Ernakulam district

Ernakulam is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 2,407 km2, Ernakulam district is home to over 12% of Kerala’s population. Its headquarters is located at Kakkanad, Thrikkakkara municipality in Ernakulam. Ernakulam district includes Kochi city, which is known as the commercial capital of Kerala. The district is famous for its ancient temples, churches, and mosques. The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state, Greater Cochin. Ernakulam district is the highest revenue yielding district and the district with most number of industries in the state, and hence called the financial, industrial and commercial capital of Kerala. All these factors make Ernakulam district to contribute around 60% of the annual state revenue. It is the third most populous district in Kerala, after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram (out of 14).[3]. Ernakulam district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state.

Ernakulam district
Ernakulam District
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 10°00′N 76°20′E / 10.00°N 76.33°E / 10.00; 76.33Coordinates: 10°00′N 76°20′E / 10.00°N 76.33°E / 10.00; 76.33
Country India
StateKerala
Named forRishinagakulam
HeadquartersKakkanad, Thrikakkara Municipality
Government
 • CollectorS Suhas, IAS
 • S.P (City)M.P. Dinesh, IPS
 • S.P (Rural)A. V. George, IPS
 • DFOA. Renjan, IFS
Area
 • Total2,407 km2 (929 sq mi)
Area rank4
Population
 (2011)
 • Total3,282,388
 • Density1,363/km2 (3,530/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialMalayalam, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KL-KO, IN-KL
Vehicle registrationKL-07, KL-17, KL-39, KL-40, KL-41, KL-42, KL-43, KL-44, KL-63
HDI (2005)Increase 0.801[2] ( Very High) ·
Websitewww.ernakulam.nic.in
Inchathotty Bridge near Kothamangalam

The language spoken in Ernakulam is Malayalam which is the mother-tongue of Kerala. English is widely used, especially in business circles. Ernakulam became India's first district having 100 percent banking or full 'meaningful financial inclusion' in 2012.[4][5]

Ernakulam has a very high HDI of 0.801 (UNHDP report 2005) which is among the highest in India [6]

EtymologyEdit

The name Ernakulam is derived from Erayanarkulam(Tamil / Malayalam) which means the abode of Lord Shiva.[7] Ernakulam was also known as "Rishinagakulam" in ancient days.

HistoryEdit

 
Rama Varma XV at the Delhi Durbar of 1903.
 
Cheena vala (Chinese fishing net)

From ancient times Ernakulam district has played a part in the political history of south India. The Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions in the town. In 1896, the Maharaja of Cochin initiated local administration by forming a town council in Ernakulam. Initially Ernakulam district's headquarters was at Ernakulam, which gave the district its name; the headquarters was later shifted to Kakkanad.

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±% p.a.
1901646,235—    
1911735,267+1.30%
1921789,311+0.71%
1931982,731+2.22%
19411,172,292+1.78%
19511,393,679+1.74%
19611,702,740+2.02%
19712,170,820+2.46%
19812,549,255+1.62%
19912,840,279+1.09%
20013,105,798+0.90%
20113,282,388+0.55%
source:[8]

According to the 2011 census Ernakulam district has a population of 3,282,388[3] roughly equal to the nation of Mauritania[9] or the US state of Iowa.[10] This gives it a ranking of 104th in India (out of a total of 640).[3] The district has a population density of 1,072 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,780/sq mi) .[3] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.69%.[3] Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1027 females for every 1000 males,[3] and a literacy rate of 95.89%.[3]

This district is listed as the "most advanced" district in Kerala. It had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the huge commuter traffic from neighbouring districts. It is urbanised 68.07%.[11]

ReligionEdit

Religions in Ernakulam District
Religion Percent
Hindus
55.99%
Christians
32.03%
Muslims
10.37%
Others
0.31%
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.
 
Thrikkakara Temple-one of the few temples in India and only temple in Kerala dedicated to Lord Vamana

Hindus (55.99) accounts for the largest community, followed by Christians (32.03) and Muslims (10.37). A small population of Jains, Jews and Sikhs are also residing in Kochi.[12] Also, Ernakulam district has the largest Christian population in India. It is also houses the headquarters of Jacobite Syrian Church, at Puthencruz and also Syro Malabar Church, at Kakkanad.

Ernamkulam also has a significant Konkani Hindus who escaped from Goa during the Goa Inquisition.[13]There is a small Jain community in Ernamkulam district, concentrated mainly in the Kochi city.[14]The Sikh Community in Ernamkulam district is also concentrated mainly in Cochin.They are called Cochin Sikhs.There are more than 25 Sikh families in Kochi and there is one Gurdwara[15]

GeographyEdit

 
Cheena vala (Chinese fishing net)

Ernakulam district covers an area of 3,068 km2 located on the Western Coastal Plains of India. It is surrounded by Thrissur District to north, Idukki District to the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts to the south and Lakshadweep sea to west. The district can be divided geographically into highland, midland and coastal area. The altitude of the highland is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3432 mm. The district has a moderate climate, and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Many types of sands, soil and also rocks which are geological importance is abundant here. Cochin international airport is located in northern part of the district at Nedumbassery village in Angamaly. Owing to the international airport, water ways, railways, and road ways, Ernakulam is one of the most strategically connected district in the state.

TopographyEdit

The district is divided into three well-defined parts – lowland, midland and the highland consisting of seaboard, plains and the hills and forests respectively. 20 percent of the total area is low land region. The midland consists mainly of plain land and group of islands having natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals. The hilly or eastern portion is formed by a section of Western Ghats. Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam taluks which were initially parts of Kottayam district can be called the highlands. Muvattupuzhayar and Periyar are the main rivers of which the latter flows through Muvattupuzha, Aluva, Kunnathunad and Parur taluks. During rainy season these rivers are full and heavy floods affect the low-lying areas on the banks, but in the summer season they generally go dry and narrow. The Periyar is stretched over a length of 229 km.

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Kochi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
34
(93)
35
(95)
33
(91)
35
(95)
35
(95)
38
(100)
35
(95)
34
(93)
33
(91)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
25
(77)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
25
(77)
Record low °C (°F) 17
(63)
18
(64)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
22
(72)
20
(68)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.9
(0.86)
22.9
(0.90)
35.3
(1.39)
124.0
(4.88)
395.7
(15.58)
720.7
(28.37)
697.2
(27.45)
367.8
(14.48)
289.4
(11.39)
302.3
(11.90)
175.1
(6.89)
48.3
(1.90)
3,228.3
(127.10)
Source #1: [16]
Source #2: [17]

EconomyEdit

 
Kochi Marine Drive Day View
 
The beauty in the night, Marine Drive, Kochi

Ernakulam district is the richest district in Kerala in terms of GDP and per capita income. It contributes around 60% of the total state revenue. Ernakulam district is bestowed with all the geographical factors, which help the development of industry, and it is in the vanguard of all other districts in Kerala in the field of industry. The availability of all types of transport facilities viz., road, rail, canal, sea, air is a factor which is unique to this district. Ernakulam is the biggest commercial centre in the state of Kerala. Its M.G. Road is the location of some of the biggest businesses in Kerala. Kochi is also the headquarters of some large companies like Federal Bank, Geojit, BC to AD, V-Guard and Muthoot.

The sea along the entire coast of the district and the backwaters abound in fish of various kinds offer enormous natural facilities for both marine and inland fisheries. Kochi is an ideal place that supports fisheries in its various aspects like education, research and development.

AgricultureEdit

The eastern part of the district is primarily agrarian in nature. Rice is the principal crop cultivated in the wet lands. The area under paddy cultivation in the district has been decreasing steadily over the past 3 decades. Ernakulam district is the largest producer of nutmeg and pineapple in the state. The area under nutmeg cultivation is showing an upward trend continuously. More than 55% of the total pineapple produced in the state is cultivated in the district. Pineapple is largely cultivated in Muvattupuzha and Vazhakulam. Rubber is the most cultivated plantation crop in the district and the district is the second largest producer of rubber in the state behind Kottayam. The other important crops cultivated in the district are Tapioca, Black pepper, Arecanut, Coconut, Turmeric, Banana and Plantain.

 
Chinese Net Bridge at Marine Drive walkway
 
The old Dutch cemetery in Kochi

DivisionsEdit

There are mainly two revenue divisions namely Fort Kochi and Muvattupuzha.

Taluks & its Headquarters
Kanayannur
Ernakulam
Kochi
Fort Kochi
Aluva
Aluva
Kunnathunad
Perumbavoor
Paravur
North Paravur
Kothamangalam
Kothamangalam
Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
Municipalities
North Paravur
Muvattupuzha
Piravom
Aluva
Kothamangalam
Angamaly
Thripunithura
Koothattukulam
Kalamassery
Eloor
Thrikkakara
Perumbavoor
Maradu

TaluksEdit

The district has the most number of taluks in the state. District is divided by two revenue divisions with 7 taluks.

