Mohammad Masood Azhar Alvi[1] (born 10 July or 7 August 1968) is a radical Islamist and terrorist,[2][3] being the founder and leader of the Pakistan-based terrorist organisation Jaish-e-Mohammed, active mainly in the Pakistani-administered portion of the Kashmir region.[4] His actions are not limited to the South Asian region; for instance, BBC News described him as "the man who brought jihad to Britain."[5] On 1 May 2019, Masood Azhar was listed as an international terrorist by the United Nations Security Council.[1]

Masood Azhar
Birth nameMohammad Masood Azhar Alvi
Born (1968-07-10) 10 July 1968 (age 55)
Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
AllegianceHarkat-ul-Ansar, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, Jaish-e-Mohammad
RelationsAbdul Rauf Azhar (brother)

Early life

Azhar was born in Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan on 10 July 1968[6] (although some sources list his birth date as 7 August 1968[7]) as the third of 11 children—five sons and six daughters. Azhar's father, Allah Bakhsh Shabbir, was the headmaster at a government-run school as well as a cleric with Deobandi leanings and his family operated a dairy and poultry farm.[6][8]

Azhar dropped out of mainstream school after class 8 and joined the Jamia Uloom Islamic school, from where he graduated out in 1989 as an alim and was soon appointed as a teacher.[8] The madrasa was heavily involved with Harkat-ul-Ansar and Azhar was subsequently assumed under its folds, after being enrolled for a jihad training camp at Afghanistan.[6] Despite failing to complete the course; he joined the Soviet–Afghan War and retired after suffering injuries. Thereafter, he was chosen as the head of Harkat's department of motivation. He was also entrusted with the editorial responsibilities for the Urdu-language magazine Sad'e Mujahidin and the Arabic-language Sawte Kashmir.[7][6]

Azhar later became the general secretary of Harkat-ul-Ansar and visited many international locations to recruit, to raise funds and to spread the message of Pan-Islamism. Among his destinations were Zambia, Abu Dhabi, Saudi Arabia, Mongolia, the United Kingdom and Albania.[6]

Activities in Somalia

Azhar confessed that in 1993 he traveled to Nairobi, Kenya to meet with leaders of al-Itihaad al-Islamiya[citation needed], an al-Qaeda-aligned Somali group, who had requested money and recruits from Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM). Indian intelligence officials believe that he made at least three trips to Somalia and that he also helped bring Yemeni mercenaries to Somalia.[9]

Activities in the United Kingdom

In August 1993 Azhar entered the United Kingdom for a speaking, fundraising, and recruitment tour. His message of jihad was given at some of Britain's most prestigious Islamic institutions including the Darul Uloom Bury seminary, Zakariya Mosque, Madina Masjid in Blackburn and Burnley, and Jamia Masjid. His message was that "substantial proportion of the Koran had been devoted to 'killing for the sake of Allah' and that a substantial volume of sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad were on the issue of jihad." Azhar made contacts in Britain who helped to provide training and logistical support the terror plots including "7/7, 21/7 and the attempt in 2006 to smuggle liquid bomb-making substances on to transatlantic airlines."[10]


In 1993, the militant organisation Harkat-ul-Ansar was established and Masood served as its general secretary.[11] In 1998, U.S.'s Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in its report stated, "HuA, an Islamic extremist organisation that Pakistan supports in its proxy war against Indian forces in Kashmir, increasingly is using terrorist tactics against Westerners and random attacks on civilians that could involve Westerners to promote its pan-Islamic agenda." CIA also stated that Hua had abducted at least 13 persons of which 12 were from western countries in the period from early 1994 to 1998.[11]

Arrest in India

In early 1994, Azhar travelled to Srinagar under a fake identity, to ease tensions between Harkat-ul-Ansar's feuding factions of Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen.[6] India arrested him in February from Khanabal near Anantnag and imprisoned him for his terrorist activities with the groups.[9][6] On being arrested, he said "Soldiers of Islam have come from 12 countries to liberate Kashmir. We will answer your carbines with rocket launchers" [12] He was imprisoned at the Badami Bagh Cantonment in Srinagar, Tihar Jail in Delhi, and lastly the Kot Balwal Jail in Jammu (from where he would eventually be released).[13][14]

In July, 1995, six foreign tourists were kidnapped in Jammu and Kashmir. The kidnappers, referring to themselves as Al-Faran (a pseudonym of the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen),[15] included the release of Masood Azhar among their demands.[6] One of the hostages managed to escape whilst another was found in a decapitated state in August.[9] The others were never seen or heard from since 1995.[16][17] FBI had interrogated Azhar multiple times during his jail-stay on the locus of the kidnappings.[9]

