Southern Railway zone
The Southern Railway (abbreviated SR), headquartered at Chennai, is one of the 18 zones of Indian Railways. It is the earliest of the 18 zones of the Indian Railways created in independent India. It was created on 14 April 1951 by merging three state railways, namely, the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway Company, and the Mysore State Railway. The South Indian Railway was originally created in the British colonial times as Great Southern India Railway Co founded in Britain in 1853 and registered in 1859. Its original headquarters was in Tiruchirappalli (Trichy) and was registered as a company in London only in 1890. At present, after re-organization of existing railway zones and creation of new zones undertaken by the Indian Railways between 2002-03, Southern Railway has emerged as the 2nd largest zone after undertaking some gauge conversion projects and creation of new lines.
|Locale||Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Puducherry|
|Dates of operation||1951–|
|Predecessor||South Indian Railway Company|
Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway
Mysore State Railway
|Track gauge||Broad gauge and Metre gauge|
|Length||5,081 kilometres (3,157 mi) route|
In 1944, all Railway companies were taken over by the Government. And three years later, when India woke up to independence in 1947, the stage was set for the integration of different Railways into smaller zones. In 1948, immediately after independence, there were as many as 42 different railway systems - a multiplicity of railway administrations, varying in size and standards.
The regrouping proposals put forward by the various committees were studied in great detail to ensure that a unification could be achieved with the least disturbance and dislocation. Important associations of railway-users, Chambers of Commerce and Industry, the State Governments and acknowledged experts both in India and abroad were fully consulted.
Shri N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar - the then Minister for Railways, was the principal architect of the regrouping of Indian Railways. In December 1950, the Central Advisory Committee for Railways approved the plan for Indian Railways into six Zonal systems, namely, the Northern, the North-Eastern, the Southern, the Central, the Eastern and the Western.
The Southern Railway zone 9,654 kilometres (5,999 mi) was the first zone to be formed. Created on 14 April 1951 by the merger of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway and the Mysore State Railway, the economic and geographical factors of this zone facilitated an early integrated network. This amalgamation was a major step towards streamlining and organizing the working pattern of the Railway system.
Shri K R Ramanujam was appointed the first General Manager of the newly formed Southern Railways.
The Southern Railway is headed by the General Manager (HAG+) Officer, assisted by an Additional General Manager (HAG). Each department is headed by a PHOD\CHOD of the rank of HAG\SAG.
Southern Railway has its headquarters in Chennai and has the following six divisions:
The Coimbatore railway Division was disestablished in 1956.
The zone operates both passenger and freight trains. The biggest station is Chennai Central. Other important stations include Chennai Egmore, Trivandrum, Coimbatore, Calicut, Ernakulam, Madurai, Trichy. Passenger trains range from day intercity trains to overnight trains, long-distance trains to other zones, shatabdi and passenger trains stopping at many stations. The zone owns a large amount of coaches. These are maintained at coach care centres. Basin Bridge coach care centre serving Chennai central is one of the biggest in the country. Most major stations have a coach care Centre. The stations which don't have such facilities are served by trains through sometimes complex rake-sharing arrangements which also increases the utilization of the coaches. Apart from these Centres, the zone has MEMU and DEMU car sheds. These are available in Avadi, Trichy, Erode, Palakkad and Kollam. The zone also operates suburban system in Chennai.
Freight operations mainly include container traffic from all the ports falling under its jurisdiction ( Chennai, Mangalore, Ennore, Cochin, Tuticorin are some of the major ports) and coal-traffic bound to the thermal power stations in Tamil Nadu state from the ports. Cement plants also use the railway system extensively. Food grains are also transported through freight trains. Most of the lines inside ports, thermal stations, manufacturing industries and owned by the respective companies and the zone provides a link connecting its network and the wagons and locomotives. There is a wagon care centre in Tondiarpet, Chennai.
The zone has electric loco sheds at Royapuram, Erode and Arakkonam. Diesel loco sheds are present at Tondiarpet, Golden Rock, Ernakulam and Erode. Most of the important routes are electrified and only low traffic lines are unelectrified. However, it is not uncommon to see diesel locos in electrified lines due to various operational constraints. It is also common to see other zones' locomotives operating inside the zone and vice versa.
