Śrāvaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रावण) is the fifth month of the Hindu calendar. In India's national civil calendar, Śrāvaṇa is the fifth month of the year, beginning in late July from the first day of the full moon and ending in the third week of August, the day of the next full moon. In the Tamil calendar, it is known as Āvani and is the fifth month of the solar year. In lunar religious calendars, Śrāvaṇa begins on the new moon and is the fifth month of the year. Srabon (Bengali: শ্রাবণ; also spelt Sravan) is the fourth month of the solar Bengali calendar. It is also the fourth month of the Nepali calendar. Śrāvaṇa is also the second month of Varsha (the rainy season).

Shraavana
रक्षाबन्धनम्3.jpg
Tying the Rakhi on the wrist
Native nameश्रावण  (Sanskrit)
CalendarHindu calendar
Month number5
SeasonRainy
Gregorian equivalentJuly-August
Significant days
← Ashadha
Bhadra →

The month of Shravana is very important for the entire Indian subcontinent as it is connected to the arrival of the south-west monsoons. For many Hindus, the month of Shraavana is a month of fasting. Many Hindus will fast every Monday to the Lord Shiva and/or every Tuesday to the Goddess Parvati. Fasting on Tuesdays of this month is known locally as "Mangala Gauri Vrat".[1]

FestivalsEdit

Shravana is considered to be a holy month in the Hindu calendar due to the numerous festivals that are celebrated during this time. Also, special worship of Lord Shiva and fasting is observed on Mondays.[2]

Dashamaa VartEdit

Dashamaa Vart is dedicated to Goddess Dashamaa and observed on the 1st day of Shraavana as per traditional Followed by Gujarat.[3]

Krishna JanmashtamiEdit

Krishna Janmashtami marks the birth of Lord Sri Krishna on the eighth day after the full moon and is celebrated with great pomp across the world, especially in the Vaishnava traditions.[4][5]

Raksha BandhanEdit

Raksha Bandhan also called Rakhi Purnima or simply Rakhi in many parts of India and Nepal, is a Hindu religious festival.[6] The festival signifies and celebrates the bond between brothers and sisters. It is celebrated on Shraavana Poornima (Full Moon). In simple words, Raksha bandhan means "Bond of Protection"[7]

Naryal PoornimaEdit

In western India and parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Goa, Shraavana Poornima (full moon) day is celebrated as Narali Purnima. On this day, an offering of a coconut (naryal in Gujarati, naral in Marathi) is made to the sea, as a mark of respect to Lord Varuna, the God of the Sea. In the coastal regions of Maharashtra i.e. Konkan, a coconut is offered to the sea for calming it down after the monsoon season. Narali Purnima is the beginning of the fishing season, and the fishermen, who depend on the sea for a living, make an offering to Lord Varuna so that they can reap bountiful fish from the sea. Fishermen start fishing in the sea after this ceremony.[8][9]

Nag PanchamiEdit

Nag Panchami is also celebrated in many parts of India on the fifth day after Amavasya of Shraavana month. The snake god Nāga is worshiped. The last day of the Shraavana is celebrated as Pola, where the bull is worshiped by farmers from Maharashtra.[10]

Basava PanchamiEdit

In Karnataka Basava Panchami (Kannada: ಬಸವ ಪಂಚಮಿ) is celebrated on the fifth day after amavasya. In 1196 AD, on this day, Lingayat dharma guru Basava merged with God.[clarification needed]

Avani AvittamEdit

In southern and central parts of India including Maharashtra , Goa, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Odisha, Shraavana Poornima day is when many communities perform the rituals of Avani Avittam or Upakarma.

Shri Baladeva birthdayEdit

Shraavana Poornima day is also celebrated as Shri Baladeva's birth ceremony. Lord Krishna's elder brother Prabhu Balarama was born on this Poornima.[11][12]

Gamha PurnimaEdit

Gamha Purnima is celebrated in Odisha. On this date, all the domesticated cows and bullocks are decorated and worshipped. Various kinds of country-made cakes called pitha and sweets, mitha, are made and distributed within families, relatives and friends. In Oriya Jagannath culture, the lord Krishna and Radha enjoy the rainy season of Shravana starting from Shukla Pakhya Ekadashi (usually four days before Purnima) and ending on Rakhi Purnima with a festival called Jhulan Yatra. Idols of Radha-Krishna are beautifully decorated on a swing called Jhulan, hence the name Jhulan Yatra.[13][14]

Kajari PurnimaEdit

In central parts of India such as Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand Shraavana Poornima day is celebrated as Kajari Purnima. It is an important day for farmers and women blessed with a son. On the ninth day after Shravana Amavasya, the preparations of the Kajari festival start. This ninth day is called Kajari Navami and varied rituals are performed by women who have sons until Kajri Purnima or the full moon day.[15][16]

PavitropanaEdit

In parts of Gujarat, Shraavana Poornima day is celebrated as Pavitropana. On this holiday, people perform the grand pooja or the worship of Lord Shiva. It is the culmination of the prayers done throughout the year.[17][18][19][20][21]

Pavitra EkadashiEdit

On Ekadashi Day [11th day], Vaishnavas in Gujarat and Rajasthan celebrate it as the birth of Pushtimarga, the path of grace. On this day, Lord Krishna appeared in front of Shri Vallabhacharya. Shri Vallabhacharya offered him a thread (soothan), which was pious (pavitra). Since that day every year, Pavitra Ekadashi is celebrated. Such threads are offered from Ekadashi till Raksha Bandhan.

Jandhyam PoornimaEdit

Jandhyam is Sanskrit for 'sacred thread', and Poornima denotes the full moon in Sanskrit. Jandhyala Purnima is observed on the full moon day (Poornima) in the month of Shraavan in Andhra Pradesh. Brahmins perform the sacred thread changing ceremony on this day and it is also known as Yajurveda Nutanasahitha Upakarma.[22][23]

SalonoEdit

In Haryana and Punjab, in addition to celebrating Raksha Bandhan, people observe the festival of Salono.[24] Salono is celebrated by priests solemnly tying amulets on people's wrists for protection against evil[25][26] The day is dedicated to local saints involving devotees receiving such amulets.[27] In Haryana, the festival of Salono also involves sisters tying threads on brothers to ward off evil.[28] Despite the two festivals being similar in their practices, Salono and Raksha Bandhan are distinct observances with the threads tied for Salono being called ponchis.[29][30]

PolaEdit

Pola is a festival respecting bulls and oxen which is celebrated by farmers in Maharashtra. Pola is a thanksgiving festival of farmers and their families for their bulls. It is celebrated in Maharashtra to acknowledge the importance of bulls and oxen, who are a crucial part of agriculture and farming activities. It falls on the last day or the new moon day of Shraavana.

Shravani MelaEdit

Shravani Mela is a major festival time at Deoghar in Jharkhand with thousands of saffron-clad pilgrims bringing holy water around 100 km on foot from the Ganges at Sultanganj, Bihar.[31] Shravan is also the time of the annual Kanwar Yatra, the annual pilgrimage of devotees of Shiva, known as Kanwaria make to Hindu pilgrimage places of Haridwar, Gaumukh and Gangotri in Uttarakhand to fetch holy waters of Ganges River[32]

Hindu saint Sri Guru Raghavendra Swami, who advocated Sri Madhvacharya's Dvaita philosophy, achieved Videha Mukti on Sraavana Bahula Dwitiya in 1671 AD .

In popular cultureEdit

Being the period when the monsoon falls over the heated plains of India, the season is celebrated in various texts, such as the Sanskrit text Meghaduta by Kalidasa. Many films too have been made with Sawan in their title, like Aya Sawan Jhoom Ke, (1969), Sawan Bhadon (1970), Solva Sawan (1979), Sawan Ko Aane Do (1979), Pyaasa Sawan (1980), etc.

