Kerala High Court
The High Court of Kerala is the highest court in the Indian state of Kerala and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. It is located in Kochi. Drawing its powers under Article 226 of the Constitution of India, the High Court has the power to issue directions, orders and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for ensuring the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution to citizens or for other specified purposes. The High Court is empowered with original, appellate and revisional jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal matters, and the power to answer references to it under some statutes. The High Court has the superintendence and visitorial jurisdiction over all courts and tribunals of inferior jurisdiction covered under its territorial jurisdiction.
|High Court of Kerala|
|Composition method||Presidential with confirmation of Chief Justice of India and Governor of respective state.|
|Authorized by||Constitution of India|
|Decisions are appealed to||Supreme Court of India|
|Judge term length||Mandatory retirement by age of 62|
|No. of positions||38|
|Since||6 February 2018|
At present, the sanctioned Judge strength of the High Court of Kerala is 27 Permanent Judges including the Chief Justice and 12 Additional Judges. Depending on the importance and nature of the question to be adjudicated, the judges sit as Single (one judge), Division (two judges), Full (three judges) or such other benches of larger strengths.
The foundation stone for the new multi-storied building now housing the High Court of Kerala was laid on 14 March 1994 by the then Chief Justice of India, Justice M. N. Venkatachaliah. The estimated cost of construction was 10 crore Indian rupees. The construction was completed in 2005 at a cost of 85 crore[clarification needed] Indian rupees. The completed High Court building was inaugurated by the Chief Justice of India, Justice Y. K. Sabharwal on 11 February 2006. The new High Court building is equipped with modern amenities like videoconferencing, air conditioned courtrooms, intranet, facilities for retrieval of order copies and publishing of the case status via the internet. The building is built on 5 acres (20,000 m2) of land and has a built-up area of 550,000 square feet (51,000 m2) over nine floors. The building has in it a post office, bank, medical clinic, library, canteens and such other most needed utilities and services. The High Court of Kerala has moved to its new building from the date of its inauguration, from the adjacent Ram Mohan Palace, where it had been functioning.
History of judicial system in the State of KeralaEdit
The present State of Kerala is result of integrating the erstwhile princely kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin with Malabar district and Kasaragod. The present judicial system in Kerala has its roots dating back to the days of the monarchs of the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin.
In 1811, following the 1808 insurrection against British Cochin and Quilon, Colonel H. M. Munro succeeded Colonel Macaulay as the Resident in Travancore with supervision over the Kingdom of Cochin. Following an investigation into the rampant lawlessness and the abuse of the system, Colonel Munro surveyed the region with his assistant Captain Blacker and established reforms including courts, pensions, construction of roads, bridges and schools. He functioned as the Diwan until February 1818 when he handed over the reins to Nanjappayya of Coimbatore. Thus it was Colonel Munro laid the foundations for a systematic legal system, resulting in the present day scenario. Until his time, there were no independent tribunals for the administration of justice.
Judicial system in the Kingdom of TravancoreEdit
In the Kingdom of Travancore, Munro recommended necessary regulations to be passed for the reorganisation of the Courts. These recommendations were accepted by the then king and a Regulation in tune to his recommendations was passed in 1811. Zilla Courts and a Huzur Court were established in the Kingdom of Travancore, in the years 1811 and 1814 respectively. Munro established five zilla (District) courts in A.D 1811 at Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Mavelikkara, Vaikom and Aluva. Huzur Court, which functioned as the final appellate Court was later replaced by Sadar Court in 1861. Sadar Court, which possessed almost all the powers of the present High Court of Kerala, continued functioning until 1881. Later in 1887, the High Court of Travancore was established with bench strength of five judges. One among the five judges was appointed as the Chief Justice. The judges had the assistance of a Pundit, who acted as an amicus curiae to advise them on the various points of Hindu law. Ramachandra Iyer was appointed as the first Chief Justice.
