Palakkad

Palakkad,(Malayalam: [pɐːlɐkːɐːɖɨ̆] (About this soundlisten)), also known as Palghat, is a city and municipality in the state of Kerala in India. It is spread over an area of 26.60 square kilometres (10.27 sq mi). It is the administrative headquarters of the Palakkad District. The city is situated about 350 kilometres (220 mi) north of state capital Thiruvananthapuram, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, 66 kilometres (41 mi) northeast of Thrissur, and 127 kilometres (79 mi) southest of Kozhikode, on the meeting point of two National Highways namely, Salem-Kochi National Highway NH 544, and Kozhikode-Malappuram-Palakkad National Highway NH 966. Palakkad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala. The 18th-century Palakkad Fort has sturdy battlements, a moat, and a Hanuman temple on its grounds. North on the Kalpathy River, the 15th-century Viswanatha Swamy Temple is the main venue of the Ratholsavam chariot festival. Northeast, near Malampuzha Dam, the town of Malampuzha has a rock garden created from recycled materials. The river Bharathappuzha (River Ponnani) flows through Palakkad city.[3] Palakkad is located on the northern bank of Bharathappuzha River.[3]

Palakkad

Palghat
From top clockwise: IMA Junction,Near KSRTC Bus Stand,Chandranagar roundabout, Aerial view from Olavakode, Palakkad City Night View
From top clockwise: IMA Junction,Near KSRTC Bus Stand,Chandranagar roundabout, Aerial view from Olavakode, Palakkad City Night View
Palakkad is located in Kerala
Palakkad
Palakkad
Palakkad is located in India
Palakkad
Palakkad
Palakkad is located in Asia
Palakkad
Palakkad
Palakkad is located in Earth
Palakkad
Palakkad
Coordinates: 10°46′30″N 76°39′04″E / 10.775°N 76.651°E / 10.775; 76.651Coordinates: 10°46′30″N 76°39′04″E / 10.775°N 76.651°E / 10.775; 76.651
Country India
State Kerala
DistrictPalakkad
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyPalakkad Municipality
 • ChairpersonK.Priya Ajayan (BJP)
 • Deputy ChairmanE. Krishnadas (BJP)
 • Member of ParliamentV. K. Sreekandan (INC)
 • Member of Legislative AssemblyShafi Parambil (INC)
Area
 • City26.60 km2 (10.27 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,363 km2 (526 sq mi)
Elevation
84 m (276 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • City130,955
 • Density4,900/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro293,533
Demonym(s)Palakkadan
Language
 • OfficialMalayalam
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
678 XXX
Area code(s)+91-(0)491
Vehicle registrationKL-09
ClimateAm/Aw (Köppen)
Websitewww.palakkadmunicipality.in/en

Palakkad municipality was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)[4][5][6][7] of the British Indian Empire, making it the second oldest municipality in the state.

EtymologyEdit

The commonly held belief is that the name Palakkad is a fusion of two Malayalam words: Pāla, which is local name for blackboard tree (Alstonia scholaris), and Kātŭ, which means forest.[8]

HistoryEdit

 
Palakkad Fort was captured and rebuilt grantly by Mysore Sultan Hyder Ali in 1766 CE

The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the Malabar Coast and Tamil Nadu.[9] Palakkad city was ruled by the Palakkad Rajas (Tarur Swaroopam).[10] Palakkad Raja had the right over the Taluks of Palakkad, Alathur, and Chittur.[10] The original headquarters of Palakkad Rajas were at Athavanad, Tirur Taluk, in present-day Malappuram district.[10] It is said that their lands at Athavanad area were given to the Azhvanchery Thamprakkal and the Palakkad-Chittur areas were bought from them instead.[10] The territory of Palakkad Rajas had been under the Zamorin of Calicut for a long time.[10]

In 1757, to resist the invasion of the Zamorin of Kozhikode, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of the Hyder Ali of Mysore.[11] In 1766, Hyder Ali defeated the Zamorin of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode into his state.[11] The Hyder Ali rebuilt Palakkad Fort in 1766.[12] The smaller princely states in northern and north-central parts of Kerala (Malabar region) including Kolathunadu, Kottayam, Kadathanadu, Kozhikode, Tanur, Valluvanad, and Palakkad were unified under the rulers of Mysore and were made a part of the larger Kingdom of Mysore.[13] His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.[14][15]

Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar District and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s as a result of the Third Anglo-Mysore War and the subsequent Treaty of Seringapatam; both were annexed to the Bombay Presidency (which had also included other regions in the western coast of India) of British India in the years 1792 and 1799 respectively.[16][17][18] Later in 1800, both of the Malabar District and South Canara were separated from Bombay presidency to merge them with the neighbouring Madras Presidency.[12] Palakkad was under British Raj until 1947.

At the time of 1951 Census of India, Palakkad was the second-largest city in the erstwhile Malabar District after Kozhikode.[19] At that time only two towns in Malabar was treated as cities: Kozhikode and Palakkad.[19] Following the formation of the state of Kerala in 1956, the erstwhile Taluk of Palakkad in Malabar District was divided into three: Palakkad, Alathur, and Chittur, and Palakkad district was formed by taking parts of erstwhile Malabar District.[12]

GeographyEdit

 
Topography map-Palakkad (Palghat)

Palakkad is the gateway to Kerala due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap in the Western Ghats. Malayalam is the official language in Palakkad. The district has many small and medium rivers, which are tributaries of the Bharathapuzha River. Of the numerous dams in Palakkad district, the largest Malampuzha dam is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from Palakkad city.[20]

ClimateEdit

Palakkad has a tropical wet and dry climate. Temperatures remain moderate throughout the year, with the exception being March and April, the hottest months. A very high amount of precipitation is received in Palakkad, mainly due to the South-West monsoon. July is the wettest month, and the total annual rainfall is around 83 inches (210 cm).

Climate data for Palakkad (1981–2010, extremes 1943–2005)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.6
(99.7)
40.0
(104.0)
41.4
(106.5)
41.8
(107.2)
41.2
(106.2)
40.4
(104.7)
33.6
(92.5)
33.8
(92.8)
35.8
(96.4)
36.2
(97.2)
38.0
(100.4)
36.6
(97.9)
41.8
(107.2)
Average high °C (°F) 32.7
(90.9)
35.2
(95.4)
37.3
(99.1)
36.6
(97.9)
34.5
(94.1)
29.9
(85.8)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.4
(86.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.5
(88.7)
32.4
(90.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
22.4
(72.3)
24.1
(75.4)
25.0
(77.0)
24.8
(76.6)
23.2
(73.8)
22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.3
(72.1)
23.2
(73.8)
Record low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
19.0
(66.2)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
15.8
(60.4)
16.1
(61.0)
14.0
(57.2)
14.0
(57.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 3.6
(0.14)
3.6
(0.14)
15.7
(0.62)
61.3
(2.41)
125.1
(4.93)
410.6
(16.17)
453.2
(17.84)
290.3
(11.43)
154.9
(6.10)
196.1
(7.72)
102.3
(4.03)
21.3
(0.84)
1,838
(72.36)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 0.9 3.3 5.9 18.7 20.0 15.8 9.2 10.1 4.7 0.9 90.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 46 39 38 52 60 79 82 81 75 73 65 56 61
Source: India Meteorological Department[21][22]

TransportEdit

AirEdit

The nearest international airport is Coimbatore International Airport, which is about 62 kilometres (39 mi) from Palakkad. However, Cochin International Airport and Calicut International Airport serve the city as well.

