Open main menu

Haryana is a state in India. The history of Haryana dates back thousands of years. The state houses several sites from the Indus Valley Civilization, which was a cradle of civilization.

During the British Colonial period, it was administered as a part of the Punjab province. It became a separate administrative entity in 1966. Chandigarh became the joint capital for the states of Punjab and Haryana. Haryana was formed on 1Nov,1966. There were seven districts -Hisar,Mohindragarh,Karnal,Gurugram,Rohtak,Ambala,Jind. Haryana was formed on the recommendation of Sardar Hukam Singh. And the First CM of haryana was Pt.BHAGWAT DAYAL SHARMA (1NOV,1966 to 23MAR,1967) First Governor of haryana was Shri Dharma Vira.

Chronological historyEdit

Vedic periodEdit

In some ancient Hindu texts, the boundaries of Kurukshetra correspond roughly to the state of Haryana. Thus according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1., the Kurukshetra region is south of Turghna (Srughna/Sugh in Sirhind, Punjab), north of Khandava (Delhi and Mewat region), east of Maru (desert) and west of Parin.[1]

Pre-Islamic Hindu-Buddhist periodEdit

 
c. 1910s portrayal of Hemu Vikramaditya

After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century CE. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas ruled over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central as Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Taraori and Hansi in the 12th century.

Sultanate periodEdit

Muhammad Ghori conquered Haryana after the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firuz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

Mughal EmpireEdit

 
The defeat of Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat, c. 1556, Akbarnama.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India.

In the Second Battle of Panipat (5 November 1556), Akbar's general Bairam Khan defeated Hemu, the local Haryanvi who grew up in Rewari. Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana, rose from a businessman to become adviser to Afghan kings and then Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army. He fought and won 22 battles in between 1553 and 1556, from Punjab to Bengal against Afghans and Mughals and won all of them without losing any. Hemu defeated Akbar's army at Tughlaqabad in Battle of Delhi-1556 and became king at Delhi on 7 October 1556 declaring himself as Vikramaditya following the reigns of earlier Vedic kings.[2] Hemu lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat.

Maratha period (1756-1801)Edit

The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Maratha Empire under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on 13 January 1761.

Colonial periodEdit

During the first war of independence in 1857 the major centers of rebellion were at Hisar, Hansi, Rewari, Sirsa, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Farrukhnagar, Ballabhgarh, Ambala, Panipat and Thanesar.[3] Under the "Delhi Agency" there were seven Princely states, Jhajjar, Farrukhnagar, Ballabhgarh, Loharu, Pataudi and Dujana. The Chiefs of the last two estates remained loyal to the British and others rebelled.[4] The Rajput rulers of Rajasthan also kept out of the mutiny.[5]

The first war of independence in 1857 war started first at Ambala Cantonment, 8 hours before Mangal Pandey revolted in Meerut, when the soldiers of 5th Indian Infantry Brigade and 60th Indian Infantry Brigade revolted but it was crushed.[6] 5th and 60th Regiments of Benga Native Infantry rebelled at Umballa (Ambala). During the Battle of Narnaul at Nasibpur on 16 November 1857, British lost 70 British soldiers and their commanders colonel Gerrard and Captain Wallace. 40 British soldiers and officers Captain Craige, Captain Kennedy and Captain Pearse were wounded.[3] The major centers of rebellion were at Hisar, Hansi, Sirsa, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Farrukhnagar, Ballabhgarh, Rewari, Ambala, Panipat and Thanesar.[3] Under the "Delhi Agency" there were seven Princely states, Jhajjar, Farrukhnagar, Ballabhgarh, Loharu, Pataudi and Dujana. The Chiefs of the last two estates remained loyal to the British and others rebelled.[4] The Rajput rulers of Rajasthan also kept out of the mutiny.[5]

Raja Nahar Singh the Jat ruler of Ballabhgarh, Rao Tula Ram ruler of Rewari and his cousin Gopal Dev, Nawab Abdur Rahman Khan Jhajjar, Nawab Ahmad Ali of Farrukhnagar, Sadruddin the peasant leader of Mewat, Harsukh Rai and Mirza Gauhar Ali of Palwal and Imam of Bu Ali Shah Qalandar mosque in Panipat played key role.[3]

After the failure of revolt by Indians, Haryana was take out of North-Western Provinces and merged with Punjab as a punishment.[6]

Princely statesEdit

    • With headquarter based outside of Haryana with parts of territory within Haryana

