Jagajyoti Basaveshwara was a 12th-century Indian statesman, philosopher, poet, social reformer and Lingayat saint in the Shiva-focussed bhakti movement, and a Hindu Shaivite[4] social reformer during the reign of the Kalyani Chalukya/Kalachuri dynasty. Mahatma Basaveshwara was active during the rule of both dynasties but reached the peak of his influence during the rule of King Bijjala II in Karnataka, India.[2][5][6]

Mahatma Basaveshwara
ಬಸವಣ್ಣ
महात्मा बसवेश्वर
Basava Gaint Statue 108 feet, Basava Kalyana.JPG
Personal
Born1131CE[1]
Died1196 CE [1]
Kudalasangama, Karnataka, India
SectLingayat (Sharana)[2][3]
Known forSocio-religious reforms, Anubhava Mantapa, Vachana literature Women Empowerment movement in south India
Senior posting
Literary worksVachanaas
Occupation : chief minister of vijayapura province "ವಚನಗಾರರು"statesman, poet, social reformer, philosopher

(Mahatma) Jagajyothi Basaveshwara (Basavanna) spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas. He rejected gender or social discrimination, superstitions and rituals[1] but introduced Ishtalinga necklace, with an image of the Shiva Liṅga,[7] to every person regardless of his or her birth, to be a constant reminder of one's bhakti (devotion) to Shiva. As the chief minister of his kingdom, he introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa (or, the "hall of spiritual experience"),[8] which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.[9]

The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats. However, modern scholarship relying on historical evidence such as the Kalachuri inscriptions state that Basava was the poet philosopher who revived, refined and energized an already existing tradition.[1][2][10] The Basavarajadevara Ragale (13 out of 25 sections are available) by the Kannada poet Harihara (c.1180) is the earliest available account on the life of the social reformer and is considered important because the author was a near contemporary of his protagonist.[11] A full account of Basava's life and ideas are narrated in a 13th-century sacred Telugu text, the Basava Purana by Palkuriki Somanatha.[12]

Mahatma Basaveshwara literary works include the Vachana Sahitya in Kannada Language. He is also known as Bhaktibhandari (literally, the treasurer of devotion)[13] and Basavanna.

Early lifeEdit

 
Arjunavad inscription of the Seuna king Kannara, dated 1260 CE An inscription related to Basava and his family details. Names references Basavaraj and Sangana Basava.

Mahatma Basaveshwara was born in 1131 CE[1] in the town of Basavana Bagewadi in the northern part of Karnataka, to Maadarasa and Madalambike, a Kannada Orthodox Brahmin family[14] devoted to Hindu deity Vishnu.[10][13][15] He was named Basava, a Kannada form of the Sanskrit Vrishabha in honor of Nandi bull (carrier of Shiva) and the local Shaivism tradition.[15]

Mahatma Basaveshwara grew up in Kudalasangama (northwest Karnataka), near the banks of rivers Krishna and its tributary Malaprabha.[10][13] Basava spent twelve years studying in the Hindu temple in the town of Kudalasangama,[13] at Sangameshwara then a Shaivite school of learning, probably of the Lakulisha-Pashupata tradition.[15]

Mahatma Basaveshwara married Gangambike,[13] a cousin from his mother's side. Her father was the provincial prime minister of Bijjala, the Kalachuri king.[10][15] He began working as an accountant to the court of the king.[13] When his maternal uncle died, the king invited him to be the chief minister. The king also married Basava's sister named Nagamma.[10]

As chief minister of the kingdom, Mahatma Basaveshwara used the state treasury to initiate social reforms and religious movement focussed on reviving Shaivism, recognizing and empowering ascetics who were called Jangamas.[10] One of the innovative institutions he launched in the 12th century was the Anubhava Mantapa, a public assembly and gathering that attracted men and women across various walks of life from distant lands to openly discuss spiritual, economic and social issues of life.[9] He composed poetry in local language, and spread his message to the masses. His teachings and verses such as Káyakavé Kailása (Work is the path to Kailash [bliss, heaven], or Work is Worship) became popular.[16]