There has been a proposal for a mini domestic airport at East Yakkara with respect to setting up domestic airports for enhanced air connectivity by the civil aviation ministry of India. 60 acres has been identified for the project at East Yakkara Palakkad.[23]

RailwaysEdit

 
BEM School Junction, Palakkad
 
Olavakkode Railway Station, palakkad

Palakkad is the HQ of the Palakkad Railway Division of Southern Railway Zone. The city is served by two railway stations – Palakkad Junction is a broad gauge railway junction (located at Olavakkode, about 4 km from Municipal bus stand) and Palakkad Town railway station located in the heart of the Palakkad city. The cities of Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Erode, Salem, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Ernakulam are connected by the broad gauge line. Train services to Pollachi, Dindigul and Madurai are through the broad gauge line through Palakkad Town station.[24]

RoadEdit

 
Stadium bypass road, Palakkkad

The National Highway 544 from Salem to Ernakulam via Coimbatore, Palakkad and Thrissur – Kozhikode National Highway 966 via Malappuram merges with NH 544 in the city.[25]

DemographicsEdit

Religions in palakkad
Religion Percent
Hindus
68%
Muslims
27.9%
Christians
3.8%
Others
0.3%

As per Census 2011, population of Palakkad in 2011 is 130,955; of which male and female are 63,833 and 67,122 respectively.[26]

Total literates in Palakkad city are 112,479, of which 56,065 are males while 56,414 are females. The average literacy rate of Palakkad city is 94.20 percent of which male and female literacy was 96.83 and 91.73 percent.The literacy rate of the Palakkad Metropolitan Area is 92.14%, much higher than the national average of 59.5%.[27][28]

Hindus form 68% of the population with 89098 members.[26] Muslims constitute 27.9% of the population with 36620 members.[26] Christians constitute 3.8% of the population with 5006 members.[26]

GovernanceEdit

On 3 July 1866, the Governor of Madras declared Palakkad as a city.[29] On 11 September 1912, the system of electing the city father by the councillors began.[29] City Council expanded to 28 wards in 1938, 32 wards in 1973 and 36 wards in 1978.[29]

Proposed Palakkad Municipal CorporationEdit

The metropolitan area of Palakkad includes Hemambikanagar, Marutharode, Palakkad municipality, Pirayiri, Pudussery Central, Pudussery West, and Puthuppariyaram.[28] Its urban / metropolitan population is 293,566 of which 143,650 are males and 149,916 are females. There is demand to upgrade Palakkad Municipality into a Municipal Corporation by adding the Outgrowth areas and nearby Urban Local bodies to the Palakkad Corporation.

 
Municipal Office Palakkad
  • Palakkad Municipality
  • Hemambikanagar
  • Piriyari Grama Panchayath
  • Marutharoad Panchayth
  • Puduppariyaram Panchayath
  • Pudussery Central
  • Pudussery West
  • Mathur Panchayath
  • Kodumba Panchayath
  • Kannadi (Urban areas only)
  • Akathethara (Urban areas only)
  • Malampuzha (excluding rural and forest areas)[30]
 
Palakkad City from Kunnathurmedu
 
A Shopping mall in Palakkad City
 
Big Bazzar Palakkad

Palakkad TalukEdit


Education in PalakkadEdit

Palakkad City has number of Prominent Educational Institutions which provide a great platform for higher education., IIT Palakkad[31]]s a public autonomous engineering and research institute located in Palakkad, Kerala. It is one of the five new IITs proposed in the 2014 Union budget of India. Victoria College in Palakkad is the oldest institution of higher learning in the Malabar region of Kerala. Government Medical College, Palakkad[32] is started in 2014 is the first Government medical college in the district.NSS College of Engineering[33] at Akathethara, is the Fourth Engineering Institution established in Kerala, India.Chembai Memorial Government Music College[34] is one of the main centres of excellence in teaching carnatic music in the state. Mercy College, Palakkad[35] a women's college established in 1964 is one of the familiar institution in city.

Prominent People from PalakkadEdit

Sports in PalakkadEdit

Palakkad has a very rich history of producing some world class athletes in the state, Palakkad, Indira Gandhi Municipal Stadium in the center of city was once used for Major sports meets and football matches in state, now the stadium is not in condition for conducting games due to the lack of maintenance, There is a proposal for the renovation of the stadium with international facilities by the Municipality ,[36] The city has Fort Maidan[37] also known as Kota Maidanam, is a multi-use stadium in the center of the Palakkad, India. It is currently used mostly for cricket matches. Fort Maidan holds a maximum capacity of 10,000 people at a time. Up till 2002 the ground was considered for local cricket only.[38] In 2003, Ranji Trophy was introduced in Fort Maidan.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Thiruvananthapuram Corporation General Information". Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK PALAKKAD - 2011 (Part XII-B) (PDF). Thiruvananthapuram: Directorate of Census Operations, Kerala. 2011.
  4. ^ "CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF CENTRAL ACTS (Updated up to 17-10-2014)". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  5. ^ Lewis McIver, G. Stokes (1883). Imperial Census of 1881 Operations and Results in the Presidency of Madras ((Vol II) ed.). Madras: E.Keys at the Government Press. p. 444. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  6. ^ Presidency, Madras (India (1915). Madras District Gazetteers, Statistical Appendix For Malabar District (Vol.2 ed.). Madras: The Superintendent, Government Press. p. 20. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  7. ^ HENRY FROWDE, M.A., Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908–1909). Imperial Gazetteer of India (New ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 2 December 2020.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  8. ^ A. Sreedhara Menon (1978). Kerala Samskāram. DC Books. p. 237. ISBN 9788126415854.
  9. ^ Subramanian, T. S (28 January 2007). "Roman connection in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  10. ^ a b c d e Shreedhara Menon, A (2007). 'Kerala Charitram. Kottayam: DC Books. pp. 200–201. ISBN 9788126415885.
  11. ^ a b K. V. Krishna Iyer (1938), Zamorins of Calicut: From the earliest times to AD 1806, Norman Printing Bureau, Kozhikode
  12. ^ a b c A Survey of Kerala History, A. Shreedhara Menon
  13. ^ Raghunath Rai. History. FK Publications. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-87139-69-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  14. ^ British Museum; Anna Libera Dallapiccola (22 June 2010). South Indian Paintings: A Catalogue of the British Museum Collection. Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-7141-2424-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  15. ^ Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe; Thorpe Edgar. The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  16. ^ The Edinburgh Gazetteer. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. 1827. pp. 63–. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  17. ^ Dharma Kumar (1965). Land and Caste in South India: Agricultural Labor in the Madras Presidency During the Nineteenth Century. CUP Archive. pp. 87–. GGKEY:T72DPF9AZDK. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  18. ^ K.P. Ittaman (1 June 2003). History of Mughal Architecture Volume Ii. Abhinav Publications. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-81-7017-034-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  19. ^ a b 1951 census handbook - Malabar district (PDF). Chennai: Government of Madras. 1953.
  20. ^ Fact sheet on Indian dams at Diehardindian.com Archived 2006-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Station: Palakkad (Palghat) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 581–582. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  22. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  23. ^ "60 Acres Identified For Airport Project". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011.
  24. ^ "Train services resume on Pollachi – Palakkad section". Coimbatore. The Hindu. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  25. ^ "National Highways and their lengths" Archived 6 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-01/DDW32C-01%20MDDS.XLS
  27. ^ "Palakkad – Census of India". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  28. ^ a b "Palakkad Urban Region". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  29. ^ a b c "ആമുഖം | Palakkad Municipality". 30 December 2019. Archived from the original on 30 December 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  30. ^ https://i.postimg.cc/MHwqnmBg/19-2-19p1.jpg
  31. ^ https://iitpkd.ac.in/
  32. ^ http://www.gmcpalakkad.in/
  33. ^ Official website
  34. ^ http://www.cmgmusiccollege.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19&Itemid=27
  35. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20170916095650/http://www.universityofcalicut.info/affiliated_colleges/2016_Affiliated_Colleges_and_courses_latest_list_on24May2016.pdf
  36. ^ https://english.mathrubhumi.com/sports/sports-news/palakkad-municipal-stadium-turns-into-dump-yard-covered-with-weeds-1.3209529
  37. ^ https://www.espncricinfo.com/india/content/ground/58364.html
  38. ^ https://cricketarchive.com/Archive/Grounds/14/1962.html

External linksEdit