Judicial system in the Kingdom of CochinEdit
In the Kingdom of Cochin, Desavazhis and Naduvazhis were empowered to settle the disputes following the prevailing customary law. More serious matters used to be attended by the monarch himself. In 1812, for the first time in its history, graded law courts were established under the Diwanship of Colonel Munro, in the Kingdom of Cochin. The first Subordinate Courts (Sub Courts) were established by Colonel Munro at Trichur (Thrissur) and Tripunithura. Until 1835, Huzur Court was the final appellate Court. Huzur Court had a bench strength of three judges. Later the Huzur Court was reconstituted as Rajah's Court of Appeal and Subordinate Courts were reconstituted as Zilla Courts. The Zilla Courts were empowered with unlimited jurisdiction, but subject to the confirmation from the Rajah's Court of Appeal. The Rajah's Court of Appeal was reconstituted as the Chief Court of Cochin in 1900. The Chief Court of Cochin had three permanent judges one of whom acted as the Chief Judge. Mr. S. Locke was appointed as the first Chief Judge. Later the Chief Court of Cochin was reconstituted as the High Court, during the Diwanship of Sri. Shanmukham Chettiyar.
After the integration of Travancore and Cochin kingdomsEdit
After India gained her independence on 15 August 1947, the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin were integrated to form the Travancore-Cochin State or Thiru-Kochi on 1 July 1949. Later, the High Court of Travancore-Cochin was established at Ernakulam on 7 July 1949 under the Travancore-Cochin High Court Act (1949). Mr. Puthupally Krishna Pillai was the last Chief Justice of High Court of Travancore-Cochin.
Establishment of High Court of KeralaEdit
On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was passed thereby integrating the State of Travancore-Cochin with Malabar district and Kasaragod to form the present State of Kerala. The High Court of Kerala, as it is today was established on 1 November 1956 as the High Court designated for the State of Kerala. The Kerala High Court Act, 1958 defined the jurisdiction and various functions, and powers of the High Court of Kerala. Initially, many cases from both the Travancore-Cochin High Court and the High Court of Madras were transferred to the High Court of Kerala for adjudication. Justice K. T. Koshi was appointed as the first Chief Justice of High Court of Kerala.
The current sitting judges of the court are as follows:
|Antony Dominic||Chief Justice||09 February 2018|
|P. N. Ravindran||Permanent Judge||9 December 2009|
|K. Surendra Mohan||Permanent Judge||15 December 2010|
|P. R. Ramachandra Menon||Permanent Judge||15 December 2010|
|C.K. Abdul Rehim||Permanent Judge||15 December 2010|
|C. T. Ravi Kumar||Permanent Judge||15 December 2010|
|V. Chitambaresh||Permanent Judge||7 December 2012|
|A.M. Shaffique||Permanent Judge||7 December 2012|
|K. Harilal||Permanent Judge||24 June 2013|
|K. Vinod Chandran||Permanent Judge||24 June 2013|
|P. D . Rajan||Permanent Judge||16 January 2014|
|B. Kemal Pasha||Permanent Judge||30 June 2014|
|A. Hariprasad||Permanent Judge||30 June 2014|
|Dama Seshadri Naidu||Permanent Judge||30 June 2014|
|P. Ubaid||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|K. Abraham Mathew||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|Alexander Thomas||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|A. Muhamed Mustaque||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|A. K. Jayasankaran Nambiar||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|Anil K. Narendran||Permanent Judge||10 March 2016|
|P. V. Asha||Permanent Judge||20 May 2016|
|P. B. Suresh Kumar||Permanent Judge||20 May 2016|
|Sunil Thomas||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|Shaji P. Chaly||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|Anu Sivaraman||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|Raja Vijayaraghavan V.||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|B. Sudheendra Kumar||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|K.P. Jyothindranath||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|Mary Joseph||Permanent Judge||5 April 2017|
|Sathish Ninan||Additional Judge||5 October 2016|
|Devan Ramachandran||Additional Judge||5 October 2016|
|P. Somarajan||Additional Judge||5 October 2016|
|V. Shircy||Additional Judge||5 October 2016|
