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Ernakulam (About this sound pronunciation ) refers to the eastern, mainland portion of the city of Kochi in central Kerala, India. The city is the most urban part of Kochi and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district. Ernakulam is called the commercial capital of the state of Kerala.[1] The Kerala High Court, the Office of the Corporation of Kochi and the Cochin Stock Exchange are situated here. The Ernakulam Junction or South Station, Ernakulam Town or North Station and Ernakulam Terminus (now defunct) railway stations of the Indian Railways lies in Ernakulam. Initially, Ernakulam was the headquarters of the Ernakulam District but was later shifted to Kakkanad. Ernakulam was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin. It is located 220 kilometres (137 mi) north-west of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. The city has served as an incubator for many Malayali entrepreneurs and is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala.

Ernakulam
Downtown
Ernakulam is located in Kerala
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Ernakulam is located in India
Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28Coordinates: 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28
Country  India
State Kerala
District Ernakulam
Government
 • Body Corporation of Cochin
Area
 • Total 3,032 km2 (1,171 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13 ft)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 0484
Vehicle registration KL-07
Lok Sabha constituency Ernakulam
Civic agency Corporation
Website www.ernakulam.nic.in

The state government and the GCDA have plans to include Angamaly, Perumbavoor, Piravom and Kolenchery in the Ernakulam district; Mala and Kodungallur in the Thrissur district; Thalayolaparambu and Vaikom in Kottayam; and Cherthala in the Alappuzha district within the Kochi metropolitan limits. The newly formed metropolis would be put under the charge of a new authority called Kochi Metropolitan Regional Development Authority

Contents

HistoryEdit

Pre-historyEdit

Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement. Monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulum.

Precolonial historyEdit

The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period. The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam).

Colonial periodEdit

Ernakulam was the capital of the erstwhile Cochin State. In the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901; 11,197 Hindus, 9,357 Christians, 935 Muslims, and 412 Jews.[2]

GeographyEdit

The City of Ernakulam is situated in the Ernakulam District of Central Kerala in India. Ernakulam is located at 9°59′N 76°17′E / 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98; 76.28.[3] It has an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft).

ClimateEdit

Under the Köppen climate classification, the City of Ernakulam features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats.

The City is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3000 mm. The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year. The maximum average temperature of the City in the summer season is 33 degree Celsius while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 degrees Celsius. The winter season records a maximum average of 29 degree Celsius and a minimum average of 20 degree Celsius..

EconomyEdit

Ernakulam is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala. The Cochin Port, DP World Kochi and Cochin Shipyard have resulted in the faster growth of the city. The technology park InfoPark, Kochi and SmartCity, Kochi is on the outskirts of the city. Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Ernakulam. The city with its temples, old churches and its culture, is ranked first in the number of domestic tourists visiting. Vypin or Vypeen is one of a group of islands that form part of the city of Kochi, in the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Vypin is one of the densely populated islands in Asia. The western coast of Vypin has the longest beaches in Kochi namely, the Cherai Beach, Kuzhuppilly Beach and the Puthuvype Beach.

Landmarks/tourist spotsEdit

TransportEdit

The Vytilla Mobility hub caters to the transportation needs of the city. Ernakulam is well served by private/government buses, autorickshaws, long and short distance trains and ferries. Ernakulam has a number of jetties where passengers can embark and disembark from ferries. Traveling via ferries is cheaper and faster than traveling by buses and/or autos. The main jetty is called the Ernakulam jetty from where one can board a ferry to Fort Kochi, Mattancherry and Willingdon Island.

RoadEdit

Ernakulam is connected to the North-South Corridor National Highway System via the four-laned National Highway 66. The highway traverses through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access to the nearby cities such of Thrissur, Palakkad and Coimbatore. NH 66 provides two main exit points at Edapally and Vytilla to the Ernakulam city. The city is largely dependent on city buses, taxis and auto rickshaws (called autos) for public transport. The state-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs inter-state, inter-district and city services. The National Highway 17, National Highway 49 connected to Madurai, Main Central Road, State Highways are the roads which connect city with its suburbs and municipalities. Major Roads — M. G. Road, Sahodharan Ayyappan Road, Broadway and Marine drive walkway, Banerjee Road, Shanmugham Road, Kaloor-Kadavanthara Road. KL 07 Reg..,

RailwayEdit

Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway station in Kerala. The Ernakulam railway station is located close to the town's main shopping area situated on MG Road.[5] The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in Ernakulam. There are two railway stations in Ernakulam City. Ernakulam Town railway station is situated in the northern part of the city and is the stopping point for trains going towards mainly to the Kottayam side in the south. The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is a junction and departing station of passengers and express trains, and is the stopping point for trains going towards the south side Alappuzha. The Station also has a Train Care Centre in its premises. 21 trains originate from Ernakulam Junction. There is also a small railway station at Edappally.

AirEdit

Ernakulam city is served by Cochin International Airport (Nedumbassery), which is about 27 kilometers away. Direct domestic flights are available to major Indian cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Kolkata. International flights to Middle East cities like Bahrain, Muscat, Sharjah, Jeddah, Riyadh, Dammam, Doha and to Southeast Asian cities Singapore and Kuala Lumpur are available here. It has a dedicated Heli-taxi service and Chartered flights. In 2015, it became the world's first airport to be completed powered by solar energy.

MetroEdit

Kochi Metro is a metro system for the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. The first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of 51.81 billion (US$810 million),[6] and was expected to be completed by June 2017, revising the previous deadline of 1 November 2016.[7] Currently 18.2 km of phase 1 from aluva to maharajas is open to public while remaining 7 km from maharajas to pettah and extension to thripunithura is under construction phase. Also phase 2 line from kaloor station to infopark via kakkanad has been sanctioned and government is in negotiations with people on that stretch for land acquisition. And phase 3 extension proposal from aluva to angamaly via nedumbassery airport has been forwarded to central government for sanction.

WaterEdit

Ernakulam also has ferry services connecting Ernakulam with Willingdon Island, Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Mulavukadu, at intervals of 20 minutes.[8] Recently KMRL(Kochi Metro Rail Limited) initiated plan to introduce Water Metro to Integrated transport plan of greater cochin area. Kochi water metro is one of a kind initiative in India which plans to introduce modern airconditioned ferries on the canals of Kochi for reducing congestion on the highways and also for providing easier access to islands scattered around Kochi.

MediaEdit

PrintEdit

Major Malayalam newspapers published in Ernakulam include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Janmabhoomi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala Kaumudi, Thejus, Metro Vartha, Siraj, Varthamanam, Janayugam, Kochi Vartha and Veekshanam.

Popular English newspapers include Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, The Hindu, and The New Indian Express. A number of evening papers are also published from the city.[9]

Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also sold in large numbers.

Being the seat of the Cochin Stock Exchange, a number of financial publications are also published in the city. These include The Economic Times, Business Line, The Business Standard and The Financial Express.

Prominent magazines and religious publications like the Sathyadeepam and The Week are also published.

BroadcastingEdit

TelevisionEdit

Television stations in Ernakulam include Janam TV, Jeevan TV, WE TV, Flowers (TV channel) and Reporter TV. DTH services are available through Doordarshan Direct Plus, Dish TV, Sun Direct, airtel digital TV, Reliance Digital TV Videocon d2h and Tata Sky. The cable operators in Ernakulam are Asianet Cable Vision, Siti Cable, Kerala Vision, DEN Networks. The local channels are Asianet Cable Vision and Den mtn

RadioEdit

All India Radio has two FM stations in the city, operating at 102.3  MHz AIR Kochi FM and 107.5 MHz. AIR Rainbow FM Private FM radio stations are 91.9 Radio Mango, 93.5 RED FM, 94.3 Club FM and 104.0 Radio Mirchi. These operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week.

Places of worshipEdit

 Temples  
  • Ernakulam Shiva Temple Ernakulathapan temple (Shiva)
  • Valanjambalam Devi Temple
  • Hanuman Temple, in Ernakulam Shiva Temple compound
  • Muruga Temple. in Ernakulam Shiva Temple compound
  • Thrikkakara temple, Thrikkakara, Ernakulam
  • Sivarathri Manappuram (Sree Mahadeva temple)(Dekshina Kaashi)
  • Kadungalloor Sree Narasimha Swamy temple
  • Thiruvalloor Sree Mahadeva Temple
  • Desom Sree Pallippattukavu Bhagavathy Temple
  • Desom Sree Ananthapuram Mahavishnu Temple
  • Sree Dhattha Anjaneya Temple
  • Uliyannoor Sree Mahadeva Temple
  • Pottachira Sree Krishna Temple
  • Thevarkadu Sree Mahavishnu-Durga Temple, Near Chowara Ferry
  • Thiruvairanikulam Sree Mahadeva Temple
  Mosque 
  • Chembitta Pally, Kochangadi, Kochi, Ernakulam
  • Kanjiramattom Juma Masjid, Kanjramattam, Ernakulam
  • Ponnurunni Juma Masjid, Pallipadi, Thammanam, Ernakulam
  • Kadavanthra Salafi Juma Masjid
  • Pulleppadi Masjid.
 Church 
  • Vallarpadam Church Basilica of Our Lady of Ransom, Vallarpadam-Ernakulam
  • Marthoman Cathedral, Mulanthuruthy
  • Nadamel Marth Mariam Church[10]
  • St. George Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Karingachira[11]
  • Little Flower Church Elamkulam
  • St. Marys Soonoro Patriarchal Cathedral Elamkulam, Kochi
  • St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Morakkala
  • St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam
  • St Jude Shrine and St Joseph Parish church, Thevara
  • St Mary's Forane Church (St Sebastian pilgrim centre) Kanjoor
  • Miraculous Shrine of St Joseph and St Antony's Parish, Kannamaly
  • St. Joseph's Shrine, Tripunithura
  • Thattazhthamma Chapel, Don Bosco Vaduthala
  • Infant Jesus church, Ernakulam
  • St. Jude's Church Karnakodam
  • Ponnurunny Ashramam ( Tomb of Servant of God Fr Theophane ofm)
  • Former Cathedral of St Joseph and Our lady of Mt Carmel, Servant of God Mother Eliswa Tomb, Varapuzha
  • Infant Jesus Parish Shrine, Thundathumkadavu, Varapuzha
  • St Augustine Parish Shrine, Moolampilly
  • Little Flower church, Pottakuzhy
  • Mt Carmel church, Chathiath
  • Mt Carmel church, Mamangalam
  • St Francis Asissi Cathedral and Our Lady of Perpetual Help Shrine, Ernakulam
  • Holy Family Monastery Church, Ernakulam
  • St. Teresa's Monastery Church, Ernakulam
  • St. John the Baptist Church, Palarivattom
  • St. Martin de porres church, Palarivattom
  • St. Francis Xavier Church, Kaloor
  • Thamarachal Valiyapally
  • St George Hebron Jacobite Syrian Church
  • St. Raphael church, Thykoodam
  • Little Flower Church Koottukad
  • St. Antony's shrine, Chullikkal, Kochi
  • St. Sebastian Church, Thoppumpady
  • Santa Cruz church and Infant Jesus Shrine, Perumpadappu, Edakochi
  • St. Thomas More Church, Edakochi
  • St. Lawrence Church, Edakochi
  • St. Louis Church(St James Shrine), Mundemvelli
  • Our Lady of Hope Church, Fort Vypeen
  • Karingachira Church
  • Santa Cruz Cathedral Basilica, Fort kochi
  • Holy Family Church(St James Shrine), Nazareth, Fort kochi
  • Holy Face pilgrim centre, Emmanuel church, St John pattam, Fort kochi
  • Holy Cross Shrine ( Coonan Cross Shrine ), Mattancherry
  • St. Sebastian Church & Velankanni Madha Shrine, Chellanam
  • Malayatoor Kurishumudy International Shrine
  • St. Thomas Forane Church, Malayatoor
  • St. Thomas Forane Church, North Paravur
  • St. Antony's shrine, Chettikad
  • Sacred Heart shrine, vypeen
  • St. Augustine's Church, Nedungad
  • St. Ambrose Church, Edavanakad
  • Sacred heart Shrine and Don Bosco Church, North paravur
  • Manjummel Immaculate Conception Church (Tombs of Venerable Servants of God Fr Aurelious OCD and Fr Zachariah OCD)
  • St. Philomena's church and St Kuriakose Elias Chavara Archdiocesean Shrine, Koonammavu
  • St. Mary Magdalene church( Tomb of Servant of God Fr George Vakayil ), Maradu
  • St. Antony's Parish Shrine, Vaduthala
  • St. Francis Xavier Church, Ponekkara
  • St. George Church, Perumanoor
  • Our Lady of Dolours church, Ambikapuram, Perumanoor
  • St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral
  • St. Antony's Shrine, Kaloor[12]
  • St. George Forane Church, Edappally
  • Mar Yohannan Nepumsianose Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Konthuruthy, which houses the tomb of Mar Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly[13]
  • Basilica of Our Lady of Snows, Pallippuram
  • St. Roch Shrine, Pallippuram
  • St. Antony's and Velankanni Madha Shrine, Manjummel kavala, Cheranellore
  • St. James Church Cheranellore
  • Our Lady of Lourdes church, Elammakara
  • Our Lady of Fatima, Elamkulam
  • St. Antony's Parish Shrine, Cheriyapilly, North Paravur
  • St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church, North Paravur
  • St. Vincent Ferrer Church, Chattanad
  • St._Thomas_Marthoma_Church_Kalamassery
  • Infant Jesus church, Kunnel, Alangad
  • St. Mary's Church, Alangad
  • St. Kuriakose Kananaya Catholic Church, Kakkanad
  • St. Michael church, Kakkaand
  • St. Thomas Church( Birthplace of Blessed Martyr Sister Rani Maria FC), Pulluvazhy
  • St. Mary's Forane Church, Tripunithura
  • St. Gervasis and Prothasis Church, Udeyamperoor

EducationEdit

PoliticsEdit

Ernakulam assembly constituency is part of Ernakulam (Lok Sabha constituency).[15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Manorama Online | Kochi Beaches". Week.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  2. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, Madras II: The Southern and West Coast Districts, Native States, and French Possessions. 1908. p. 454. 
  3. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ernakulam". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Clipping of Janmabhumi - Kochi". Retrieved 26 February 2017. 
  5. ^ Kochi- Ernakulam Travel Guide, How to reach Kochi by air, bus, train, local transport, Getting around in Kochi City. Webindia123.com. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  6. ^ "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompthanding over of land, funds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Commission Kochi Metro by March: CM". The Hindu. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  8. ^ BOAT SERVICE FROM ERNAKULAM – Boat Schedules – State Water Transport Department, Government of Kerala, India. Swtd.kerala.gov.in (25 July 2016). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  9. ^ "Keeping Kochi updated". The Hindu. 15 September 2003. Retrieved 2 June 2006. 
  10. ^ St. Marys Jacobite Syrian Church, Tripunithura
  11. ^ St. George Jacobite Syrian Cathedral, Karingachira
  12. ^ St. Antony's Shrine, Kaloor. St-antonykaloor.org. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  13. ^ Clipping of Mathrubhumi Printing and Publishing – Ernakulam. Digitalpaper.mathrubhumi.com (20 October 2014). Retrieved on 2016-11-27.
  14. ^ Colleges of Ernakulam. Ernakulam.nic.in. Retrieved on 27 November 2016.
  15. ^ "Assembly Constituencies – Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 

External linksEdit