Palakkad (Malayalam: [pɐːlɐkːɐːɖɨ̆] (listen)), also known as Palghat, is a city and municipality in the Indian state of Kerala. It is spread over an area of 26.60 square kilometres (10.27 sq mi). It is the administrative headquarters of the Palakkad District. The city is situated about 146 kilometres (91 mi) northeast of Kochi, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, 66 kilometres (41 mi) northeast of Thrissur, and 127 kilometres (79 mi) southeast of Kozhikode, on the meeting point of two National Highways namely, Salem-Kochi National Highway NH 544, and Kozhikode-Malappuram-Palakkad National Highway NH 966.

Palakkad
Palghat
City
From top clockwise: Palakkad Municipal Office, IMA Junction, Stadium bypass road, Chandranagar roundabout,
From top clockwise: Palakkad Municipal Office, IMA Junction, Stadium bypass road, Chandranagar roundabout,
Palakkad is located in Kerala
Palakkad
Palakkad
Palakkad is located in India
Palakkad
Palakkad
Coordinates: 10°46′30″N 76°39′04″E / 10.775°N 76.651°E / 10.775; 76.651Coordinates: 10°46′30″N 76°39′04″E / 10.775°N 76.651°E / 10.775; 76.651
CountryIndia
StateKerala
RegionSouth Malabar
DistrictPalakkad
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyPalakkad Municipality
 • ChairpersonK. Priya Ajayan (BJP)
 • Deputy ChairmanE. Krishnadas (BJP)
 • Member of ParliamentV. K. Sreekandan (INC)
 • Member of Legislative AssemblyShafi Parambil (INC)
Area
 • City26.60 km2 (10.27 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,363 km2 (526 sq mi)
Elevation
84 m (276 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • City130,955
 • Density4,900/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro293,533
Demonym(s)Palakkadan
Language
 • OfficialMalayalam
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
678 XXX
Area code(s)+91-(0)491
Vehicle registrationKL-09
ClimateAm/Aw (Köppen)
Websitewww.palakkadmunicipality.in/en

Palakkad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala. The 18th-century Palakkad Fort has sturdy battlements, a moat, and a Hanuman temple on its grounds. North on the Kalpathy River, the 15th-century Viswanatha Swamy Temple is the main venue of the Ratholsavam chariot festival. Northeast, near Malampuzha Dam, the town of Malampuzha has a rock garden created from recycled materials. The river Bharathappuzha (River Ponnani) flows through Palakkad.[3] Palakkad is located on the northern bank of Bharathappuzha River.[3]

Palakkad was included in the South Malabar region of Malabar District during the British Raj. The municipality of Palakkad was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)[4][5][6][7] of the British Indian Empire, along with the municipalities of Kozhikode, Kannur, Thalassery, and Fort Kochi, making them oldest modern municipalities in the state of Kerala.

Palakkad is home to one of the 23 Indian Institutes of Technology at Kanjikode.[8][9] It is also home to Government Victoria College, one of the oldest institutes of higher education in the state, opened in 1888, and NSS College of Engineering, which was the fourth engineering college in Kerala, opened in 1960.

EtymologyEdit

The commonly held belief is that the name Palakkad is a fusion of two Malayalam words: Pāla, which is the local name for blackboard tree (Alstonia scholaris), and Kātŭ, which means forest.[10]

HistoryEdit

 
Palakkad Fort was captured and rebuilt by Mysore Sultan Hyder Ali in 1766 CE

The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during Sangam period between the. first and fourth centuries CE and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the Malabar Coast and Tamil Nadu.[11] Palakkad city was ruled by the Palakkad Rajas (Tarur Swaroopam).[12] Palakkad Raja had the right over the Taluks of Palakkad, Alathur, and Chittur.[12] The original headquarters of Palakkad Rajas were at Athavanad, Tirur Taluk, in present-day Malappuram district.[12] It is said that their lands at Athavanad area were given to the Azhvanchery Thamprakkal and the Palakkad-Chittur areas were bought from them instead.[12] The territory of Palakkad Rajas had been under the Zamorin of Calicut for sometime.[12]

In 1757, to resist the invasion of the Zamorin of Kozhikode, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of the Hyder Ali of Mysore.[13] In 1766, Hyder Ali defeated the Zamorin of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode into his state.[13] The Hyder Ali rebuilt Palakkad Fort in 1766.[14] The smaller princely states in northern and north-central parts of Kerala (Malabar District) including Kolathunadu, Kottayam, Kadathanadu, Kozhikode, Tanur, Valluvanad, and Palakkad were unified under Mysore and were made a part of the larger Kingdom of Mysore.[15] His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.[16][17]

Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar District and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s as a result of the Third Anglo-Mysore War and the subsequent Treaty of Seringapatam; both were annexed to the Bombay Presidency (which had also included other regions in the western coast of India) of British India in the years 1792 and 1799 respectively.[18][19][20] Later in 1800, both of the Malabar District and South Canara were separated from Bombay presidency to merge them with the neighbouring Madras Presidency.[14] Palakkad was under British Raj until 1947.

The municipality of Palakkad was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)[4][5][6][7] of the British Indian Empire, along with the municipalities of Kozhikode, Kannur, Thalassery, and Fort Kochi, making them the first modern municipalities in the modern state of Kerala.

At the time of 1951 Census of India, Palakkad was the second-largest city in the erstwhile Malabar District after Kozhikode.[21] At that time only two towns in Malabar was treated as cities: Kozhikode and Palakkad.[21] Following the formation of the state of Kerala in 1956, the erstwhile Taluk of Palakkad in Malabar District was divided into three: Palakkad, Alathur, and Chittur, and Palakkad district was formed by taking parts of erstwhile Malabar District.[14]

GeographyEdit

 
Topography map-Palakkad (Palghat)

Palakkad is the gateway to Kerala due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap in the Western Ghats. Malayalam is the official language in Palakkad. The district has many small and medium rivers, which are tributaries of the Bharathapuzha River. Of the numerous dams in Palakkad district, the largest Malampuzha dam is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Palakkad city.[22]

ClimateEdit

Palakkad has a tropical wet and dry climate. Temperatures remain moderate throughout the year, with the exception being March and April, the hottest months. A very high amount of precipitation is received in Palakkad, mainly due to the South-West monsoon. July is the wettest month, and the total annual rainfall is around 83 inches (210 cm).

Climate data for Palakkad (1981–2010, extremes 1943–2005)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.6
(99.7)
40.0
(104.0)
41.4
(106.5)
41.8
(107.2)
41.2
(106.2)
40.4
(104.7)
33.6
(92.5)
33.8
(92.8)
35.8
(96.4)
36.2
(97.2)
38.0
(100.4)
36.6
(97.9)
41.8
(107.2)
Average high °C (°F) 32.7
(90.9)
35.2
(95.4)
37.3
(99.1)
36.6
(97.9)
34.5
(94.1)
29.9
(85.8)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.4
(86.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.5
(88.7)
32.4
(90.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.1
(75.4)
25.0
(77.0)
24.8
(76.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.3
(72.1)
23.2
(73.8)
Record low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
19.0
(66.2)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
15.8
(60.4)
16.1
(61.0)
14.0
(57.2)
14.0
(57.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 3.6
(0.14)
3.6
(0.14)
15.7
(0.62)
61.3
(2.41)
125.1
(4.93)
410.6
(16.17)
453.2
(17.84)
290.3
(11.43)
154.9
(6.10)
196.1
(7.72)
102.3
(4.03)
21.3
(0.84)
1,838
(72.36)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 0.9 3.3 5.9 18.7 20.0 15.8 9.2 10.1 4.7 0.9 90.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 46 39 38 52 60 79 82 81 75 73 65 56 61
Source: India Meteorological Department[23][24]

TransportEdit

AirEdit

The nearest international airport is Coimbatore International Airport, which is about 62 kilometres (39 mi) from Palakkad. However, Cochin International Airport and Calicut International Airport serve the city as well.

There has been a proposal for a mini domestic airport at East Yakkara with respect to setting up domestic airports for enhanced air connectivity by the civil aviation ministry of India. 60 acres has been identified for the project at East Yakkara Palakkad.[25]

Olavakkode Railway Station
KSRTC Bus terminal, Palakkad
G.B.Road, Palakkad
English Church road

RailwaysEdit

The Palakkad railway division is one of the six administrative divisions of the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways, headquartered at Palakkad. It is the smallest railway division in Southern Railway. It was formed by dissolving the Podanur division. Managing 588 route kilometers of track in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Mahé (in the Union Territory of Puducherry), it is one of the oldest railway divisions in India. The major stations under this railway division are Palakkad Junction, Shoranur Junction, Ottapalam, Tirur, Kozhikode, Thalassery, Kannur, Kasaragod, Mangalore Central, Mangalore Junction and Pollachi Junction. The terminal facility of Palakkad division is situated in Shoranur Junction & Mangalore Central of Karnataka state. It is the only division headquarters in India with no originating train to its state capital.