Municipal CorporationEdit

Kochi

MunicipalitiesEdit

Ernakulam district has the most number of municipalities in the state.

Parliamentary ConstituenciesEdit

Assembly ConstituenciesEdit

TransportEdit

Road ConnectivityEdit

Ernakulam district has got the maximum number of vehicles in the state. Ernakulam district has excellent road connectivity. The 3 major national highways passing through Ernakulam District are the Cochin-Mumbai Highway (NH 66), Salem-Kanyakumari (NH 47 part of NSEW corridor) and Cochin-Dhanushkodi highway (NH 49).

Railway StationEdit

Ernakulam district has 17 railway stations. The Ernakulam Junction , Ernakulam Town and Aluva are the major stations. The other stations are Angamaly, Thripunithura, Edapally, Mulamthuruthy, Cochin Harbour Terminus, Karakutty, Chowara, Kalamassery, Nettoor, Kumbalam, Mattancherry H., Chottanikkara road and Piravom road. The railroutes are via Thrissur, Kottayam, Cochin H.T., Allapuzha and Vallarpadam. The Angamaly-Erumely Sabarimala route passes through the district. Kochi Metro urban rail system runs in the city.

AirportEdit

Ernakulam district has two airports, Naval airport in W.island(Old Cochin airport) and Cochin International Airport(CIAL). CIAL is the fourth largest airport in the country after Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai having International passengers. Currently flights are operating to the Persian Gulf region, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives, Israel and to major cities in India

Water TransportEdit

Ernakulam district lies in the flat delta region of the Periyar and Moovattupuzha rivers. Water transport is prominent in the district through rivers and lagoons. The major boat services are in Ernakulam area and other areas having small ferry services. The district boasts of having the largest port in the west coast of the country: the Cochin port, which is also the reason for large scale developments in the district. Now a new International port is completed in Vallarpadam which will boost the developments in the district further.

CultureEdit

Festivals and traditionsEdit

The famous Aluva Sivarathri festival at the Aluva Mahadeva Temple (situated on the banks of river Periyar) in Aluva attracts people from around the country. There are many old Siva temples in Ernakulam. In Sanskrit "Siva" means kalyan (good wishes, doing good and taking care of all).

Rajadhiraja St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Piravom is believed to be founded in 405 A.D. and was the headquarters of Archdeacon and St Thomas Christian till 18th century.

Adi Shankaracharya was born in Kalady town of the district, which is considered as a major pilgrimage centre for Hindus around the world.

Kallil Kshethram is a famous Jain temple near Perumbavoor.

Puthencruz near is the regional seat of Syriac Orthodox Church in India. The world-famous Christian pilgrim centre at Saint Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Malayattoor is in this district. The festival here lasts for 10 days in April.

The eight-day lent (Ettunombu) fest at St Mary's Jacobite Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal is a very famous religious event in Ernakulam. It attracts tens of thousands from all over the state. St. George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church at Kadamattam near Muvattupuzha is very old and was founded by Mar Abo Syrian Metropolitan in the 5th century A.D. He brought a cross from Persia, which is preserved in the church. The festival at the Latin church of Vallarpadam on 24 September attracts people belonging to all religions. The icon of Virgin Mary in this church is credited with many miracles. St. George's Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Edappally was founded in 593 A.D. St. Antony’s church at Kannamaly is famous for the Feast of St. Joseph on 19 March where a large number of people are fed.

Celebrating the full moon day has two purposes. For the beginning of field cropping with prayers and some puja. On this day women of India generally having fasting of full day and pray for her brothers, father, husband and Nation.

Three important pilgrim places in Ernakulam are Koonan Kurish St George Orthodox Pilgrim church at Mattancherry, Vadakken Paravoor St Thomas Catholic church Founded By St Thomas in AD56, Malayattoor Pally, Mor Thoman Jacobite Church (Cheriapally) Kothamangalam and Thrikkunnathu St Mary's Seminary Church, Aluva. The relics of Gregorios Abdul Jaleel are preserved at the St. Thomas Jacobite church North Paravur. Thousands of pilgrims from Kerala culminate on 27 April for the Dhukrono of the Saint. Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the tomb church Mor Thoman Church (Cheriapally) at Kothamangalam with spiritual grandeur every year on 2 and 3 October. Nearly a million pilgrims from Kerala attend the feast. The Feast of Paulose Mar Athanasius on 26 January at Thrikkunnathu St Mary's Seminary Church, Aluva, where he is entombed, also attracts thousands.