Literary worksEdit

Several works are attributed to Mahatma Basaveshwara, which are revered in the Veerashaiva Lingayat community. These include various Vachana[1] such as the Shat-sthala-vachana (discourses of the six stages of salvation), Kala-jnana-vachana (forecasts of the future), Mantra-gopya, Ghatachakra-vachana and Raja-yoga-vachana.[17]

HagiographyEdit

The Basava Purana, a Telugu biographical epic poem, first written by Palkuriki Somanatha in 13th-century,[18] and an updated 14th century Kannada version, written by Bhima Kavi in 1369, are sacred texts in Veerashaiva Lingayat.[2][19]

Other hagiographic works include the 15th-century Mala Basava-raja-charitre and the 17th-century Vrishabhendra Vijaya, both in Kannada.[10]

AuthenticityEdit

Scholars state that the poems and legends about Mahatma Basaveshwara were written down long after his death.[18] This has raised questions about the accuracy and creative interpolation by authors who were not direct witness but derived their work relying on memory, legends, and hearsay of others. Michael states, "All 'Vachana'collections as they exist at present are probably much later than the 15th-century [300 years post-Mahatma Basaveshwara]. Much critical labor needs to be spent in determining the authenticity of portions of these collections".[20]

Basaveshwara PhilosophyEdit

Mahatma Basaveshwara grew up in a Shaivite family.[10][13] As a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva". This movement shared its roots in the ongoing Tamil Bhakti movement, particularly the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century. However, Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship and rituals led by Brahmins and replaced it with personalized direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga. This approach brought Shiva's presence to everyone and at all times, without gender, class or caste discriminationHis[8][21]Basava's poem, such as Basavanna 703, speak of strong sense of gender equality and community bond, willing to wage war for the right cause, yet being a fellow "devotees' bride" at the time of his or her need.[22]

A recurring contrast in his poems and ideas is of Sthavara and Jangama, that is, of "what is static, standing" and "what is moving, seeking" respectively. Temples, ancient books represented the former, while work and discussion represented the latter.[23]

The rich
will make temples for Shiva,
What shall I,
a poor man do?

My legs are pillars,
the body the shrine,
the head a cupola of gold.

Listen, O lord Kudalasangama,
things standing shall fall,
but the moving ever shall stay.

— Basavanna 820, Translated by Ramanujan[24]

Mahatma Basaveshwara emphasized constant personal spiritual development as the path to profound enlightenment. He championed the use of vernacular language, Kannada, in all spiritual discussions so that translation and interpretation by the elite is unnecessary, and everyone can understand the spiritual ideas.[8] His approach is akin to the protestant movement, states Ramanuja.[23] His philosophy revolves around treating one's own body and soul as a temple; instead of making a temple, he suggests being the temple.[23] His trinity consisted of guru (teacher), linga (personal symbol of Shiva) and jangama (constantly moving and learning).

Mahatma Basaveshwara established, in 12th-century, Anubhava Mantapa, a hall for gathering and discussion of spiritual ideas by any member of the society from both genders, where ardent devotees of Shiva shared their achievements and spiritual poems in the local language.[8] He questioned rituals, dualism, and externalization of god, and stated that the true God is "one with himself, self-born".

How can I feel right
 about a god who eats up lacquer and melts,
  who wilts when he sees a fire?

How can I feel right
 about gods you sell in your need,
  and gods you bury for fear of thieves?

The lord Kudalasangama,
self-born, one with himself,
he alone is the true god.

— Basavanna 558, Translated by Ramanujan[25]

While Mahatma Basaveshwara rejected rituals, he encouraged icons and symbols such as the wearing of Istalinga (necklace with personal linga, symbol of Shiva), of Rudraksha seeds or beads on parts of one body, and apply Vibhuti (sacred ash on forehead) as a constant reminder of one's devotion and principles of faith.[26] Another aid to faith, he encouraged was the six-syllable mantra, Shivaya Namah, or the shadhakshara mantra which is Om Namah Shivaya.[26]

Bhakti marga as the path to liberationEdit

The Basava Purana, in Chapter 1, presents a series of impassioned debates between Basava and his father.[27] Both declare Hindu Sruti and Smriti to be sources of valid knowledge, but they disagree on the marga (path) to liberated, righteous life. Basava's father favors the tradition of rituals, while Basava favors the path of direct, personal devotion (bhakti).[28]

According to Velcheru Rao and Gene Roghair,[28] Basava calls the path of devotion as "beyond six systems of philosophy. Sruti has commended it as the all-seeing. the beginning of the beginning. The form of that divine linga is the true God. The guru [teacher] of the creed is an embodiment of kindness and compassion. He places God in your soul, and he also places God in your hand. The six-syllabled mantra,[29] the supreme mantra, is its mantra. The dress – locks of hair, ashes and rudrashaka beads – place a man beyond the cycle of birth and death. It follows the path of liberation. (...) This path offers nothing less than liberation in this lifetime."[28]

Roots in the Vedanta philosophyEdit

Sripati, a Virasaiva scholar, explained Basava's philosophy in Srikara Bhasya, using the Vedanta Sutra, suggesting Basava's Lingayat theology to be a form of qualified nondualism, wherein the individual Atma (soul) is the body of God, and that there is no difference between Shiva and Atma(self, soul), Shiva is one's Atma, one's Atma is Shiva.[26] Sripati's analysis places Basava's views in Vedanta school, in a form closer to the 11th century Vishishtadvaita philosopher Ramanuja, than to Advaita philosopher Adi Shankara. However, Sripati's analysis has been contested by other scholars.[26]

Legacy and influenceEdit

 
Kudala sangama in Bagalkot district, where Mahatma Basaveshwara's samadhi is located.

Modern scholarship relying on historical evidence such as the Kalachuri inscriptions state that Mahatma Basaveshwara was the 12th-century poet-philosopher who revived and energized an already existing tradition.[1][2][10] The community he helped form is also known as the Sharanas. The community is largely concentrated in Karnataka, but has migrated into other states of India as well as overseas. Towards the end of the 20th century, Michael estimates, one-sixth of the population of the state of Karnataka, or about 10 million people, were Veerashaiva Lingayat or of the tradition champione by Mahatma Basaveshwara.[16]

Social reformEdit

 
A necklace with pendant containing linga symbol of Shiva are worn by devotees of the tradition championed by Mahatma Basaveshwara. Rudraksha beads (shown above) and Vibhuti (sacred ash on forehead) are other reminders of one's principles of faith.[26]

Mahatma Basaveshwara taught that every human being was equal, irrespective of caste, and that all forms of manual labor was equally important.[30] Michael states that it wasn't birth but behavior that determined a true saint and Shaiva bhakta in the view of Mahatma Basaveshwara and the Sharanas community.[3] This, writes Michael, was also the position of south Indian man, that it was "behavior, not birth" that determines the true man.[3] One difference between the two was that Sharanas welcomed anyone, whatever occupation he or she might have been born in, to convert and be reborn into the larger family of Shiva devotees and then adopt any occupation he or she wanted.[3]

Synthesis of diverse Hindu traditionsEdit

Basava is credited with uniting diverse spiritual trends during his era. Jan Peter Schouten states that Virashaivism, the movement championed by Basava, tends towards monotheism with Shiva as the godhead, but with a strong awareness of the unity of the Ultimate Reality.[31] Schouten calls this as a synthesis of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita and Shankara's Advaita traditions, naming it Shakti-Vishishtadvaita, that is monism fused with Shakti beliefs.[31] An individual's spiritual progress is viewed by Basava's tradition as a six-stage Satsthalasiddhanta, which progressively evolves the individual through phase of the devotee, to phase of the master, then phase of the receiver of grace, thereafter Linga in life-breath (god dwells in his or her soul), the phase of surrender (awareness of no distinction in god and soul, self), to the last stage of complete union of soul and god (liberation, mukti).[31] Basava's approach is different than Adi Shankara, states Schouten, in that Basava emphasizes the path of devotion, compared to Shankara's emphasis on the path of knowledge – a system of monistic Advaita philosophy widely discussed in Karnataka in the time of Basava.[32][33]

Jessica Frazier et al. state that Mahatma Basaveshwara laid the foundations of a movement that united "Vedic with Tantric practice, and Advaitic monism with effusive Bhakti devotionalism."[34]

Icons and symbolsEdit

 
The bust of Mahatma Basaveshwara, unveiled in London in 2015, facing the UK Parliament

Mahatma Basaveshwara

advocated the wearing of Ishtalinga, a necklace with pendant that contains a small Shiva linga.[30] He was driven by his realization; in one of his Vachanas he says Arive Guru, which means one's own awareness is his/her teacher. Many contemporary Vachanakaras (people who have scripted Vachanas) have described him as Swayankrita Sahaja, which means "self-made".

Monuments and recognitionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689, pages 239–240
  2. ^ a b c d e Basava Encyclopædia Britannica (2012), Quote: "Basava, (flourished 12th century, South India), Hindu religious reformer, teacher, theologian, and administrator of the royal treasury of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I (reigned 1156–67)."
  3. ^ a b c d R Blake Michael (1992), The Origins of Vīraśaiva Sects, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807761, pages 7–9
  4. ^ Jestice, Phyllis G. (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-57607-355-1.
  5. ^ A. K. Ramanujan (1973). Speaking of Śiva. Penguin. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-0-14-044270-0.
  6. ^ Gene Roghair (2014). Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha. Princeton University Press. pp. 11–14. ISBN 978-1-4008-6090-6.
  7. ^ Fredrick Bunce (2010), Hindu deities, demi-gods, godlings, demons, and heroes, ISBN 9788124601457, page 983
  8. ^ a b c d Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383, page 4
  9. ^ a b SK Das (2005), A History of Indian Literature, 500–1399: From Courtly to the Popular, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126021710, page 163
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Edward Rice (1982), A History of Kannada Literature, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-8120600638, pages 52–53
  11. ^ Shiva Prakash (1997), p. 179
  12. ^ Velchuri Rao and Gene Roghair (2014), Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691604879, pp. 1–14
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383, pages 2–3
  14. ^ "Basavanna, the Immortal, Being Invoked by the Mortals to Achieve Political Goals". News18. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d SK Das (2005), A History of Indian Literature, 500–1399: From Courtly to the Popular, Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 978-8126021710, pages 161–162
  16. ^ a b R Blake Michael (1982), Work as Worship in Vīraśaiva Tradition, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 50, No. 4, pages 605–606
  17. ^ Edward Rice (1982), A History of Kannada Literature, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 978-8120600638, pages 53–54
  18. ^ a b Velchuri Rao and Gene Roghair (2014), Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691604879, pages 21–23
  19. ^ "hjhlhin Literature". Lingayatreligion.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  20. ^ R Blake Michael (1992), The Origins of Vīraśaiva Sects, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807761, page 64 footnote 19
  21. ^ R Blake Michael (1992), The Origins of Vīraśaiva Sects, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807761, pages 1–5
  22. ^ AK Ramanujan (1973), Speaking of Śiva, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140442700, page 29
  23. ^ a b c AK Ramanujan (1973), Speaking of Śiva, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140442700, pages 19–22
  24. ^ AK Ramanujan (1973), Speaking of Śiva, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140442700, page 19
  25. ^ AK Ramanujan (1973), Speaking of Śiva, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140442700, page 28
  26. ^ a b c d e Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689, pages 243–244
  27. ^ Velcheru Rao and Gene Roghair (2014), Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691604879, pages 55–58
  28. ^ a b c Velcheru Rao and Gene Roghair (2014), Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691604879, pages 57–58
  29. ^ Om Namah Shivaya, see: Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689, pages 243–244
  30. ^ a b MN Srinivas (1980), The Remembered Village, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039483, pages 307–308
  31. ^ a b c Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383, pages 9–10
  32. ^ Jan Peter Schouten (1995), Revolution of the Mystics: On the Social Aspects of Vīraśaivism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812383, pages 111–112
  33. ^ サイ (2005-). Sai. [Sai]. OCLC 852251154. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. ^ Jessica Frazier et al (2014), The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu Studies, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1472511515, page 281
  35. ^ T.V. Sivanandan (11 February 2011). "Basaveshwara's statue may come up in London". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  36. ^ "Lambeth Basaveshwara - Home". www.lambethbasaveshwara.co.uk.
  37. ^ Image of the Prime Minister paying homage to Basaveshwara statue in London The Hindu (14 November 2015)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit