated for "Favorite Video Game" at the 2018 Kids' Choice Awards.[238][239]

## Cultural impact

Minecraft has been referenced by other video games, such as RuneScape,[citation needed] Torchlight II, Borderlands 2, Choplifter HD, Super Meat Boy, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, The Binding of Isaac, The Stanley Parable, and FTL: Faster Than Light.[248][249] It was also referenced by electronic music artist deadmau5 in his performances.[250] A simulation of the game was featured in Lady Gaga's "G.U.Y." music video.[251] The game is also referenced heavily in "Informative Murder Porn", the second episode of the seventeenth season of the animated television series South Park.[252] "Luca\$", the seventeenth episode of the 25th season of the animated sitcom The Simpsons was inspired by Minecraft; Persson responded by tweeting "I'm not sure how I feel about it."[253]

### Clones

After the release of Minecraft, some video games were released with various similarities with Minecraft, and some were called "clones" of the game. Examples include Ace of Spades, CastleMiner, CraftWorld, FortressCraft, Terraria, and Total Miner.[254] David Frampton, designer of The Blockheads, reported that one failure of his 2D game was the "low resolution pixel art" that too closely resembled the art in Minecraft which resulted in "some resistance" from fans.[255] A homebrew adaptation of the alpha version of Minecraft for the Nintendo DS, titled DScraft, has been released; it has been noted for its similarity to the original game considering the technical limitations of the system.[256]

In response to Microsoft's acquisition of Mojang and their Minecraft IP, various developers announced even further clone titles that were being developed specifically for Nintendo's consoles, as they were the only major platforms to not officially receive Minecraft at the time.[257] These clone titles include UCraft (Nexis Games),[258] Cube Life: Island Survival (Cypronia),[259] Discovery (noowanda),[260] Battleminer (Wobbly Tooth Games),[261] Cube Creator 3D (Big John Games),[262] and Stone Shire (Finger Gun Games).[263] Despite this the fears were unfounded with official Minecraft releases on Nintendo consoles eventually resuming.[264][152][11]

In 2012, Mojang received offers from Hollywood producers who wanted to produce Minecraft-related TV shows; however, Mojang stated that they would only engage in such projects when "the right idea comes along".[243] By February 2014, Persson revealed that Mojang was in talks with Warner Bros. regarding a Minecraft film.[265][266] and by that October, it was "in its early days of development".[267][268] The film will be released on 24 May 2019, and is being co-directed by Shawn Levy and Rob McElhenney and written by Jason Fuchs.[269][270][271][272]

In addition, a documentary about the development of Mojang and Minecraft was released in December 2012. Titled Minecraft: The Story of Mojang, the film was produced by 2 Player Productions.[273] In 2014, an attempt to crowdfund a fan film through Kickstarter was shut down after Persson refused to let the filmmakers use the license.[274][275]

### Merchandise

A physical prop of a diamond sword

A Lego set based on Minecraft called Lego Minecraft was released on 6 June 2012.[276] The set, called "Micro World", centres around the game's default player character and a creeper.[277] Mojang submitted the concept of Minecraft merchandise to Lego in December 2011 for the Lego Cuusoo program, from which it quickly received 10,000 votes by users, prompting Lego to review the concept.[278] Lego Cuusoo approved the concept in January 2012 and began developing sets based on Minecraft.[278] Two more sets based on the Nether and village areas of the game were released on 1 September 2013. A fourth Micro World set, the End, was released in June 2014. Six more sets became available November 2014.[279]

Mojang collaborates with Jinx, an online game merchandise store, to sell Minecraft merchandise, such as clothing, foam pickaxes, and toys of creatures in the game.[64] By May 2012, over 1 million dollars were made from Minecraft merchandise sales. T-shirts and socks were the most popular products.[243] In March 2013 Mojang signed a deal with the Egmont Group, a children's book publisher, to create Minecraft handbooks, annuals, poster books, and magazines.[280][281][282]

### MineCon

MineCon is an official convention dedicated to Minecraft. The first one was held in November 2011 at the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. All 4,500 tickets for MineCon 2011 were sold out by 31 October.[283] The event included the official launch of Minecraft; keynote speeches, including one by Persson; building and costume contests; Minecraft-themed breakout classes; exhibits by leading gaming and Minecraft-related companies; commemorative merchandise; and autograph and picture times with Mojang employees and well-known contributors from the Minecraft community.[284] After MineCon, there was an Into The Nether after-party with deadmau5.[285] Free codes were given to every attendee of MineCon that unlocked alpha versions of Mojang's Scrolls, as well as an additional non-Mojang game, Cobalt, developed by Oxeye Game Studios.[286] Similar events occurred in MineCon 2012, which took place in Disneyland Paris from in November.[287] The tickets for the 2012 event sold out in less than two hours.[288] MineCon 2013 was held in Orlando in November as well.[289][290] MineCon 2015 was held in London in July.[291] MineCon 2016 was held in Anaheim in September.[292] MineCon 2017 was held as a livestream instead of being held at a show floor. Titled "MineCon Earth", it was streamed live on November.[nb 2]

## Applications

The possible applications of Minecraft have been discussed extensively, especially in the fields of computer-aided design and education. In a panel at MineCon 2011, a Swedish developer discussed the possibility of using the game to redesign public buildings and parks, stating that rendering using Minecraft was much more user-friendly for the community, making it easier to envision the functionality of new buildings and parks.[242] In 2012, a member of the Human Dynamics group at the MIT Media Lab, Cody Sumter, said: "Notch hasn't just built a game. He's tricked 40 million people into learning to use a CAD program." Various software has been developed to allow virtual designs to be printed using professional 3D printers or personal printers such as MakerBot and RepRap.[295]

In September 2012, Mojang began the Block By Block project in cooperation with UN Habitat to create real-world environments in Minecraft.[296] The project allows young people who live in those environments to participate in designing the changes they would like to see. Using Minecraft, the community has helped reconstruct the areas of concern, and citizens are invited to enter the Minecraft servers and modify their own neighbourhood. Carl Manneh, Mojang's managing director, called the game "the perfect tool to facilitate this process", adding "The three-year partnership will support UN-Habitat's Sustainable Urban Development Network to upgrade 300 public spaces by 2016." Mojang signed Minecraft building community, FyreUK, to help render the environments into Minecraft. The first pilot project began in Kibera, one of Nairobi's informal settlements, and is in the planning phase. The Block By Block project is based on an earlier initiative started in October 2011, Mina Kvarter (My Block), which gave young people in Swedish communities a tool to visualise how they wanted to change their part of town. According to Manneh, the project was a helpful way to visualise urban planning ideas without necessarily having a training in architecture. The ideas presented by the citizens were a template for political decisions.[297]

In April 2014, the Danish Geodata Agency generated all of Denmark in fullscale in Minecraft based on their own geodata.[298] This is possible because Denmark is one of the flattest countries with the highest point at 171 meters (ranking as the country with the 30th smallest elevation span), where the limit in default Minecraft is around 192 meters above in-game sea level.

Minecraft has also been used in educational settings.[299] In 2011, an educational organisation named MinecraftEdu was formed with the goal of introducing Minecraft into schools. The group works with Mojang to make the game affordable and accessible to schools. In September 2012, MinecraftEdu said that approximately 250,000 students around the world have access to Minecraft through the company.[300] A wide variety of educational activities involving the game have been developed to teach students various subjects, including history, language arts and science. For an example, one teacher built a world consisting of various historical landmarks for students to learn and explore.[300]

With the introduction of redstone blocks to represent electrical circuits, users have been able to build functional virtual computers within Minecraft.[301] Such virtual creations include a working hard drive,[302] an 8-bit virtual computer,[303] and emulators for the Atari 2600 (by SethBling)[304] and Game Boy Advance.[305] In at least one instance, a mod has been created to use this feature to teach younger players how to program within a language set by the virtual computer within a Minecraft world.[306]

Microsoft and non-profit Code.org had teamed up to offer Minecraft-based games, puzzles, and tutorials aimed to help teach children how to program; by March 2018, Microsoft and Code.org reported that more than 85 million children have used their tutorials.[307]

In September 2014, the British Museum in London announced plans to recreate its building along with all exhibits in Minecraft in conjunction with members of the public.[308]

• Minicraft, a top-down video game also by Markus Persson

## Notes

1. ^ In a blog post,[18] Persson explains:
... let me clarify some things about the "infinite" maps: They're not infinite, but there's no hard limit either. It'll just get buggier and buggier the further out you are. Terrain is generated, saved and loaded, and (kind of) rendered in chunks of ${\displaystyle 16*16*128}$  blocks. These chunks have an offset value that is a 32 bit integer roughly in the range negative two billion to positive two billion. If you go outside that range (about 25% of the distance from where you are now to the sun), loading and saving chunks will start overwriting old chunks. At a 16/th of that distance, things that use integers for block positions, such as using items and pathfinding, will start overflowing and acting weird.
Those are the two "hard" limits.
2. ^ This reference[293] is just here as a source for the fact that Minecon Earth has already happened. This reference[294] covers all of the other details in the two sentences that this citation bundle covers.
1. ^ Console ports by 4J Studios
2. ^ (PC/Java, Android, iOS, Wii U, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch)
3. ^ (Xbox 360, Xbox One, Windows Phone, Windows 10 Edition)
4. ^ (PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita)
5. ^ 2009–2011
6. ^ 2011–present

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