|A. M. Babu||Additional Judge||5 October 2016|
|Ashok Menon||Additional Judge||30 November 2017|
|Annie John||Additional Judge||30 November 2017|
|Narayana Pisharadi R.||Additional Judge||30 November 2017|
Past Chief JusticesEdit
|Sl No||Name of the Chief Justice||From||To|
|1||K. T. Koshi||12 September 1944||30 January 1959|
|2||K. Sankaran||16 August 1946||29 March 1960|
|3||Mohammed Ahmed Ansari||29 March 1960||26 November 1961|
|4||M. S. Menon||29 January 1953||12 June 1969|
|5||P. T. Raman Nair||22 February 1957||1 September 1971|
|6||T. C. Raghavan||15 December 1959||21 May 1973|
|7||P. Govindan Nair||29 January 1962||3 January 1977|
|8||V. P. Gopalan Nambiyar||22 March 1965||19 January 1980|
|9||V. Balakrishna Eradi||5 April 1967||30 January 1981|
|10||P. Subramanian Poti||20 March 1969||26 September 1983|
|11||K. Bhaskaran||3 April 1972||9 October 1985|
|12||V. S. Malimath||24 October 1985||11 June 1991|
|13||M. Jagannadha Rao||8 August 1991||5 April 1994|
|14||Sujata V. Manohar||21 April 1994||4 November 1994|
|15||M. M. Pareed Pillay||3 January 1985||17 September 1995|
|16||U. P. Singh||23 July 1996||19 December 1997|
|17||Om Prakash Verma||20 November 1997||19 March 1999|
|18||Arijit Pasayat||20 September 1999||8 May 2000|
|19||Arvind Vinayakarao Savant||30 May 2000||17 September 2000|
|20||K.K. Usha||25 February 1991||3 July 2001|
|21||B. N. Srikrishna||6 September 2001||1 October 2002|
|22||Jawahar Lal Gupta||1 November 2002||22 January 2004|
|23||N K Sodhi||5 April 2004||17 November 2004|
|24||B. Subhashan Reddy||21 November 2004||2 March 2005|
|25||Rajeev Gupta||27 April 2005||11 January 2006|
|26||Vinod Kumar Bali||22 January 2006||24 January 2007|
|27||H. L. Dattu||18 May 2007||12 December 2008|
|28||S. R. Bannurmath||18 March 2009||22 January 2010|
|29||Jasti Chelameswar||17 March 2010||10 October 2011|
|30||Manjula Chellur||26 September 2012||5 August 2014|
|31||Ashok Bhushan||26 March 2015||12 May 2016|
|32||Mohan Shantanagoudar||22 September 2016||17 February 2017|
|33||Navniti Prasad Singh||20 March 2017||5 November 2017|
The High of Kerala building in Kochi had not assigned Number 13 to any of its courtrooms due to triskaidekaphobia. This created a controversy in Kerala as the state prides itself on being the most literate in India. A petitioner questioned this in Kerala High Court itself whether it was due to superstitious beliefs, as the room numbering skipped from 12 to 14. After hearing this petition, the High Court not only dismissed it, but imposed a fine of ₹10,000 (US$150) on the petitioner. Later, the Supreme Court of India over-ruled the High Court's decision admonishing the encouragement of superstitions, "The High Court is an institution. It should not be allowed to encourage this sort of superstitions,"
Kerala Legislative Assembly passed resolution for setting up a high court bench at Thiruvananthapuram, capital city of kerala. The Union Government and the Supreme Court are favourable in sanctioning more high court benches in country, and had already sanctioned many in other states. However, a new high court bench at Thiruvananthapuram is still pending, due to opposition by some in the high court at Ernakulam. The opposition is based on the rationale that when the United State of Travancore-Cochin (the forerunner to the State of Kerala) was created, it was agreed that the United State's capital would be Travancore's capital Thiruvananthapuram, where the legislature and the executive would be based, but that the judiciary would be based in Kochi, Cochin's capital.
- "Funds for infrastructure of High Courts". Press Information Bureau for Government of India. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- Playne S, Bond JW, Wright A. (2004) Southern India: its history, people, commerce, and industrial resources, page 368. Asian Educational Services
- High Court of Kerala - Profile of sitting judges
- Profile of M. A. Ansari at Andhra Pradesh High Court.
- Personal website of M. Jagannadha Rao Archived 17 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Kerala high court told not to be superstitious". Gulf News. Retrieved 2006-11-22.[permanent dead link]
- "Number 13 finds ally in Kerala MLA". NDTV. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
- "SC regrets Kerala HC's superstitious belief". The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-21.[dead link]