Release after hijacking

Four years later, in December 1999, an Indian Airlines Flight 814 (IC814) en route from Kathmandu in Nepal to New Delhi was hijacked and eventually landed in Kandahar, Afghanistan after being flown to multiple locations. Kandahar at that time was controlled by the Taliban, which was supported by Pakistan's ISI. Masood Azhar was one of the three militants demanded to be released in exchange for freeing the hostages. Subsequently, Azhar was freed by the Indian government in a decision criticised by many including Ajit Doval as a "diplomatic failure", and that no one worth any consequence was contacted either by the (then) foreign minister (Jaswant Singh) or the (then) foreign secretary (Lalit Mansingh), and as a consequence, the Indian ambassador could not even get inside the Abu Dhabi airport.[18][19] The hijackers of IC814 were led by Masood Azhar's brother,[20] Ibrahim Athar. His release from Kot Bhalwal jail was supervised by an IPS officer, S P Vaid.[21] His younger brother Abdul Rauf Asghar had planned this attack. Once Masood Azhar was handed over to the hijackers, they fled to Pakistani territory. Pakistan had said the hijackers would be arrested if found. The Pakistani government also previously indicated that Azhar would be allowed to return home since he did not face any charges there.[22]

Shortly after his release, Azhar made a public address to an estimated 10,000 people in Karachi. He proclaimed, "I have come here because this is my duty to tell you that Muslims should not rest in peace until we have destroyed India," vowing to liberate the Kashmir region from Indian rule.[22]

In 1999, after Masood's release, the Harkat-ul-Ansar was proscribed by the U.S. and added to the list of banned terrorist organisations. This move forced Harkat-ul-Ansar to change its name to the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM).[11]


Azhar planned to start a new outfit named as, Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). He reportedly received assistance from Pakistan's spy agency Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden and multiple Sunni sectarian organisations based in Pakistan.[11] JeM is run by Azhar's family like a family enterprise.[11] Jamia Binoria madarsa linked JeM with the Afghan Taliban.[11]

2001 Indian Parliament attack

Jaish-e-Mohammed carried out a string of deadly attacks against Indian targets, including the attack on the Indian parliament in December 2001 that brought India and Pakistan to the brink of a full-scale war.[23] The terrorist attack on the Parliament of India in New Delhi happened on 13 December 2001. The perpetrators belonged to Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), both Pakistan-based terrorist organisations.[24] The attack led to the deaths of five terrorists, six Delhi Police personnel, two Parliament Security Service personnel and a gardener – in total 14 – and to increased tensions between India and Pakistan, resulting in the 2001–02 India–Pakistan standoff.[25]

Soon after the Indian parliament attack, on 29 December 2001, Masood Azhar was detained for a year by Pakistani authorities, after diplomatic pressure by India and International community, in connection with the attack but was never formally charged.[11] The Lahore High Court ordered an end to the house arrest on 14 December 2002, much to the fury of India.[26] Azhar was never arrested after that.[11]

2008 Mumbai attacks

On 7 December 2008, it was claimed that he was among several arrested by the Pakistani government after a military raid on a camp located on the outskirts of Muzaffarabad in connection with the 2008 Mumbai attacks. He continued to live in Bhawalpur.[27][28] Pakistan's government denied it had arrested Masood Azhar and said it was unaware of his whereabouts [29] On 26 January 2014, Azhar reappeared after a seclusion of two years. He addressed a rally in Muzaffarabad, calling for the resumption of jihad in Kashmir. In March 2014, a spokesperson of Jaish-e-Muhammad claimed that he was in Srinagar, India.[30]

2016 Pathankot attack

The 2016 Pathankot attack on Indian air base is said to be masterminded by Masood Azhar and his brother. They were in direct touch with terrorists even after the attack had begun. Indian investigative agencies have given dossiers containing proofs of Azhar's complicity in the terror attack and also sought a second ʽred corner noticeʼ from ʽInterpolʼ.[31][32]

2019 Pulwama attack

On 14 February 2019, a convoy of vehicles carrying security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-bound suicide bomber in Lethpora near Awantipora, Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The attack resulted in the death of 44 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel and the attacker. The responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Pakistan-based Islamist terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed.[33][34] He approved the attacks from the Pakistani Army Hospital where he is under protective custody.[35] After the attack, France, United Kingdom and United States moved a proposal at UN Security Council to ban Masood.[36]


The U.S. Treasury is prohibiting Americans from "engaging in any transactions" with three Pakistan-based militants and a front group. Al Rehmat Trust, called "an operational front" for Jaish-e Mohammed, was designated for providing support to and for acting for or on behalf of that group, and Mohammed Masood Azhar Alvi, Jaish-e Mohammed's founder and leader, was designated as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist on the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List for acting on behalf of the group.[37][38][39]

The Chinese government blocked a UN Security Council Sanctions Committee listing of Azhar as a terrorist, thwarting international efforts to disrupt the activities of his group.[40][41] Starting 2009, there have been 4 attempts to put Masood Azhar in the UN Security Council's counter-terrorism sanctions list. All the attempts were vetoed by China, citing 'lack of evidence'. China moved to protect Azhar again in October 2016 when it blocked India's appeal to the United Nations to label him as a terrorist.[42] China also blocked US move to get Azhar banned by UN in February 2017.[43] The most recent attempt was on 13 March 2019.[44] However, China pulled the blockade in May 2019, finally resulting listing of Masood Azhar as a global terrorist by the Al-Qaida and Taliban Sanctions Committee.[1][45]


Books and booklets by him

Described as a "prolific writer",[46] he has authored some 20 books mainly on jihad,[47] including:

  • Fatah-ul-Jawad, described by scholar Ayesha Siddiqa as "his seminal work", it is a book on jihad "with two volumes of 2,000 pages each."[48]
  • Faz̤āʼil-i jihād, kāmil. On the importance of Jihad; a 850-page commentary on Mashāriʻal-Ashwāq ilʹa-Maṣariʻ al-ʻUshshāq by the medieval scholar Ibn an-Naḥās. In 2002 it was estimated that some 20,000 copies of this book have been sold in Pakistan.[49]
  • Yahūd kī cālīs bīmāryān̲ ("Forty Diseases Of The Jews"). Middle East Media Research Institute noted that it may be one of the most antisemitic book of the Urdu language, with 424 pages and 440 Qur'anic verses quoted.[50] He has criticized the whole of Judaism, calling it "another name for those beliefs, ideas, and practices which were invented by Satan."[51]
  • Muskurāte zak̲h̲m. Political autobiography.
  • K̲h̲ut̤bāt-i jihād. Islamic sermons in two volumes on the eminence of Jihad according to the teachings of Islam.
  • Rang o nūr. Collected columns chiefly on jihad and criticizing Pakistani government for following United States policies.
  • Jamāl-i Jamīl. On the life of Muḥammd Jamīl K̲h̲ān, 1953-2004, a noted religious scholar.
  • Zād-i mujāhid : maʻ maktūbāt-i k̲h̲ādim. On the eminence, views and interpretation of Jihad.
  • 7 din raushnī ke jazīre par. 7 Days comprehensive course on Islamic teaching.
  • Tuḥfah-yi saʻādat. Study of God's names in the Qur'an.

Books and booklets about him

  • Maulānā Masʻūd Aẓhar, mujāhid yā dahshatgard by Muḥammad T̤āriq Maḥmūd Cug̲h̲tāʼī.
  • Asīr-i Hind : Maulānā Masʻūd Aẓhar ke paidāʼish parvarish jihād men̲ shirkat by ʻAbdullāh Masʻūd.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Mohammad Masood Azhar Alvi". United Nations Security Council. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  2. ^ Outlook Web Bureau (15 February 2019), "What Is Jaish-e-Mohammad? Who Is Masood Azhar?", Outlook India. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Masood Azhar is now a UN global terrorist: Know what it means". Economic Times.
  4. ^ "The astonishing rise of Jaish-e-Mohammed: It's bad news for Kashmir, India and Pakistan". FirstPost. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  5. ^ "Masood Azhar: The man who brought jihad to Britain" (5 April 2016), BBC News. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "Maulana Masood Azhar". Kashmir Herald. 1 (8). January 2002. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  7. ^ a b India's most wanted. Vol. 19. Frontline. 2002. ISBN 0066210631.
  8. ^ a b "How significant is Jaish-e-Muhammad in Kashmir today?". The Indian Express. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d Watson, Paul; Sidhartha Barua (25 February 2002). "Somalian Link Seen to Al Qaeda". LA Times. Archived from the original on 25 February 2002.
  10. ^ "The man who brought jihad to Britain in 1993". BBC. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "India fortifying case to put Jaish on ban list". The Hindu. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  12. ^ Pathak, Shekhar Gupta Rahul (15 May 1994). "Specter of subversion looms over India as Pakistan sponsored arms, mercenaries and funds from Muslim world pour in to destabilise Kashmir". India Today. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  13. ^ Sachdeva, Sujata Dutta (17 February 2002). "Networking in Tihar: How it works". The Times of India.
  14. ^ "'Still remember the day Masood Azhar was released,' recalls former jailor". Hindustan Times. 1 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Al Faran". WordNet, Princeton University.
  16. ^ "IndoPak: New book claims India-backed group killed kidnapped Kashmir tourists". Public Radio International. 3 April 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Middlesbrough hostage Keith Mangan abducted in Kashmir 20 years ago today". 4 July 2005. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  18. ^ Gannon, Kathy (31 December 1999). "Hopes for end to jet hijack". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  19. ^ "'Kandahar hijack was India's diplomatic failure'".
  20. ^ Jaleel, Muzamil (6 June 2016). "After Kandahar swap, India offered Taliban cash to get me: JeM chief". London: The IndianExpress. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  21. ^ "Even without Kandahar, Azhar may have walked out". The Indian Express. 17 December 2008.
  22. ^ a b Hussain, Zahid (5 January 2000). "Freed Militant Surfaces". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 September 2000. Retrieved 7 January 2008.
  23. ^ Tanner, Marcus (2001-12-17) Pakistan blamed by India for raid on parliament. The Independent
  24. ^ "Terrorist Attack on the Parliament of India". Embassy of India – Washington DC. 18 December 2001. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  25. ^ "From Kashmir to the FATA: The ISI Loses Control". Global Bearings. 28 October 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012.
  26. ^ "Indian fury over freed militant". BBC News. 14 December 2002. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
  27. ^ Subramanian, Nirupama (18 December 2008). "Restrictions put on Masood Azhar". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.
  28. ^ "JeM chief Masood Azhar under house arrest". Times of India. 9 December 2008. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.
  29. ^ "Pakistan denies militant arrested". BBC News. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008.
  30. ^ "In Plain View". 23 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  31. ^ "Jaish chief Masood Azhar identified as mastermind of Pathankot terror attack - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  32. ^ The Hindu Net Desk. "The 1267 Committee, China's hold and Masood Azhar: A short history". The Hindu.
  33. ^ "What is Jaish-e-Mohammad". BBC. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Sanctions List Materials | United Nations Security Council". Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  35. ^ "Masood Azhar gave nod for Pulwama attack from Army base hospital in Pakistan - Times of India ►". The Times of India. 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  36. ^ "Surgical airstrike: Kandahar Jaish hijacker Yusuf Azhar was present at Balakot camp, say sources - India News". 27 February 2019. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019.
  37. ^ "U.S. Treasury targets Pakistani militants". CNN. 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012.
  38. ^ US Department of the Treasury Archived 2010-11-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-03-14.
  39. ^ "Maulana Mohammad Masood Azhar".
  40. ^ "China's move to block ban against Azhar came just before deadline". The Hindu. 2 April 2016. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016.
  41. ^ Sutirtho Patranobis (23 April 2016). "China fumes after India issues visa to Uyghur 'terrorist'". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
  42. ^ "China blocks India's move to ban Jaish chief Masood Azhar, again". Hindustan Times. 1 October 2016. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.
  43. ^ "China blocked US move to get Masood Azhar banned by UN". Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017.
  44. ^ "If China continues to block Masood Azhar's designation as 'global terrorist', UN may be forced to pursue other actions: UNSC diplomat". Firstpost. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  45. ^ "AQ Sanctions List".
  46. ^ Ben Brandt, "AZHAR, MASOOD" in Peter Chalk, Encyclopedia of Terrorism, ABC-CLIO (2013), vol. 1, p. 79
  47. ^ Zahid, Farhan. "Profile of Jaish-e-Muhammad and Leader Masood Azhar." Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, vol. 11, no. 4, 2019, p. 2
  48. ^ Ayesha Siddiqa (13 March 2019), "Jaish-e-Mohammed: Under the Hood", The Diplomat. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  49. ^ Husain Haqqani, "Review" in Foreign Policy, No. 132 (Sep.-Oct., 2002), p. 73
  50. ^ Ahmed, Tufail. "'Forty Diseases Of The Jews' – Pakistan Army-Backed Jihadi Commander Maulana Masood Azhar's Book Says: 'Jews Are The Cancer Seeping Into All Of Humanity'". Middle East Media Research Institute. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  51. ^ Shrenik Rao (19 February 2019), "China Is Now Pakistan's Partner in Jihadist Terror", Haaretz. Retrieved 12 May 2020.

External links