Independence and riotsEdit

Lala Lajpat Rai worked towards the social reform, spread of Arya Samaj, creation of mass support for the Indian independence movement and he died protesting against the Simon Commission. Lala Murlidhar of Ambala and journalist Balmukund Gupt of Rewari were the members of the founding session of congress who promoted Swadeshi movement. Chhotu Ram, Pandit Nekiram Sharma, Lala Ugrasen and Ramswaroop Jaglan of Bidhwan were also key independence activists.[6]

During the 1907 Punjab unrest, which coincided with the upheaval resulting from the Partition of Bengal in 1905, the soldiers of Jat paltan revolted and sided with Bengali revolutionaries to take over the government treasury. Their revolt was crushed by British colonists, and several Jat soldiers had to suffer long sentences of imprisonment . In 1914, Kasi Ram Joshi a member of the Ghadar Party hailing from Haryana, returned to India from America. On 15 March 1915 he was hanged by the colonial rulers. Subhas Chandra Bose's Azad Hind Fauj had 2847 soldiers from Haryana, of whom 346 attained martyrdom.[6]

During the partition of India in 1947, state experienced riots at many places, which also scores of death and migration of millions of people from Haryana to Pakistan and vice versa. Haryanvi dialect of people in Pakistan who had migrated from Haryana is called Rohtakia or Rangri dialect.

Formation of HaryanaEdit

Hindi language movementEdit

 
A map of the distribution of native Punjabi speakers in India and Pakistan

Hindi language movement of Punjab in the Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab started on 30 April 1957 and lasted till 27 December 1957, which paved the way for the demand for the formation of Haryana as a separate state for the Hindi speaking people of the united Punjab province. At the same time Punjab also had Punjabi suba & Punjabi language movement, under which Punjabi and gurmukhi were made official state language and script respectively, which was also made mandatory in schools of the whole of post-independence united Punjab. People of Hindi speaking areas of Punjab resisted this imposition. Punjab government retaliated by mass arrests and imprisonments, some of arrested activists were tortured in the prison. Sumer Singh of Naya Bans in Rohtak district gave his life for this cause during this movement.[7]

In 2018, the Government of Haryana started to award INR10,000 per month pension to the Matribhasa Satyagrahis (Hindi language activists).[8]

Re-organisation of Punjab stateEdit

On 1 November 1966, Haryana was carved out on the basis of that the parts of Punjab which were to be Haryana's "Hindi-speaking areas." Same example was followed in creation of Himachal Pradesh as well. Haryana state was formed on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hissar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further the Tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur) Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhari of district Ambala were also included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should also be a part of Haryana.[9]

Theme history of HaryanaEdit

AdministrationEdit

MunicipalitiesEdit

Republican democracyEdit

AgricultureEdit

FarmingEdit

Rakhigarhi granary

IrrigationEdit

Haryana has network of canals across of state divided into 8 canal command areas. Haryana has 47% share (reduced from 70% afte an agreement with Delhi in 1994) in Yamuna river water and ?% share in Sutlej river water too for which disputed Sutlej Yamuna link canal is still partially completed for several decades.[10]

Indus treaty covers a total of 168 million acre-feet of water, of which India can utilize 33 million acre-feet (20% of total) from the three reivers assigned to India. In 2019, India utilizes only 93-94% (30 million acre-feet) of its share, and 6-7% (2 million acre-feet) of India's unitilised share flows to Pakistan, resulting in a total of 87% water flowing to Pakistan. India is building three dams to utilize 100% of its 33 million acree-fet share (20% of total water under treaty).[11]

Indus treaty covers a total of 168 million acre-feet of water, of which India can utilize 33 million acre-feet (20% of total) from the three reivers assigned to India. In 2019, India utilizes only 93-94% (30 million acre-feet) of its share, and 6-7% (2 million acre-feet) of India's unitilised share flows to Pakistan, resulting in a total of 87% water flowing to Pakistan. India is building three dams to utilize 100% of its 33 million acree-fet share (20% of total water under treaty).India is undertaking 3 projects to ensure India utilizes its full share of Indus Waters Treaty, (a) Shahpurkandi dam project on Ravi River in Pathankot district of Punjab (b) Sutlej-Beas link in Punjab (see also Pandoh Dam) and the Ujh Dam project on Ujh River (a tributary of Ravi river) in Jammu and Kashmir. [11]