Palakkad is the HQ of the Palakkad Railway Division of Southern Railway Zone. The city is served by two railway stations – Palakkad Junction is a broad gauge railway junction (located at Olavakkode, about 4 km from Municipal bus stand) and Palakkad Town railway station located in the heart of the Palakkad city. The cities of Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Tiruchirappalli, Erode, Salem, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Ernakulam are connected by the broad gauge line. Train services to Pollachi, Dindigul and Madurai are through the broad gauge line through Palakkad Town station.[26] Shoranur Junction Railway Station also has rail connections to Mangalore and the Konkan Railway, enabling travel towards Goa and Bombay. The trains coming from other parts of India are diverted to the north and south Kerala from Shoranur Junction in Palakkad District. From here, there is train service to Calicut, Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Shoranur and Nilambur.

RoadEdit

Palakkad has a medium-grade network of roads. The National Highway 544 from Salem to Ernakulam via Coimbatore, Palakkad and Thrissur – Kozhikode National Highway 966 via Malappuram merges with NH 544 in the city.[27] The other important roads are the Palakkad – Ponnani road which connects NH 66 and Mumbai-Kanyakumari coastal NH 66, State Highway 52 begins near the Chandra nagar junction, which is 2.6 km from the city centre, which connects to Pollachi, and State Highway 27 begins at the center of the city which connects to Meenakshipuram (Kerala-Tamil Nadu State Border).

Palakkad City has four Bus Stations includes Palakkad KSRTC bus station and three Private Bus stands named Stadium Bus Stand, Municipal Bus stand, and Town Bus Stand.

DemographicsEdit

Religions in palakkad
Religion Percent
Hindus
68%
Muslims
27.9%
Christians
3.8%
Others
0.3%

As per Census 2011, population of Palakkad in 2011 is 130,955; of which male and female are 63,833 and 67,122 respectively.[28]

Total literates in Palakkad city are 112,479, of which 56,065 are males while 56,414 are females. The average literacy rate of Palakkad city is 94.20 percent of which male and female literacy was 96.83 and 91.73 percent. The literacy rate of the Palakkad Metropolitan Area is 92.14%, much higher than the national average of 59.5%.[29][30]

Hindus form 68% of the population with 89098 members.[28] Muslims constitute 27.9% of the population with 36620 members.[28] Christians constitute 3.8% of the population with 5006 members.[28]

Civic AdministrationEdit

Palakkad is a municipality with elected councilors from 52 Wards.[31] The municipality of Palakkad was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865. (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850).[32] The city is administrated by municipality and headed by Municipal Chairperson. The current Chairperson of Palakkad Municipality is K.Priya Ajayan and E. Krishnadas is the Deputy Chairman.

EconomyEdit

Stadium bypass, developing brand street
Growing Skyline of Palakkad city
Upcoming Shopping Mall in Kanjikode
Joby's Mall, first mall in Palakkad

The presence of Palakkad Gap and proximity to Coimbatore make Palakkad economically important. Palakkad city is one of the largest industrial hubs in Kerala. Kanjikode area of Palakkad city is the second industrial hub of Kerala after Kochi. Kanjikode is one of the largest industrial areas in Kerala and companies like Indian Telephone Industries Limited (ITI), Instrumentation Limited, Fluid Control Research Institute, Saint-Gobain India Private Limited (formerly SEPR Refractories India Private Limited), Patspin India Ltd, Pepsi, PPS steel (Kerala) Pvt Ltd, United breweries, Empee Distilleries, Marico, Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML), Rubfila International Ltd, Arya Vaidya Pharmacy have production facilities. The commercialization of Palakkad City is Picking up and growing at steady pace in recent years, Nowadays Palakkad City and the suburbs are witnessing rapid amount of commercial and public development activities. The developments are mainly concentrated on the bypass roads, Both Stadium and Calicut bypass roads passing through city are getting major commercial projects. Major national and international branded Retail chains, food Chains, Restaurants, Hotels, Shopping complexes, Textiles, branded jewellers, Vehicle Showrooms, are functioning in and around city. There are many housing colonies consist of Villas and apartments are also present in Palakkad City and suburbs.

GovernanceEdit

On 3 July 1866, the Governor of Madras declared Palakkad as a city.[33] On 11 September 1912, the system of electing the city father by the councillors began.[33] City Council expanded to 28 wards in 1938, 32 wards in 1973 and 36 wards in 1978.[33]

Proposed Palakkad Municipal CorporationEdit

The metropolitan area of Palakkad includes Hemambikanagar, Marutharode, Palakkad Municipality, Pirayiri, Pudussery West, Pudussery Central and Puthupariyaram.[30] Its urban / metropolitan population is 293,566 of which 143,650 are males and 149,916 are females. There is demand to upgrade Palakkad Municipality into a Municipal Corporation by adding the Outgrowth areas and nearby Urban Local bodies to the Palakkad Corporation.

Palakkad TalukEdit


Education in PalakkadEdit

IIT Palakkad, Ahalia Integrated Campus(Temporary Campus)

Palakkad City has number of Prominent Educational Institutions which provide a great platform for higher education. Government Victoria College, Palakkad was established in the year 1866, making it one of the oldest institution of higher learning in Palakkad.

Palakkad city is home to the only Indian Institute of Technology in the state of Kerala. The Indian Institute of Technology was founded in 2015, the campus currently functions in two campuses-temporary and the Nila campus which are separated by 13 km.

[35]IIT Palakkad[36]]s a public autonomous engineering and research institute located in Palakkad, Kerala. It is one of the five new IITs proposed in the 2014 Union budget of India.

Government Medical College, Palakkad[37] is started in 2014 is the first Government medical college in the district. is the first medical college in country under the Kerala State Scheduled caste Development Department.

NSS College of Engineering[38] at Akathethara, is the Fourth Engineering Institution established in Kerala, India. It was founded in 1960 by Nair Service Society. The college is one among the only three Govt-Aided Engineering college in Kerala and the first Govt-Aided Engineering college accredited by NBA of AICTE.

Chembai Memorial Government Music College[39] is one of the main center of excellence in teaching Carnatic music in the state. It was given the name of the legendary Carnatic musician Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavathar from Palakkad.

Mercy College, Palakkad[40] a women's college established in 1964 was the first Women's college in the Palakkad District. The college is organized by the University Grants Commission.

Prominent People from PalakkadEdit

Arts and cultureEdit

The Thirunellai suburb of Palakkad is known its festivals and heritage village. The village is mentioned during a minor incident in the Ramayana.

MediaEdit

Some of the major Malayalam and English newspapers from Kerala including Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Deshabhimani, Suprabhaatham Daily, and The Hindu have printing centers in city and there are also few evening newspapers published from the city. Local news channels like (ACV) are also functioning in city . Palakkad Press Club is located on Robinson road, Sultanpet. A private FM Station operating in Palakkad at Ahalya Campus. There is a long term demand for setting up a government FM Station in Palakkad. At the present total number of 8 cinema halls are operational in Palakkad which screens Malayalam, English, Tamil, and Hindi movies, there are few other multiplex screens are under construction and expect to open near future in and around city.

Sports in PalakkadEdit

Palakkad has a rich history of producing some world class athletes in the state, Palakkad, Indira Gandhi Municipal Stadium in the center of city was once used for Major sports meets and football matches in state, now the stadium is not in condition for conducting games due to the lack of maintenance, There is a proposal for the renovation of the stadium with international facilities by the Municipality, [41] The city has Fort Maidan[42] also known as Kota Maidanam, is a multi-use stadium in the center of the Palakkad, India. It is currently used mostly for cricket matches. Fort Maidan holds a maximum capacity of 10,000 people at a time. Up till 2002 the ground was considered for local cricket only.[43] In 2003, Ranji Trophy was introduced in Fort Maidan. The city has an indoor stadium[44] located near Government Victoria College, Palakkad with a total area of 1 Lakh Sq.ft with commercial establishments is still unfinished & incomplete. There is a Synthetic Track with Eight lines operational in the ground of the Government Medical College, Palakkad.[45]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  22. ^ Fact sheet on Indian dams at Diehardindian.com Archived 2006-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
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  38. ^ Official website
  39. ^ "借金SOS | Just another WordPress site".
  40. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). www.universityofcalicut.info. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  42. ^ "Fort Maidan | India | Cricket Grounds | ESPNcricinfo.com".
  43. ^ "The Home of CricketArchive".
  44. ^ "Palakkad Indoor Stadium".
  45. ^ "Synthetic track for Palakkad". The Hindu. 7 September 2015.

External linksEdit