List of chief ministers of Tamil Nadu

The Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu is the chief executive of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[2]

Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Tamiḻnāṭu Mutalamaiccar
TamilNadu Logo.svg
Flag of India.svg
Hon CM Photo.jpg
Incumbent
M. K. Stalin

since 7 May 2021
Chief Minister's Office
StyleThe Honourable (Formal)
Mr./Mrs. Chief Minister (Informal)
StatusHead of Government
AbbreviationCM
Member of
Reports to
Residence25/9, Chittaranjan Road, Cenotaph Road, Alwarpet, Chennai – 600018, Tamil Nadu, India
SeatSecretariat of Tamil Nadu, Chennai
AppointerGovernor of Tamil Nadu by convention based on appointees ability to command confidence in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
Term lengthAt the pleasure of the governor
Legislative Assembly term 5 years unless dissolved sooner
no term limits specified
Inaugural holder
Formation
DeputyDeputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Websitewww.tn.gov.in

Since 1952, Tamil Nadu has had 11 chief ministers, 12 including V. R. Nedunchezhiyan who twice acted in the role. A majority of them belonged to the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party. The longest-serving chief minister, M. Karunanidhi from Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam held the office for over eighteen years in multiple tenure, while he was the one who had the largest gap between two terms (nearly thirteen years). The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam's J. Jayalalithaa has the second-longest tenure and the party's founder M. G. Ramachandran, the first actor to become the chief minister in India has the third-longest tenure, while his wife V. N. Janaki Ramachandran has the shortest tenure (only 23 days). One chief minister, K. Kamaraj, resigned his post and devoted all his energy for the revitalization of the Indian National Congress party, he was responsible for the elevation of Lal Bahadur Shastri to the position of Prime Minister of India after Nehru's death and Indira Gandhi after Shastri's death. while another, C. Rajagopalachari, served as the last Governor-General of India. There have been four instances of president's rule in Tamil Nadu, most recently in 1991.[3][4]

The current incumbent is M. K. Stalin of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam since 7 May 2021.

List of chief ministers of Madras PresidencyEdit

The Madras Presidency, headquartered in Fort St. George, India, was a province of British India that comprised present day Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region of North Kerala, the coastal and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts of Karnataka. It was established in 1653 to be the headquarters of the English settlements on the Coromandel Coast.

The territory under the presidency comprised only Madraspatnam and surrounding regions. But, after the Anglo-French wars and the consequent alliance between the English East India Company and the Nawab of Arcot, it was expanded to comprise the region from Northern Circars to Cape Comorin. The governance structure also evolved from a modest secretariat with a single secretary for the Public Department in 1670 to six departments overseen by a chief secretary by 1920.

The Indian Councils Act 1861 set up the Madras Legislative Council as an advisory body, without powers, through which the colonial administration obtained advice and assistance from able and willing Indian business leaders. But membership was selected (not elected) and not representative of the masses.

With the enactment of Government of India Act 1919, the first legislature was formed in 1920 after general elections.[5] The term of the legislative council was three years. It had 132 members of whom 34 were nominated by the governor and the rest were elected. Under the Government of India Act 1935, a bicameral legislature was set up with a legislative assembly consisting of 215 members and a legislative council having 56 members. The first legislative assembly under this act was constituted in July 1937. The legislative council was a permanent body with a third of its members retiring every 3 years with power to decide on bills passed by the assembly[6]

In 1939, the British government declared India's entrance into World War II without consulting provincial governments. The Indian National Congress protested by asking all its elected representatives to resign from the governments.[7] Congress came back to power in 1946 after new provincial elections.[8]

The state of Tamil Nadu in India has an electorate of more than 70 million people (7 crores)[9]
Madras Presidency in 1909 showing in southern portion of India
Since 1920, Fort St. George is the
Chief Secretariat of Tamil Nadu
S.No.[a] Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Constituency Political Party[b] Term of office[10] Appointed by Legislative Council Election
From To Days in office
1 A. Subbarayalu Reddiar
(1855–1921)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 17 December 1920 11 July 1921[RES] 1st
(206 days)
Frederic Thesiger 1st
2   Panaganti Ramarayaningar
(1866–1928)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 11 July 1921 11 September 1923 1st
(2 years, 62 days)
Rufus Isaacs
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 19 November 1923 3 December 1926 2nd
(3 years, 14 days)
2nd
3   P. Subbarayan
(1889–1962)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Unaffiliated 4 December 1926 27 October 1930 1st
(3 years, 327 days)
Edward Wood 3rd
4   B. Munuswamy Naidu
(1885–1935)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 27 October 1930 4 November 1932[RES] 1st
(2 years, 8 days)
Edward Wood 4th
5   Ramakrishna Ranga Rao
(1901–1978)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 5 November 1932 5 November 1934 1st
(2 years, 0 days)
Freeman Freeman-Thomas
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 5 November 1934 4 April 1936[RES] 2nd
(1 year, 151 days)
5th
6   P. T. Rajan
(1892–1974)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 4 April 1936 24 August 1936[RES] 1st
(142 days)
(5)   Ramakrishna Ranga Rao
(1901–1978)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council South Indian Liberal Federation 24 August 1936 1 April 1937 3rd
(220 days)
Victor Hope
7   Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu
(1875–1942)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Unaffiliated[11][12][13][14] 1 April 1937 14 July 1937[RES] 1st
(104 days)
1st
8   C. Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Indian National Congress 14 July 1937 29 October 1939[RES] 1st
(2 years, 107 days)
  Governor's Rule[15] N/A 29 October 1939 30 April 1946 (6 years, 183 days)
9   T. Prakasam
(1872–1957)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Indian National Congress 30 April 1946 23 March 1947[RES] 1st
(327 days)
Archibald Wavell 2nd
10   Omanthur P. Ramaswamy Reddiar
(1895–1970)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Indian National Congress 23 March 1947 6 April 1949[RES] 1st
(2 years, 14 days)
Archibald Nye
11   P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja
(1898–1957)
Leader of Madras Presidency Legislative Council Indian National Congress 6 April 1949 26 January 1950 1st
(295 days)
Krishna Kumarsinhji Bhavsinhji
Key
  • Assassinated or died in office
  • RES Resigned

TimelineEdit

P. S. Kumaraswamy RajaO. P. Ramaswamy ReddiyarT. PrakasamC. RajagopalachariKurma Venkata Reddy NaiduRamakrishna Ranga RaoP. T. RajanRamakrishna Ranga RaoB. Munuswamy NaiduP. SubbarayanPanaganti RamarayaningarA. Subbarayalu Reddiar

Chief Ministers of Madras StateEdit

Map of southern India showing the Madras State in yellow before the reorganisation of 1956
Map of India showing the Madras State after the reorganisation of 1956

Madras State precursor to the present day state of Tamil Nadu, was created after India became a republic on 26 January 1950.[16] It comprised present-day Tamil Nadu and parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala. The first legislature of the Madras State to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage was constituted on 1 March 1952, after the general elections held in January 1952.[17]

The state was split up along linguistic lines in 1953, carving out Andhra State. Under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the States of Kerala, and Mysore were carved out of Madras state. Under the implementation of the Andhra Pradesh and Madras Alteration of Boundaries Act, 1959, with effect from 1 April 1960, Tirutani taluk and Pallipattu sub-taluk of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh were transferred to Madras in exchange for territories from the Chingelput and Salem districts.[5][18]

On 1 October 1953, a separate Andhra State consisting of the Telugu speaking areas, of the composite Madras State was formed and the Kannada speaking area of Ballari district was also merged with the then Mysore State with effect from the above date and as a consequence, the strength of the assembly was reduced to 231. The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 came into effect from 1 November 1956 and consequently the constituencies in the erstwhile Malabar districts were merged with the Kerala State and as a consequence the strength of the Assembly was further reduced to 190. The Tamil speaking area of Kerala (the present Kanniyakumari District) and Sengottai taluk were added to Madras State. Subsequently, according to the new Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 1956, made by the Delimitation Commission of India under the provisions of the State Reorganization Act, 1956, the strength of the Madras Legislative Assembly was raised to 205 distributed in 167 territorial constituencies, 37 two-member constituencies in each of which a seat had been reserved for Scheduled Castes and 1 two-member constituency in which a seat had been reserved for Scheduled Tribes.

On 1 April 1957, after the general elections, held in March 1957 consisted of 205 elected Members besides one nominated member. During the term of the Assembly in 1959, as result of the adjustment of boundaries between Andhra Pradesh and Madras Alteration of Boundaries Act, 1959, one member from the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly was allotted to Madras and consequently the strength of the Madras Assembly was increased to 206. During 1961, by the Two-Member Constituencies (Abolition) Act, 1961, the 38 double-member Constituencies were abolished and an equal number of single-member constituencies were reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. However, there was no change in the strength of territorial constituencies in Madras Assembly which had remained as 206.

On 3 March 1962, after the general elections held in 1962. The strength of the assembly continued to be 206. By the delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 1965, the number of territorial constituencies in Madras was increased to 234, out of which forty-two seats were reserved for Scheduled Castes and two seats for Scheduled Tribes besides one member to be nominated from the Anglo-Indian Community under Article 333 of the Constitution of India.

Colour key for party of the chief ministers
Other key
  • Assassinated or died in office
  • RES Resigned
S.No.[a] Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Constituency Political Party[b] Term of office[10] Appointed by Legislative Assembly Election
From To Days in office
1   P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja
(1898–1957)
Leader of Madras State Legislative Council Indian National Congress 27 January 1950 9 April 1952 1st
(2 years, 73 days)
Krishna Kumarsinhji Bhavsinhji 2nd
2   C. Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
Leader of Madras State Legislative Council Indian National Congress 10 April 1952 13 April 1954[RES] 2nd
(2 years, 3 days)
Sri Prakasa 1st
3   K. Kamaraj
(1903–1975)
Gudiyatham Indian National Congress 13 April 1954 31 March 1957 1st
(2 years, 352 days)
Sri Prakasa
Sattur 13 April 1957 1 March 1962 2nd
(4 years, 322 days)
A. J. John 2nd
15 March 1962 2 October 1963[RES] 3rd
(1 year, 201 days)
Bishnuram Medhi 3rd
4   M. Bhakthavatsalam
(1897–1987)
Sriperumbudur Indian National Congress 2 October 1963 28 February 1967 1st
(3 years, 149 days)
Bishnuram Medhi
5   C. N. Annadurai
(1909–1969)
Leader of Madras State Legislative Council Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 6 March 1967 13 January 1969 1st
(1 year, 313 days)
Sardar Ujjal Singh 4th

TimelineEdit

C. N. AnnaduraiM. BhakthavatsalamK. KamarajC. RajagopalachariP. S. Kumaraswamy Raja

Chief Ministers of Tamil NaduEdit

Map of Tamil Nadu showing districts after some bifurcation of districts in the state
Map of India showing Tamil Nadu after some bifurcation of states in the country

Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu (Tamil for Tamil Country) on 14 January 1969.[citation needed] The legislative assembly adopted a resolution on 14 May 1986, to abolish the legislative council. Thereafter, the legislative council was abolished through an act of Parliament named the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council (Abolition) Act, 1986[19] with effect from 1 November 1986. The state legislature is unicameral, and consists of 235 members including one nominated member.[6]

The chief minister commands most of the executive powers while the governor has a largely ceremonial role. The chief minister of Tamil Nadu, like other chief ministers of India, is elected by legislators of the political party or the coalition which commands a simple majority in the legislative assembly. The tenure of the chief minister extends as long as he or she enjoys the confidence of the assembly. The incumbent shall vacate the office in the event of a successful motion of no confidence. Also, the President of India, acting under the recommendations of the cabinet of ministers of the Government of India, can dismiss an elected government using certain provisions of Article 356 of the Constitution of India. In 1976, M. Karunanidhi's government was dismissed and president's rule was imposed on the grounds of corruption.[20] If a vacancy is caused to the office of the chief minister due to death, demitting, or dismissal, the governor can invite another person to form the government and request him or her to move a confidence-seeking motion in the assembly. In the event of no one enjoying majority support, the assembly is either dissolved or put in suspended animation and the state comes under president's rule or a caretaker government until fresh elections are held for the assembly. The incumbent shall be disqualified if convicted of a criminal offence with a jail sentence of two years or more. In 2014, J. Jayalalithaa lost her post due to a special court sentencing her to four years of prison term in the disproportionate assets case.[21]

Change in nomenclature

During the term of fourth assembly on 18 July 1967, the house by a resolution unanimously adopted and recommended that steps be taken by the State Government to secure necessary amendment to the Constitution of India to change the name of Madras State as Tamil Nadu. Accordingly, the Madras State (Alteration of Name) Act, 1968 (Central Act 53 of 1968) was passed by the Parliament of India and came into force on 14 January 1969.[22] Consequently, the nomenclature Madras Legislative Assembly was changed into Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. From 1967 onward, the strength of the assembly continued to remain as 234 besides a nominated member.[6]

From 1952 to 1986, the state have a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. On 14 May 1986, the state government passed resolution to abolish the legislative council in the state then was moved and adopted by the house. On 1 November 1986, Tamil Nadu became an unicameral legislature and since then several times the state government has taken steps to reconstitute the legislative council, but they have failed for so long. Tamil Nadu Legislative Council has not been constituted till date in the state.

No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Constituency Political Party[b] Term of office[10] Assembly
(Election)
Ministry Appointed by
1   C. N. Annadurai
(1909–1969)
Leader of the State Legislative Council Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 14 January 1969 3 February 1969[†] 20 days 4th
(1967 election)
Annadurai Sardar Ujjal Singh
Acting   V. R. Nedunchezhiyan
(1920–2000)
Triplicane Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 3 February 1969 10 February 1969[RES] 7 days Nedunchezhiyan I
2   M. Karunanidhi
(1924–2018)
Saidapet Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 10 February 1969 14 March 1971 6 years, 355 days Karunanidhi I
15 March 1971 31 January 1976 5th
(1971 election)
Karunanidhi II
  Vacant
(President's rule)
N/A 31 January 1976 29 June 1977 1 year, 149 days Dissolved N/A
3   M. G. Ramachandran
(1917–1987)
Aruppukottai All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 30 June 1977 17 February 1980 2 years, 232 days 6th
(1977 election)
Ramachandran I Prabhudas Patwari
  Vacant
(President's rule)
N/A 17 February 1980 8 June 1980 112 days Dissolved N/A
(3)   M. G. Ramachandran
(1917–1987)
Madurai West All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 9 June 1980[§] 9 February 1985 7 years, 198 days 7th
(1980 election)
Ramachandran II Prabhudas Patwari
Andipatti 10 February 1985 24 December 1987[†] 8th
(1984 election)
Ramachandran III Sundar Lal Khurana
Acting   V. R. Nedunchezhiyan
(1920–2000)
Athoor All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 24 December 1987 7 January 1988[RES] 14 days Nedunchezhiyan II
4   V. N. Janaki Ramachandran
(1923–1996)
Did not contest All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 7 January 1988 30 January 1988 23 days Janaki
  Vacant
(President's rule)
N/A 30 January 1988 26 January 1989 362 days Dissolved N/A
(2)   M. Karunanidhi
(1924–2018)
Harbour Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 27 January 1989[§] 30 January 1991 2 years, 3 days 9th
(1989 election)
Karunanidhi III P. C. Alexander
  Vacant
(President's rule)
N/A 30 January 1991 23 June 1991 144 days Dissolved N/A
5   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
Bargur All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 24 June 1991 12 May 1996 4 years, 323 days 10th
(1991 election)
Jayalalithaa I Bhishma Narain Singh
(2)   M. Karunanidhi
(1924–2018)
Chepauk Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 13 May 1996[§] 13 May 2001 5 years, 0 days 11th
(1996 election)
Karunanidhi IV Marri Chenna Reddy
(5)   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
Did not contest All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 14 May 2001[§] 21 September 2001[RES] 130 days 12th
(2001 election)
Jayalalithaa II Fathima Beevi
6   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
Periyakulam All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 21 September 2001 2 March 2002[RES] 162 days Panneerselvam I C. Rangarajan
(5)   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
Andipatti All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 2 March 2002[§] 12 May 2006 4 years, 71 days Jayalalithaa III P. S. Ramamohan Rao
(2)   M. Karunanidhi
(1924–2018)
Chepauk Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 13 May 2006[§] 15 May 2011 5 years, 2 days 13th
(2006 election)
Karunanidhi V Surjit Singh Barnala
(5)   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
Srirangam All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 16 May 2011[§] 27 September 2014 3 years, 134 days 14th
(2011 election)
Jayalalithaa IV
(6)   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
Bodinayakkanur All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 28 September 2014[§] 23 May 2015[RES] 237 days Panneerselvam II Konijeti Rosaiah
(5)   J. Jayalalithaa
(1948–2016)
Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 23 May 2015[§] 22 May 2016 1 year, 196 days Jayalalithaa V
23 May 2016 5 December 2016[†] 15th
(2016 election)
Jayalalithaa VI
(6)   O. Panneerselvam
(1951–)
Bodinayakkanur All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 5 December 2016[§] 15 February 2017[RES] 72 days Panneerselvam III C. Vidyasagar Rao
7   Edappadi K. Palaniswami
(1954–)
Edappadi All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 16 February 2017 6 May 2021 4 years, 79 days Palaniswami
8   M. K. Stalin
(1953–)
Kolathur Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 7 May 2021 Incumbent 163 days 16th
(2021 election)
Stalin Banwarilal Purohit
No. Portrait Name

(Birth–Death)

Elected Constituency Political Party Term of office Assembly
(Election)
Ministry Appointed by

StatisticsEdit

List of chief ministers by length of term
No. Name Party Length of term
Longest continuous term Total years of premiership
1 M. Karunanidhi DMK 6 years, 355 days 18 years, 360 days
2 J. Jayalalithaa AIADMK 4 years, 323 days 14 years, 124 days
3 M. G. Ramachandran AIADMK 7 years, 198 days 10 years, 65 days
4 K. Kamaraj INC 9 years, 172 days 9 years, 172 days
5 Edappadi K. Palaniswami AIADMK 4 years, 79 days 4 years, 79 days
6 M. Bhakthavatsalam INC 3 years, 154 days 3 years, 154 days
7 C. Rajagopalachari INC 2 years, 3 days 2 years, 3 days
8 C. N. Annadurai DMK 1 year, 334 days 1 year, 334 days
9 O. Panneerselvam AIADMK 237 days 1 year, 106 days
10 M. K. Stalin DMK 163 days 163 days
11 V. N. Janaki Ramachandran AIADMK 23 days 23 days
Acting V. R. Nedunchezhiyan AIADMK/DMK 14 days 21 days
Timeline
M. K. StalinEdappadi K. PalaniswamiO. PanneerselvamJ. JayalalithaaO. PanneerselvamJ. JayalalithaaM. KarunanidhiJ. JayalalithaaO. PanneerselvamJ. JayalalithaaM. KarunanidhiJ. JayalalithaaVacantM. KarunanidhiVacantV. N. Janaki RamachandranV. R. NedunchezhiyanM. G. RamachandranVacantM. G. RamachandranVacantM. KarunanidhiV. R. NedunchezhiyanC. N. AnnaduraiM. BhakthavatsalamK. KamarajC. Rajagopalachari
List by party
Political parties by total time-span of their member holding CMO (17 October 2021)
No. Political party Number of Chief ministers Total days of holding CMO
1 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 5+1 acting 11004 days
2 Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 3+1 acting 7803 days
3 Indian National Congress 3 5442 days
Parties by total duration (in days) of holding Chief Minister's Office
2,500
5,000
7,500
10,000
12,500
15,000
AIADMK
DMK
INC
M. K. StalinEdappadi K. PalaniswamiO. PanneerselvamJ. JayalalithaaV. N. Janaki RamachandranM. G. RamachandranM. KarunanidhiV. R. NedunchezhiyanC. N. AnnaduraiM. BhakthavatsalamK. KamarajC. Rajagopalachari

Living former chief ministersEdit

As of 17 October 2021, there are two living former chief ministers of Tamil Nadu:

The most recent death of a former chief minister was that of M. Karunanidhi on 7 August 2018, aged 94.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ a b c This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu since 1920". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  2. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Tamil Nadu as well.
  3. ^ Archive.org — Government of Tamil Nadu — Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu since 1920
  4. ^ Government of Tamil Nadu — Assemblies — An Overview Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b "Government of Tamil Nadu — Tamil Nadu Secretariat — Brief History".
  6. ^ a b c "Legislative bodies of India - Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly". Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2006.
  7. ^ "The Telegraph - Own Goal - Partition became inevitable once the Congress resigned in 1939".
  8. ^ "Pakistan - Toward Partition". www.country-data.com.
  9. ^ Mariappan, Julie (31 May 2013). "Tamil Nadu population rises to 7.2 crore in a decade". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  10. ^ a b c The ordinal number of the term being served by the person specified in the row in the corresponding period
  11. ^ Though Congress won the election, it refused to form the government as it did not like the governor's veto power over the cabinet. The governor of Madras, Lord Erskine, decided to form an interim provisional Government with non-members and opposition members of the Legislative Assembly. V. S. Srinivasa Sastri was first offered the chief ministership of the interim government but refused to accept it. Eventually an interim government was formed under Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu on 1 April 1937. It lasted until July, when the Congress accepted Viceroy Linlithgow's assurance that the veto would not be abused and decided to form the government.
  12. ^ Ramanathan, K. V. (2008). The Satyamurti letters: the Indian freedom struggle through the eyes of a parliamentarian, Volume 1. Pearson Education India. pp. 301–5. ISBN 9788131714881.
  13. ^ Menon, Visalakshi (2003). From movement to government: the Congress in the United Provinces, 1937-42. Sage. p. 75. ISBN 9780761996200.
  14. ^ Nagarajan, Krishnaswami (1989). Dr. Rajah Sir Muthiah Chettiar: a biography. Annamalai University. pp. 63–70.
  15. ^ Congress Ministries in all the provinces of British India resigned on 29 October 1939 protesting the viceroy's declaration of war against Germany. Madras Presidency remained under "the direct rule of the Governor of the Province" until the next elections were held in March 1946. (India (Failure of Constitutional Machinery) HC Deb 16 April 1946 vol 421 cc2586-92)
  16. ^ "Introduction to Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice of India. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  17. ^ Government of Tamil Nadu — The State Legislature — Origin and Evolution Archived 13 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Historical Importance of Kanchipuram Archived 18 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "The Tamil Nadu Legislative Council (Abolition) Act, 1986".
  20. ^ "The Hindu - Delhi's warning". Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2006.
  21. ^ "Jayalalitha is the first CM to lose post in a graft case". DNA India. 27 September 2014.
  22. ^ Sundari, Dr. S. (2007). Migrant women and urban labour market: concepts and case studies. p. 105. ISBN 9788176299664.

External linksEdit