Southern Railway has many factories & sheds:
- Mechanical Workshops
- Carriage, Wagon and Loco Works, Perambur, Chennai
- Central Workshop, Ponmalai, Tiruchirapalli
- Engineering Work Shop, Arakkonam
- Signal & Telecommunication
- Southern Railway Signal & Telecom Workshop, Podanur, Coimbatore
- Locomotive Sheds
- MEMU Car Shed
- EMU Car Shed
- EMU Car Shed, Avadi
- EMU Car Shed, Tambaram
- EMU Car Shed,Velachery
- BG Coaching Maintenance Depots
- Wagon Maintenance Depots
- Tondiarpet, Chennai
- Egmore, Chennai
- Kochi Harbour
- Royapuram, Chennai
- Pattibiram Military Siding
- Mangaluru junction
- Printing Presses
- General Printing Press, Royapuram, Chennai
- Ticket Printing Factory, Thiruvananthapuram,
- Ticket Printing Factory, Tiruchirappalli
|Route||State||Length in km|
|Nanjangud-Nilambur via Sultan Bathery||Karnataka, Kerala,||238|
|Angadippuram-Kozhikode via Malappuram||Kerala||78|
|Bulb rail line at Shoranur||Kerala||5|
|Idappalli - Tirur||Kerala||77|
|Kayankulam-Trivandrum via Adoor and Kottarakkara||Kerala||103|
|Nilambur Road - Feroke via Manjeri and Mavur||Kerala||69|
|Thakazhi-Tiruvalla - Pathanamthitta||Kerala||50|
|Nanjangud - Vatakara via Vyitri, Poozhi, Hithod||Kerala, Karnataka||230|
|Madurai-Kottayam||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||234|
|Sabarimala to Dindigul||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||201|
|Arakkonam to Tindivanam via Walajapet, Ranipet and Arcot||Tamil Nadu||96|
|Chennai-Sriperumbudur via Poonamallee||Tamil Nadu||38|
|Chidambaram-Attur via Ariyalur, Perambalur||Tamil Nadu||167|
|Dindigul-Kumuli (lower camp)||Tamil Nadu||134|
|Erode to Satyamanglam||Tamil Nadu||63|
|Jolarpettai-Hosur via Krishnagiri||Tamil Nadu||101|
|Katpadi-Chennai via Guindy-Poonamallee||Tamil Nadu||212|
|Kumbakonam - Namakkal||Tamil Nadu||178|
|Madurai-Karaikkudi,via Melur,Tiruppattur/Pudukkottai-Thanjavur via Gandharvakottai||Tamil Nadu||91/65|
|Madurai-Tuticorin via Aruppukkottai||Tamil Nadu||144|
|Manamadurai - Tuticorin||Tamil Nadu||126|
|Morappur-Dharmapuri via Mukkanur||Tamil Nadu||36|
|Needmangalam-Pattukottai via Mannargudi, Madukkur||Tamil Nadu||54|
|Satyamangalam- Mettur||Tamil Nadu||90|
|Thanjavur-Chennai Egmore via Ariyalur||Tamil Nadu||315|
|Tindivanam to Cuddalore via Pondichery||Tamil Nadu||77|
|Mettur - Chamarajnagar||Tamil Nadu, Karnataka||182|
|Ariyalur - Namakkal via Perambalur, Thuraiyur||Tamil Nadu||105|
|Name of the Project(s)||State||Length in km||Status|
|Dharmapuri-Morapur via Mukanur, Ranimukanur||Tamilnadu||36||under construction|
|Kumbakonam-Virudhachalam Jn||Tamilnadu||65||Survey Completed|
|Sabarimala Railway||Kerala||120 kilometres (75 mi)||Under progress|
|Attipattu-Puttur||Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh||88.3|
|Salem-Kallakurichi via Chinnasalem||Tamil Nadu||16||Not Started|
|Erode-Palani||Tamil Nadu||91.05||Not Started|
|Madurai-Aruppukkottai-Tuticorin||Tamil Nadu||144||Under Progress|
|Tindivanam-Gingee-Tiruvannamalai||Tamil Nadu||70||Under Slow Progress|
|Tindivanam-Nagari||Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh||179.2||Under Slow Progress|
|Name of the Project (s)||State||Length in km||Status|
|Punalur-Edamon-Sengottai||TN & KL||49||Completed|
|Madurai-Bodinayakkanur||Tamil Nadu||90.41||Under progress|
|karaikudi-mayiladuthurai||Tamil Nadu||224||Under progress|
|Name of the Project(s)||State||Length in km||Status|
|Ernakulam-Haripad||Kerala||87||Under Slow Progress|
|Attipattu-Korukkupettai||Tamil Nadu||18||Under Progress|
|Chennai Beach-Attipattu 4th line||Tamil Nadu||22.1||Under Progress|
|Chennai Beach-Korukkupettai 3rd line||Tamil Nadu||4.1||Under Progress|
|mangalore junction-Panambur Patch Doubling||Karnataka||19||Under Progress|
|Tiruvallur-Arakkonam 4th line||Tamil Nadu||26.83||Completed|
- "Southern Railway vital statistics" (PDF). Southern Railway. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Origins of Southern Railway". www.hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 17 Jul 2008.
- "Origins and history of Southern Railway" (PDF). Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Southern Railway punctuality and fiscal performance hit - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- "Southern Railway's financial and operational performance dips - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-02-24.