Renukaji dam, is INR4,596.76 crore 148m high rockfileld gravity dam project being built on the Giri river in Sirmour district with live storage of 0.404 MAF on 1,508 hectares to supply 23 cusec water and generate 40MW peak flow power. An agreement for its construction and sharing of cost and benefits (water and electricity) was signed by the Union Minister for Water and Chief Ministers of six states, namely Haryana (47.8% share of water), UP and Uttakhand (33.65% joint share) Rajasthan (9.3%), Delhi (6.04%) and Himachal Pradesh (3.15), on 11 January 2019. It has been declared a national project, resulting in 90% funding from the centre govt and the rest from the stakeholder states.[12] Giri River (cord: 30.44549 °N and 77.67358 ° Ö) in the state of Uttrakhand and Himachal is a tributary of Yamuna, which in turn is tributary of Ganges.[13]

(a) Lakhwar Dam on Yamuna in Uttrakhand, (b) Renukaji Dam on Giri river in Himchal and (c) Kishau Dam on Tons River in Uttrakhands. The agreements among the stakeholder states and centre govt has been signed for the Kishwar Dam (August 2018 and Renukaji Dam (January 2019) and the agreement for the remaining Kishau Dam is likely to be signed soon. The funding for the Kishwar Dam has already been approved for the centre govt's cabinet and the funding for the Renukaji Dam is expected to be approved soon.[12]

Renukaji dam, is INR4,596.76 crore 148m high rockfileld gravity dam project being built on the Giri river in Sirmour district with live storage of 0.404 MAF on 1,508 hectares to supply 23 cusec water and generate 40MW peak flow power. An agreement for its construction and sharing of cost and benefits (water and electricity) was signed by the Union Minister for Water and Chief Ministers of six states, namely Haryana (47.8% share of water), UP and Uttakhand (33.65% joint share) Rajasthan (9.3%), Delhi (6.04%) and Himachal Pradesh (3.15), on 11 January 2019. It has been declared a national project, resulting in 90% funding from the centre govt and the rest from the stakeholder states.[12] Giri River (cord: 30.44549 °N and 77.67358 ° Ö) in the state of Uttrakhand and Himachal is a tributary of Yamuna, which in turn is tributary of Ganges.[13]

Haryana has 1356 canal tailends of which 250 had not seen the water for up to 39 years. Between 2016-2018, govt rejuvenated all but 10 worst tailends. Specially the canals in Narnaul, Loharu and Rewari area were rehabilitated and water started to reach the tailend of canals after a gap of 39 years.[14]

Commerce and tradeEdit

IndustriesEdit

MiningEdit

Mines at Tosham Hill range from Indus Valley Civilisation.

CultureEdit

ClothingEdit

Jewelry and ornamentsEdit
 
Attire and ornament of Priest-King from Indus Valley Civilisation.

Rakhigarhi silver bronze ornaments finds and Dancing Girl ornaments.

TextilesEdit
 
Dancing girl attire and ornaments from Indus Valley Civilisation.

Dancing Girl attire.

Haryanvi artsEdit

Haryanvi languageEdit

Haryanvi MusicEdit

Haryanvi moviesEdit

InfrastructureEdit

ArchitectureEdit

Nangal Sirohi in Mahendragarh district, 130 km from Delhi, is popular for its havelis of shekhavati architecture within NCR.[16]

EducationEdit

Chanetic Buddhist monastic university as chronicled by Hieun Tsang.

Science and technologyEdit

ElectricityEdit
Post and telegraphEdit

SportsEdit

Pashupati Shiva in yoga pose from Indus Valley Civilisation.

TransportEdit

AviationEdit

In 1948, first airstrip was built in Haryana when Ambala Air Force Station was established following the independence of India. It is also the home to the SEPECAT Jaguar of No. 5 Squadron IAF and No. 14 Squadron IAF, and aging MiG-21bis of No. 21 Squadron IAF. In 1948, a Flying Instruction School (FIS) was formed here. In 1954, FIS Ambala was moved to Tambaram near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, at Tambaram Air Force Station.

By 1964, the diversionary Indian Air Force airfield at Sirsa was ready.[17]

In 1965, Hisar airfield, spread over 194 acres (79 ha), was built for the Hisar Aviation Club. In 1999, Hisar Aviation Club was merged with Haryana Institute of Civil Aviation (HICA). The airport is managed by HICA, which provides flight training using light aircraft.[18]

In 1967, Karnal Air Strip was set up.[19] The Karnal Flying Club has been running at this airfield since 1967 year .[20]

In 1970-71, a privately managed air service was introduced from Delhi-Patiala-Hisar and Delhi which was terminated after a period of about 6 months due to being financially unviable.[21]

During 1980s, the Gurugram Airstrip, hangar, air conditioned yoga ashram and TV studio were built by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's favorite godman and yoga guru Dhirendra Brahmachari who died in 1994 in a plane crash.[22][23] Indira use to visit Brahmachari here once a week.[22][23] The 1980s teleserials "India Quiz" and Hum Log (ran from July 1984 to 17 December 1985) were shot here.[22] Brahmachari charged INR25,000 per shift for the use of ashram's TV studio facilities here for the shooting of Hum Log.[22] In 1983, Brahmachari had written letter to then Chief Minister of Haryana, Bhajan Lal, with a request to acquire 5,000 acre land around Aravalli Range, potentially up to 70,000 acres in total, to build facilities to rival Disneyland, including a yoga research and training centre, a wildlife sanctuary, folk arts and crafts centre, amusement centre and other facilities such as helipad, aquarium, planetarium and games and thrillers.[24] The aircraft hangar still has two ruined aircraft belonging to Brahmachari,[23] likely including a Maule M-5 American aircraft owned by him that landed him in investigations for tax evasions.[25] Ownership of some of the facilities is currently being disputed in the court (c. 2014), including 32 acre land and yoga studio.[23]

In 2002, the Delhi Flying Club (DFC) shifted all its flying activities and aircraft to Hisar from Safdarjung Airport in Delhi.[26]

On 31 January 2010, the Rajiv Gandhi National Centre for Aero Sports was inaugurated at Narnaul Airport. 51 acres were acquired for this purpose.[27] Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda and Aero Club of India President Satish Sharma were present at the inauguration ceremony. The centre was set up by Aero Club of India and the Department of Civil Aviation, Haryana. It is the first ever modern state-of-the-art aero sports centre in India to provide training in comprehensive range of various aero sports, including para-jumping (simulated parachute jump from a tower), parasailing, hot air ballooning, gliding, power flying, sky diving, aero modelling and micro light flying,[27] with the purpose of introducing the state's youth to aviation and providing the general population a cheap opportunity to experience aero sports.[28][29] On 27 November 2017, Runway 1 a quirky restaurant based inside an Airbus A320 discarded by Air India was opened on Ambala Chandigarh Expressway by a Shahabad based business family.[30]

In August 2018, pre-feasibility study and field study for 3 new greenfield airports in Haryana commenced for the and Chhara Airport (Jhajjar district), Jind Airport and Kurukshetra Airport at the cost of INR30 lakh (3 million).[31]

On 26 December 2018, Haryana Health Minister Anil Vij announced that a third domestic airport will be established under UDAN III scheme 40 km from the Ambala city at Barnala village next to the Ambala Air Force Station for which a team of Airports Authority of India has already carried out the land survey.[32][33] The new greenfield airport at Ambala is included in the 13 airports included in the UDAN III scheme.[33] Since most of the technical formalities are complete, an early execution of the project is expected.[33] Hisar and Karnal airports are already included in the list of airports for which airlines can make proposals for the UDAN scheme.[33]

As of January 2019, all five existing government airports in Haryana will be developed to have runway of at least 5000 feet, night landing and parking hangars, as airlines have approached the Haryana government to park their spillover "Non-scheduled Air Operations" (NSOP) aircraft from the congested IGI airport at Delhi to Bhiwani and Narnaul airport. Some of this development work at Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul airports is already underway.[34]

RailwayEdit

Railway in Haryana falls in 2 railway zones (Northern Railway zone and North Western Railway zone), and 3 divisions under those.

Roads and highwaysEdit
 
Coach driver from Indus Valley Civilisation.

GT Road with Kos Minar and Caravanserais

MilitaryEdit

The modern military history commenced with British colonial rule where George Thomas established modern European style army in 1798 to 1801,[35][36] and later Colonel James Skinner (1778 – 4 December 1841) the Anglo-Indian military adventurer in India, who founded 1st Skinner's Horse and 3rd Skinner's Horse at Asigarh Fort at Hansi in 1803, which are still part of the Indian Army.[37][38]

Current military installations in Haryana are:

Defunct British-era military installations in Haryana:

Other cantonments

  • Buria cantonment of Jat Sikh ruler during British colonial rule
  • Bahadurgarh state cantonment of nawab during British colonial rule
  • Balramgarh state cantonment of Jat Raja Nahar Singh during British colonial rule
  • Dujana cantonment of nawab during British colonial rule
  • Jhajjar cantonment of nawab during British colonial rule
  • Jind State cantonment of nawab Jat Sikh ruler at Jind during British colonial rule
  • Kalsia cantonment of Jat Sikh ruler during British colonial rule
  • Kapurthala State (Narwana cantonment) of Phulkian Jat Sikh Raja
  • Loharu State cantonment of nawab at Loharu during British colonial rule