Other Famous Churches are St George Jacobite Church at Kadamattom, St Mary's Church at Nadamel near Thripunithura, Karingachira St George Syrian Orthodox Church, St Peter's & St Paul's Jacobite Church, Kolenchery, are the pilgrim centres of the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church. Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala, also known as Parumala Thirumeni, the first saint of Jacobite Syrian Christian Church from India was born and brought up in Mulanthuruthy .

Places of InterestEdit

Forest and WildlifeEdit

The flora of this district is tropical. The heavy rainfall combined with moderate temperature and fertile soil support abundant vegetation. Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the low land region. Coconut is extensively cultivated here. The midland region is mainly occupied by coconut palms. Paddy, tapioca, pepper, pineapple and pulses are also cultivated here. The lower slopes of the highland region are under teak, and rubber cultivation. The eastern part of the district has dense forests with its characteristic fauna.

Mangalavanam Bird SanctuaryEdit

 
Mangalavanam

Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is located at the centre of the Kochi city.It covers about 2.74 hectares.[18] It supports many species of mangroves and is a nesting ground for a variety of migratory birds.The Managalavanam is called the "green lung of Kochi",[19] considering its role in keeping the city's air pollution.[20]

Thattekad Bird SanctuaryEdit

 
The Grey hornbill

Thattekad Bird Sanctuary lies on the northern bank of the Periyar river. The sanctuary is about 25 km2 (10 sq mi). The bird sanctuary is the first of its kind in Kerala and is famous for its variety of bird species. The renowned ornithologist Dr. Salim Ali and his efforts are behind the formation of this sanctuary. This sanctuary is 80 km. from Cochin. Important birds found here include falcon, jungle fowl, water hen, hornbill etc. The flora of this area consists mainly of plantations of teak, rosewood, mahogany etc.

EducationEdit

 
Administrative Block of CUSAT

Ernakulam occupies an important place among the districts of Kerala in the field of literacy and educational standards. Ernakulam District is the first district in the whole country to have 100 percent literacy by 1990. Pothanicad, first panchayath in India that achieved 100% literacy according to state literacy programme is in this district.

There are three prominent universities in this district – Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit in Kalady and Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT) in Kalamassery, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies in Kochi. Ernakulam district has the most number of educational institutions in the state.As of 2019,there are 476 fully high-tech schools in Ernakulam.[21]

In 2017,Ernakulam district administration launched the Roshni project which aims at providing Malayalam education to the children of migrants.Currently it supports 1,265 migrant workers’ children from lower primary to high school.[22]

Famous People from ErnakulamEdit

The below are the prominent personalities from the district:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Demography -Ernakulam". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  2. ^ "UNHDP - Kerala Report".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  4. ^ "Ernakulam to be declared first district with 100% banking". The Hindu Businessline. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  5. ^ Soundarapandian, Mookkiah (2000). Literacy Campaign in India. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. p. 21.
  6. ^ "Kerala". UNDP in India. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  7. ^ "A STUDY ON COMMUNITY TOURISM AND ITS IMPACT IN KERALA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ERNAKULAM DISTRICT" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  8. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  9. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Mauritania 3,281,634 July 2011 est.
  10. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Iowa 3,046,355
  11. ^ censusindia.gov.in
  12. ^ Official Ernakulam District Profile Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/kochi/2017/oct/18/exploring-kochi-through-a-goan-lens-1677623.html
  14. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/Jain-festival-celebrated-in-city/articleshow/54386779.cms
  15. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/city/kochi/The-Sikhs-here-love-Kochi/articleshow/16961391.cms
  16. ^ "Kochi, India". Whetherbase. August 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  17. ^ "Kochi, India". MSN India. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  18. ^ "Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary". Kerala Tourism Development Corporation. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Green Lung of Kochi". cochin.org. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  20. ^ "Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary". Kochi Servnet. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  21. ^ https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/now-ernakulam-has-476-fully-high-tech-schools/article30226214.ece
  22. ^ https://scroll.in/article/934120/in-keralas-ernakulam-district-a-programme-is-helping-migrant-children-stay-in-school

External linksEdit