Also, in Hindustani classical music, many songs are themed around Radha-Krishna during the rainy season, plus Bollywood songs, e.g., Sawan ki Ritu Aai, Sawan ka Mahina Pawan kare Sor' and 'Rim jhim gire Saawan'.

During Shraavana, the Hindu community in the regions of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka practice a vegetarian diet. This is because during the monsoon season, it is difficult to get seafood; it is thought that most fish spawn during this period and abstaining from fishing in Shraavana will lead to increased fish throughout the year.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2022 Sawan Somwar, Shravan Somwar Vrat dates for New York City, New York, United States".
  2. ^ Sawan Ke Somwar: https://www.bhaktibharat.com/en/festival/sawan-somwar
  3. ^ "Hindu Blog".
  4. ^ Ellwood, Robert (1998). The Encyclopedia of World Religions. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 199. ISBN 0-8160-6141-6.
  5. ^ ( Krishna was born at 12 o'clock on that day.)
  6. ^ K. Moti Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanayake (4 February 2009), Popular culture in a globalised India, Taylor & Francis, 2009, ISBN 978-0-415-47667-6, retrieved 16 August 2011, ... Raksha Bandhan: A popular festival of Indian Sub-continent where sister ties a thread on brother's wrist, signifying love and/or seeking protection ...
  7. ^ "Meaning of Raksha Bandhan, Significance of Rakhi, Rakshabandhan Significance, Meaning of Rakhi". Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  8. ^ "Narali Purnima - Narali Pournima Maharashtra, Narali Pournima Festival India".
  9. ^ "Narali Poornima/ Coconut Festival". Magicalmumbai.com. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  10. ^ Maharashtra State Gazetteers: Kolhapur District. Vol. 1. Directorate of Govt. Print., Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State. 1976. p. 280.
  11. ^ "Balaram Jayanti". Iskconbangalore.org. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  12. ^ "Balaram Jayanti 2010". Iskconbangalore.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  13. ^ http://www.orissa.gov.in/portal/LIWPL/event_archive/Events_Archives/89RakshaBandhan_GamhaPurnima.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  14. ^ "Lord Jagannath: Festivals - Gamha Purnima, Festival of lord jagannath, Jagannath Puri, Jagannath Temple". orissa.oriyaonline.com. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. ^ "Sri Sathya Sai Bal Vikas". Sssbalvikas.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  16. ^ Author shubham95. "Raksha Bandhan - Mythology". Mythology.nuvvo.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  17. ^ "Pavitropana, Pavitropana Festival". Raksha-bandhan.com. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  18. ^ John Marshall / Jaya Tirtha Charan Dasa. "PAvitropAna - PutradA EkAdasi". Salagram.net. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  19. ^ "Pavitra Ekadashi 2011 – Pavitropana Ekadasi ~ Hindu Blog". Hindu-blog.com. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  20. ^ "Pavitropana Ekadasi". Archive.is. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  21. ^ "Pavitra Ekadashi Vrat - How To Observe Pavitropana Ekadashi Vrat, Story Of Pavitra Ekadashi Fasting". Festivals.iloveindia.com. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  22. ^ Jandhyala Purnima
  23. ^ "I Love Hyderabad". 10 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  24. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India (1994) [1]
  25. ^ Haryana District Gazetteers: Rohtak district gazetteer, 1910
  26. ^ Census of India, 1961, Volume 15, Issue 6, Part 22
  27. ^ Karnal District Gazetteer Archived 1 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Shakti M. Gupta (1991) Festivals, Fairs, and Fasts of India
  29. ^ Gwilym Beckerlegge (2001) World Religions Reader
  30. ^ Lewis, Oscar (1865) Village Life in Northern India: Studies in a Delhi Village [2]
  31. ^ Fasts and festivals of India by Manish Verma, page 41
  32. ^ "SPOTLIGHT: The long walk for worship". Frontline, (The Hindu). 14–27 August 2004. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)

External linksEdit

1.Sawan somvar Vrat katha