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Agarwal, Vishal: Is There Vedic Evidence for the Indo-Aryan Immigration to India? (PDF) Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Kar, L. Colonel H. C. "Military History of India", Calcutta (1980), p.283
  3. ^ a b c d Dr Malti Malik, History of India, Page 356.
  4. ^ a b Madan Gopal, 1977, Sir Chhotu Ram: a political biography, Page 9.
  5. ^ a b M.K. Singh, 2009, Encyclopaedia Of Indian War Of Independence (1857-1947) (Set Of 19 Vols.)
  6. ^ a b c d Haryana Samvad, Jan 2018.
  7. ^ Har Samvand, Sept 2018, p12.
  8. ^ Haryana to include Matribhasa Satyagrahis in Ayushman bharat scheme, UNI, 27 Dec 2018.
  9. ^ "1st November 1966 - Haryana Day - History - Haryana Online - North India" Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/haryana-to-benefit-from-renukaji-dam/articleshow/67495820.cms, Times of India, 12 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b [1], Economic Times, 11 January 2019.
  12. ^ a b c Six states sign agreement for Renukaji Dam Multipurpose project, The Tribune, 11 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b [[[:Template:Geonameslink]] Giri River] sa [[[:Template:Geonamesabout]] Geonames.org (cc-by)]; post updated 2015-03-08; database download sa 2016-08-15
  14. ^ a b c d Kirishi Samvad, Oct 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d Haryana cabinet approves signing of MoU for construction of two multipurpose-projects, UNI, 21 Dec 2018.
  16. ^ Magnificent havelis of Nangal-Sirohi, The Tribune, 22 June 2002.
  17. ^ PC Lal, My Years with the IAF.
  18. ^ "Haryana Institute of Civil Aviation". District Administration, Karnal. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Three airports ready to take off in Haryana". The Times of India. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  21. ^ Haryana Gazetteers Organization (1987). "Gazetteer of India: Haryana, Hisar, pp.136" (PDF). Chandigarh: Controller of Printing and Stationery. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d 1990, "The Illustrated Weekly of India.", The Times Group, Volume 111, Issues 13-25, p. 35.
  23. ^ a b c d Ajay Kumar, "Family of Indira's favourite godman locked in multi-crore land battle."], D Mail, 11 December 2014.
  24. ^ "Swami's Disneyland.", India Today, 28 February 1983.
  25. ^ "Dhirendra Brahmachari: The controversial yogi.", India Today, 30 November 1980.
  26. ^ "Safdarjung airport flies into history". The Times of India. 5 April 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  27. ^ a b Aerosports center in Haryana, Publication: www.sify.conm, Published on: 14-nov2010, Accessed: 31-mar-2017
  28. ^ Dhawan, Sunit (31 January 2010). "Narnaul gets country's first aero sports centre". The Tribune (Chandigarh). Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  29. ^ Sukanya, Sumi (1 February 2010). "Let dreams soar at this flying club near Gurgaon". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  30. ^ Runway-1 sneak peek, Economic Times, Jan 2018.
  31. ^ survery for 3 new greenfield airports in Haryana , The Tribune, Aug 2018.
  32. ^ Ambala to get domestic airport, The Tribune, 26 Dec 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d Ambala to get airport, digitalglobalist.com, 28 Dec 2018.
  34. ^ All five airports in state to be developed expanded, The Tribune 8 Jan 2019.
  35. ^ Desi Irish Raja of Haryana, TIme of India newspaper, Jul-24-2016
  36. ^ Military memoirs of George Thomas, William_Francklin, 1805
  37. ^ Colonel James Skinner CB Archived 18 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine National Army Museum (British Army).
  38. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Skinner, James" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 192.
  39. ^ Ten big projects approved in Haryana, 29 Jan 2019.
  40. ^ Begum Samru Palace, Gurugram, Haryana Tourism.
  41. ^ "A queen's magnificent church". The Indian Express. 2 September 2012.
  42. ^ Hope for decrepit French memorial in Gurugram as official issues directions for restoration, Hindustan Times, Jun 2018.
  43. ^ 200-year-old memorial in Gurugram dedicated to the Begum who commanded an army, Hindustan Times, Jun 2018.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit