Open main menu
A reproduction of the palm-leaf manuscript in Siddham script, originally held at Hōryū-ji Temple, Japan; now located in the Tokyo National Museum at the Gallery of Hōryū—ji Treasure. The original copy may be the earliest extant Sanskrit manuscript dated to the 7th–8th century CE.[1]

The Heart Sūtra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya or Chinese: 心經 Xīnjīng) is a popular sutra in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Its Sanskrit title, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya, can be translated as "The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom".

The sutra famously states, "Form is empty" (śūnyatā). It is a condensed exposé on the Buddhist Mahayana teaching of the Two Truths doctrine, which says that ultimately all phenomena are sunyata, empty of an unchanging essence. This emptiness is a 'characteristic' of all phenomena, and not a transcendent reality, but also "empty" of an essence of its own. Specifically, it is a response to Sarvastivada teachings that "phenomena" or its constituents are real.[2]:9

The text has been translated into English dozens of times from Chinese, Sanskrit and Tibetan as well as other source languages.

Contents

Summary of the sutraEdit

In the sutra, Avalokiteśvara addresses Śariputra, explaining the fundamental emptiness (śūnyatā) of all phenomena, known through and as the five aggregates of human existence (skandhas): form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), volitions (saṅkhāra), perceptions (saṃjñā), and consciousness (vijñāna). Avalokiteśvara famously states, "Form is empty (śūnyatā). Emptiness is form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty—that is, dependently originated.

Avalokiteśvara then goes through some of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths, and explains that in emptiness none of these notions apply. This is interpreted according to the two truths doctrine as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality—they are not reality itself—and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond mental understanding. Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahayana Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment thereby achieving nirvana.

The sutra concludes with the mantra gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā, meaning "gone, gone, everyone gone to the other shore, awakening, svaha."[note 1]

Popularity and statureEdit

The Heart Sutra is "the single most commonly recited, copied and studied scripture in East Asian Buddhism."[3][2][note 2] It is recited by adherents of Mahayana schools of Buddhism regardless of sectarian affiliation.[4]:59–60

While the origin of the sutra is disputed by some modern scholars,[5] it was widely known in Bengal and Bihar during the Pala Empire period (c. 750–1200 CE) in India, where it played a role in Vajrayana Buddhism.[6]:239,18–20[note 3] The stature of the Heart Sutra throughout early medieval India can be seen from its title ‘Holy Mother of all Buddhas Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom’[7]:389 dating from at least the 8th century CE (see Philological explanation of the text).[2]:15–16[6]:141,142[note 4]

The long version of the Heart Sutra is extensively studied by the various Tibetan Buddhist schools, where the Heart Sutra is chanted, but also treated as a tantric text, with a tantric ceremony associated with it.[6]:216–238 It is also viewed as one of the daughter sutras of the Prajnaparamita genre in the Vajrayana tradition as passed down from Tibet.[8]:67–69[9]:2[note 5][note 6]

The text has been translated into many languages, and dozens of English translations and commentaries have been published, along with an unknown number of informal versions on the internet.[note 7]

VersionsEdit

There are two main versions of the Heart Sutra : a short version and a long version.

The short version as translated by Xuanzang is the most popular version of adherents practicing East Asian schools of Buddhism. Xuanzang's canonical text (T. 251) has a total of 260 Chinese characters. Some Japanese versions have an additional 2 characters. The short version has also been translated into Tibetan but it is not part of the current Tibetan Buddhist Canon (Kangyur).

The long version differs from the short version by including both an introductory and concluding section; features that most Buddhist sutras have. The introduction introduces the sutra to the listener with the traditional Buddhist opening phrase "Thus have I heard". It then describes the venue in which the Buddha (or sometimes bodhisattvas, etc.,) promulgate the teaching and the audience to whom the teaching is given. The concluding section ends the sutra with thanks and praises to the Buddha.

Both versions are chanted on a daily basis by adherents of practically all schools of East Asian Buddhism and by some adherents of Tibetan and Newar Buddhism.[10]

Dating and originsEdit

 
The third oldest dated copy of the Heart Sutra, part of the stele of Emperor Tang Taizong's Foreword to the Holy Teaching written on behalf of Xuanzang in 648 CE. The Stele was erected by his son, Emperor Tang Gaozong in 672 CE and is known for its exquisite calligraphy written in the style of Wang Xizhi (303–361 CE). It is now located in Xian's Beilin Museum.

Earliest extant versionsEdit

The earliest extant dated text of the Heart Sutra is a stone stele dated to 661 CE located at Yunju Temple and is part of the Fangshan Stone Sutra. It is also the earliest copy of Xuanzang's 649 CE translation of the Heart Sutra (Taisho 221); made three years before Xuanzang passed away.[11][12][13][14]:12,17[note 8]

A palm-leaf manuscript found at the Hōryū-ji Temple is the earliest undated extant Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sutra. It is dated to c. 7th–8th century CE by the Tokyo National Museum where it is currently kept.[1][15]

Source of the Heart Sutra - Nattier controversyEdit

Nattier (1992) theorizes based on her cross-philological study of Chinese and Sanskrit texts of the Heart Sutra that the Heart Sutra may have initially been composed in China.[15]

Fukui, Harada, Ishii and Siu based on their cross-philological study of Chinese and Sanskrit texts of the Heart Sutra and other medieval period Sanskrit Mahayana sutras theorizes that the Heart Sutra could not have been composed in China but was composed in India.[16][7][note 9][17][18][19]:43–44,72–80

Kuiji and Woncheuk were the two main disciples of Xuanzang. Their 7th century commentaries are the earliest extant commentaries on the Heart Sutra;both commentaries contradict Nattier's Chinese origin theory.[4]:27[20]:146–147[note 10]

Philological explanation of the textEdit

TitleEdit

Historical titlesEdit

 
Gridhakuta (also known as Vulture's Peak) located in Rajgir Bihar India (in ancient times known as Rājagṛha or Rājagaha (Pali) - Site where Buddha taught the Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya (Heart Sutra) and other Prajñāpāramitā sutras.

The titles of the earliest extant manuscripts of the Heart Sutra all includes the words “hṛdaya” or “heart” and “prajñāpāramitā” or "perfection of wisdom". Beginning from the 8th century and continuing at least until the 13th century, the titles of the Indic manuscripts of the Heart Sutra contained the words “bhagavatī” or "mother of all buddhas" and “prajñāpāramitā”.[note 11]

Later Indic manuscripts have more varied titles.

Titles in use todayEdit

In the western world, this sutra is known as the Heart Sutra (a translation derive from its most common name in East Asian countries). But it is also sometimes called the Heart of Wisdom Sutra. In Tibet, Mongolia and other regions influenced by Vajrayana, it is known as The [Holy] Mother of all Buddhas Heart (Essence) of the Perfection of Wisdom.

In the Tibetan text the title is given first in Sanskrit and then in Tibetan: Sanskrit: भगवतीप्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय (Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdaya), Tibetan: བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་མ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: bcom ldan 'das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po English translation of Tibetan title: Mother of All Buddhas Heart (Essence) of the Perfection of Wisdom.[9]:1[note 12]

In other languages, the commonly used title is an abbreviation of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ : i.e. The Prajñāhṛdaya Sūtra )(The Heart of Wisdom Sutra). They are as follows: e.g. Korean: Banya Shimgyeong (반야심경 / 般若心經); Japanese: Hannya Shingyō (はんにゃしんぎょう / 般若心経); Vietnamese: Bát-nhã tâm kinh (chữ Nho: 般若心經).

ContentEdit

 
Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sūtra, written in the Siddhaṃ script. Bibliothèque nationale de France

Various commentators divide this text into different numbers of sections. In the long version, we have the traditional opening "Thus have I heard" and Buddha along with a community of bodhisattvas and monks gathered with Avalokiteśvara and Sariputra at Gridhakuta (a mountain peak located at Rajgir, the traditional site where the majority of the Perfection of Wisdom teachings were given) , when through the power of Buddha, Sariputra asks Avalokiteśvara for advice on the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom. The sutra then describes the experience of liberation of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara, as a result of vipassanā gained while engaged in deep meditation to awaken the faculty of prajña (wisdom). The insight refers to apprehension of the fundamental emptiness (śūnyatā) of all phenomena, known through and as the five aggregates of human existence (skandhas): form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), volitions (saṅkhāra), perceptions (saṃjñā), and consciousness (vijñāna).

The specific sequence of concepts listed in lines 12–20 ("...in emptiness there is no form, no sensation, ... no attainment and no non-attainment") is the same sequence used in the Sarvastivadin Samyukta Agama; this sequence differs in comparable texts of other sects. On this basis, Red Pine has argued that the Heart Sūtra is specifically a response to Sarvastivada teachings that, in the sense "phenomena" or its constituents, are real.[2]:9 Lines 12–13 enumerate the five skandhas. Lines 14–15 list the twelve ayatanas or abodes.[2]:100 Line 16 makes a reference to the 18 dhatus or elements of consciousness, using a conventional shorthand of naming only the first (eye) and last (conceptual consciousness) of the elements.[2]:105–06 Lines 17–18 assert the emptiness of the Twelve Nidānas, the traditional twelve links of dependent origination.[2]:109 Line 19 refers to the Four Noble Truths.

Avalokiteśvara addresses Śariputra, who was the promulgator of abhidharma according to the scriptures and texts of the Sarvastivada and other early Buddhist schools, having been singled out by the Buddha to receive those teachings.[2]:11–12, 15 Avalokiteśvara famously states, "Form is empty (śūnyatā). Emptiness is form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths and explains that in emptiness none of these notions apply. This is interpreted according to the two truths doctrine as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality—they are not reality itself—and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond mental understanding. Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahayana Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment thereby achieving nirvana.

All Buddhas of the three ages (past, present and future) rely on the Perfection of Wisdom to reach unexcelled complete Enlightenment. The Perfection of Wisdom is the all powerful Mantra, the great enlightening mantra, the unexcelled mantra, the unequalled mantra, able to dispel all suffering. This is true and not false.[22] The Perfection of Wisdom is then condensed in the mantra with which the sutra concludes: "Gate Gate Pāragate Pārasamgate Bodhi Svāhā" (literally "Gone gone, gone beyond, gone utterly beyond, Enlightenment hail!").[23] In the long version, Buddha praises Avalokiteśvara for giving the exposition of the Perfection of Wisdom and all gathered rejoice in its teaching. Many schools traditionally have also praised the sutra by uttering three times the equivalent of "Mahāprajñāpāramitā" after the end of the recitation of the short version.[24]

MantraEdit

The Heart Sūtra mantra in Sanskrit IAST is gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā, Devanagari: गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा, IPA: ɡəteː ɡəteː paːɾəɡəteː paːɾəsəŋɡəte boːdʱɪ sʋaːɦaː, meaning "gone, gone, everyone gone to the other shore, awakening, svaha."[note 13]

Buddhist exegetical worksEdit

 
Chinese text of the Heart Sūtra by Yuan dynasty artist and calligrapher Zhao Mengfu (1254–1322 CE)

China, Japan, Korea and VietnamEdit

Two commentaries of the Heart Sutra were composed by pupils of Xuanzang, Woncheuk and Kuiji, in the 7th century.[4]:60 These appear to be the earliest extant commentaries on the text. Both have been translated into English.[20][25] Both Kuījī and Woncheuk's commentaries approach the Heart Sutra from both a Yogācāra and Madhyamaka viewpoint;[4][20] however, Kuījī's commentary presents detailed line by line Madhyamaka viewpoints as well and is therefore the earliest surviving Madhyamaka commentary on the Heart Sutra. Of special note, although Woncheuk did his work in China, he was born in Silla, one of the kingdoms located at the time in Korea.

The chief Tang Dynasty commentaries have all now been translated into English.

Notable Japanese commentaries include those by Kūkai (9th Century, Japan), who treats the text as a tantra,[26][27] and Hakuin, who gives a Zen commentary.[28]

There is also a Vietnamese commentarial tradition for the Heart Sutra. The earliest recorded commentary is the early 14th century Thiền commentary entitled ‘Commentary on the Prajñāhṛdaya Sutra’ by Pháp Loa.[29]:155,298[note 14]

All of the East Asian commentaries are commentaries of Xuanzang's translation of the short version of the Heart Sutra. Kukai's commentary is purportedly of Kumārajīva's translation of the short version of the Heart Sutra;but upon closer examination seems to quote only from Xuanzang's translation.[27]:21,36–37

Major Chinese language Commentaries on the Heart Sutra
# English Title [note 15] Taisho Tripitaka No.[31] Author [note 16] / Dates / [School]
1. Comprehensive Commentary on the Prañāpāramitā Heart Sutra[11] T1710 Kuiji   (632–682 CE)  [Yogācāra]
2. Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra Commentary[20] T1711 Woncheuk or (pinyin :Yuance)   (613–692 CE)  [Yogācāra]
3. Brief Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra[32][2]:passim T712 Fazang   (643–712 CE)  [Huayan]
4. A Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra[2]:passim M522 Jingmai   c. 7th century[33]:7170
5. A Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra[2]:passim M521 Huijing   715 CE
6. Secret Key to the Heart Sutra[27][26]:262–276 T2203A Kūkai   (774–835 CE)  [Shingon]
7. Straightforward Explanation of the Heart Sutra[34]:211–224[2]:passim M542 Hanshan Deqing   (1546–1623 CE)[33]:7549  [Chan Buddhism]
8. Explanation of the Heart Sutra[2]:passim M1452 (Scroll 11) Zibo Zhenke   (1543–1603 CE)[33]:5297  [Chan Buddhism]
9. Explanation of the Keypoints to the Heart Sutra[2]:74 M555 Ouyi Zhixu   (1599–1655 CE)[33]:6321  [Pure Land Buddhism]
10. Zen Words for the Heart[28] B021 Hakuin Ekaku   (1686–1768 CE)  [Zen]

IndiaEdit

Eight Indian commentaries survive in Tibetan translation and have been the subject of two books by Donald Lopez.[35][6] These typically treat the text either from a Madhyamaka point of view, or as a tantra (esp. Śrīsiṃha). Śrī Mahājana's commentary has a definite "Yogachara bent".[6] All of these commentaries are on the long version of the Heart Sutra. The Eight Indian Commentaries from the Kangyur are (cf first eight on chart):

Indian Commentaries on the Heart Sutra from Tibetan and Chinese language Sources
# English Title[note 17] Peking Tripitaka No.[36][37][38] Author / Dates
1. Vast Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5217 Vimalamitra (b. Western India fl. c. 797 CE – 810 CE)
2, Atīśa's Explanation of the Heart Sutra No. 5222 Atīśa (b. Eastern India, 982 CE – 1045 CE)
3. Commentary on the 'Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5221 Kamalaśīla (740 CE – 795 CE)
4. Commentary on the Heart Sutra as Mantra No. 5840 Śrīsiṃha (probably 8th century CE)[6]:82[note 18]
5. Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5218 Jñānamitra (c. 10th–11th century CE)[39]:144
6. Vast Commentary on the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5220 Praśāstrasena
7. Complete Understanding of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom No. 5223 Śrī Mahājana (probably c. 11th century)[40]:91
8. Commentary on the Bhagavati (Mother of all Buddhas) Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, Lamp of the Meaning No. 5219 Vajrāpaṇi (probably c. 11th century CE)[40]:89
9. Commentary on the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom M526 Āryadeva (or Deva) c. 10th century[note 19]

There is one surviving Chinese translation of an Indian commentary in the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Āryadeva's commentary is on the short version of the Heart Sutra.[21]:11,13

OtherEdit

Besides the Tibetan translation of Indian commentaries on the Heart Sutra, Tibetan monk-scholars also made their own commentaries. One example is Tāranātha's A Textual Commentary on the Heart Sutra.

In modern times, the text has become increasingly popular amongst exegetes as a growing number of translations and commentaries attest. The Heart Sutra was already popular in Chan and Zen Buddhism, but has become a staple for Tibetan Lamas as well.

Selected English translationsEdit

The first English translation was presented to the Royal Asiatic Society in 1863 by Samuel Beal, and published in their journal in 1865. Beal used a Chinese text corresponding to T251 and a 9th Century Chan commentary by Dàdiān Bǎotōng (大顛寶通) [c. 815 CE].[41] In 1881, Max Müller published a Sanskrit text based on the Hōryū-ji manuscript along an English translation.[42]

There are more than 40 published English translations of the Heart Sutra from Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan, beginning with Beal (1865). Almost every year new translations and commentaries are published. The following is a representative sample.

Author Title Publisher Notes Year ISBN
Geshe Rabten Echoes of Voidness Wisdom Includes the Heart Sutra with Tibetan commentary 1983 ISBN 0-86171-010-X
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. The Heart Sutra Explained SUNY The Heart Sutra with a summary of Indian commentaries 1987 ISBN 0-88706-590-2
Thich Nhat Hanh The Heart of Understanding

"Translation amended 2014". Retrieved 2017-02-26.

Parallax Press The Heart Sutra with a Vietnamese Thiền commentary 1988 ISBN 0-938077-11-2
Norman Waddell Zen Words for the Heart: Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra Shambhala Publications Hakuin Ekaku's commentary on Heart Sutra 1996 ISBN 9781570621659
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. Elaborations on Emptiness Princeton The Heart Sutra with eight complete Indian and Tibetan commentaries 1998 ISBN 0-691-00188-X
Edward Conze Buddhist Wisdom: The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra Random House The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra, along with commentaries on the texts and practices of Buddhism 2001 ISBN 978-0375726002
Chan Master Sheng Yen There Is No Suffering: A Commentary on the Heart Sutra Dharma Drum Publications Heart Sutra with Modern Commentary on Heart Sutra from Major Chan Master From Taiwan China 2001 ISBN 1-55643-385-9
Tetsugen Bernard Glassman Infinite Circle: Teachings in Zen Shambhala Publications Translations and commentaries of The Heart Sutra and The Identity of Relative and Absolute as well as Zen precepts 2003 ISBN 9781590300794
Geshe Sonam Rinchen Heart Sutra: An Oral Commentary Snow Lion Concise translation and commentary from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective 2003 ISBN 9781559392013
Red Pine The Heart Sutra: the Womb of Buddhas Counterpoint Heart Sutra with commentary 2004 ISBN 978-1593760090
14th Dalai Lama Essence of the Heart Sutra Wisdom Publications Heart Sutra with commentary by the 14th Dalai Lama 2005 ISBN 978-0-86171-284-7
Geshe Tashi Tsering Emptiness: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought Wisdom Publications A guide to the topic of emptiness from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective, with English translation of the Heart Sutra 2009 ISBN 978-0-86171-511-4
Geshe Kelsang Gyatso The New Heart of Wisdom: An explanation of the Heart Sutra Tharpa Publications English translation of the Heart Sutra with commentary 2012 ISBN 978-1906665043
Karl Brunnholzl The Heart Attack Sutra: A New Commentary on the Heart Sutra Shambhala Publications Modern commentary 2012 ISBN 9781559393911
Doosun Yoo Thunderous Silence: A Formula For Ending Suffering: A Practical Guide to the Heart Sutra Wisdom Publications English translation of the Heart Sutra with Korean Seon commentary 2013 ISBN 978-1614290537
Kazuaki Tanahashi The Heart Sutra: A Comprehensive Guide to the Classic of Mahayana Buddhism Shambhala Publications English translation of the Heart Sutra with history and commentary 2015 ISBN 978-1611800968

RecordingsEdit

Japanese recitation

The Heart Sūtra has been set to music a number of times.[43] Many singers solo this sutra.[44]

  • The Buddhist Audio Visual Production Centre (佛教視聽製作中心) produced a Cantonese album of recordings of the Heart Sūtra in 1995 featuring a number of Hong Kong pop singers, including Alan Tam, Anita Mui and Faye Wong and composer by Andrew Lam Man Chung (林敏聰) to raise money to rebuild the Chi Lin Nunnery.[45]
  • Malaysian Imee Ooi (黄慧音) sings the short version of the Heart Sutra in Sanskrit accompanied by music entitled 'The Shore Beyond, Prajna Paramita Hrdaya Sutram', released in 2009.
  • Hong Kong pop singers, such as the Four Heavenly Kings sang the Heart Sūtra to raise money for relief efforts related to the 921 earthquake.[46]
  • An alternative Mandarin version was performed by Faye Wong in 2009 at the Famen Temple[47] and its recording subsequently used as a theme song in the blockbusters Aftershock (2010)[48][49] and Xuanzang (2016).[50]
  • Shaolin Monk Shifu Shi Yan Ming recites the Sutra at the end of the song "Life Changes" by the Wu-Tang Clan, in remembrance of the deceased member ODB.
  • The outro of the b-side song Ghetto Defendant by the British first wave punk band The Clash also features the Heart Sūtra, recited by American beat poet Allen Ginsberg.
  • A slightly edited version is used as the lyrics for Yoshimitsu's theme in the PlayStation 2 game Tekken Tag Tournament. An Indian styled version was also created by Bombay Jayashri title named - Ji Project. It was also recorded and arranged by Malaysian singer/composer Imee Ooi. An Esperanto translation of portions of the text furnished the libretto of the cantata La Koro Sutro by American composer Lou Harrison.[51]
  • The heart sutra appears as a track on an album of sutras "performed" by VOCALOID voice software, using the Nekomura Iroha voice pack. The album Syncretism of Shinto and Buddhism by VOCALOID[52] is by the artist tamachang.
  • Toward the end of the opera The (R)evolution of Steve Jobs by Mason Bates the character inspired by Kōbun Chino Otogawa sings part of the Heart Sutra to introduce the scene in which Steve Jobs weds Laurene Powell at Yosemite in 1991.

Popular cultureEdit

In the centuries following the historical Xuanzang, an extended tradition of literature fictionalizing the life of Xuanzang and glorifying his special relationship with the Heart Sūtra arose, of particular note being the Journey to the West[53] (16th century/Ming dynasty). In chapter nineteen of Journey to the West, the fictitious Xuanzang learns by heart the Heart Sūtra after hearing it recited one time by the Crow's Nest Zen Master, who flies down from his tree perch with a scroll containing it, and offers to impart it. A full text of the Heart Sūtra is quoted in this fictional account.

In the State of Divinity (2000 TV series), the sex-fiend character Tian Boguang recites the entire Heart Sutra repeatedly to control his tendencies.

In the 2003 Korean film Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter...and Spring, the apprentice is ordered by his Master to carve the Chinese characters of the sutra into the wooden monastery deck to quiet his heart.

The mantra of the Heart Sūtra was used as the lyrics for the opening theme song of the 2011 Chinese television series Journey to the West.

In episode 4 of Haganai Next (2013), Yukimura chants this while on a roller coaster.

The acclaimed religious film Avalokitesvara (film) (2013), a loose adaptation of the genesis-story of Putuoshan (the Chinese bodhimanda of Avalokitesvara) has several segments where the Heart Sutra (and in a different sequence the mantra) is chanted in Chinese as well as another sequence where Hui'e (or Egaku in Japanese - a monk who attempts to bring a statue of Avalokitesvara back to Japan) chants the Heart Sutra in Japanese.

The words of the Heart Sutra were used as the lyrics for the main theme of King Ghidorah in the 2019 film Godzilla: King of the Monsters

Influence on western philosophyEdit

Schopenhauer, in the final words of his main work, compared his doctrine to the Śūnyatā of the Heart Sūtra. In Volume 1, § 71 of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer wrote: "…to those in whom the will [to continue living] has turned and has denied itself, this very real world of ours, with all its suns and Milky Ways, is — nothing."[54] To this, he appended the following note: "This is also the Prajna–Paramita of the Buddhists, the 'beyond all knowledge,' in other words, the point where subject and object no longer exist."[55]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This is just one interpretation of the meaning of the mantra. There are many others. Traditionally mantras were not translated.
  2. ^ Pine :
    *On p 36-7: "Chen-k'o [Zibo Zhenke or Daguan Zhenke (one of the four great Buddhist Masters of the late Ming Dynasty - member of the Chan sect] says 'This sutra is the principal thread that runs through the entire Buddhist Tripitaka. Although a person's body includes many organs and bones, the heart is the most important.'
  3. ^ Lopez, Jr.:
    * On p 239: "We can assume, at least, that the sutra was widely known during the Pala period (c. 750–1155 in Bengal and c. 750–1199 in Bihar)."
    * On pp 18–20 footnote 8: "...it suggests that the Heart Sutra was recited at Vikramalaśīla (or Vikramashila)(located in today's Bihar, India) and Atisa (982 CE – 1054 CE) appears to be correcting his pronunciation [Tibetan monks visiting Vikramalaśīla – therefore also an indication of the popularity of the Heart Sutra in Tibet during the 10th century] from ‘’ha rūpa ha vedanā’’ to ‘’a rūpa a vedanā’’ to, finally, the more familiar ‘’na rūpa na vedanā’’, saying that because it is the speech of Avalokita, there is nothing wrong to saying ‘’na’’."
  4. ^ Lopez, Jr.:
    Jñānamitra [the medieval Indian monk–commentator c. 10th–11th Century] wrote in his Sanskrit commentary entitled 'Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom' (Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayavyākhyā), "There is nothing in any sutra that is not contained in the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom. Therefore it is called the sutra of sutras."
    Jñānamitra also said regarding the Sanskrit title of the Heart Sutra 'bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṃ' and the meaning of the word bhagavatī,"With regard to [the feminine ending] 'ī', all the buddhas arise from practicing the meaning of the perfection of wisdom. Therefore, since the perfection of wisdom comes to be the mother of all buddhas, [the feminine ending] 'ī' is [used].
  5. ^ Sonam Gyaltsen Gonta : 在佛教教主釋迦牟尼佛(釋尊)對弟子們講述的眾多教義中,《般若經》在思想層面上是最高的。....而將《大般若經》的龐大內容、深遠幽玄本質,不但毫無損傷反而將其濃縮在極精簡扼要的經文中,除了《般若心經》之外沒有能出其右的了...(transl: Among all the teachings taught by Sakyamuni Buddha to his disciples, the highest is the prajñāpāramitā....there are no works besides the Heart Sutra that even comes close to condensing the vast contents of the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra's [the name of a Chinese compilation of complete prajñāpāramitā sutras having 16 sections within it] far-reaching profundity into an extremely concise form without any lost in meaning...
  6. ^ The Prajñāpāramitā genre is accepted as Buddhavacana by all past and present Buddhist schools with Mahayana affiliation.
  7. ^  Of special interest is the 2011 Thai translation of the six different editions of the Chinese version of the Heart Sutra under the auspices of Phra Visapathanee Maneepaket 'The Chinese-Thai Mahāyāna Sūtra Translation Project in Honour of His Majesty the King'; an example of the position of the Heart Sutra and Mahayana Buddhism in Theravadan countries.
  8. ^ He and Xu:
    On page 12 "Based on this investigation, this study discovers ... the 661 CE Heart Sutra located in Fangshan Stone Sutra is probably the earliest extant "Heart Sutra"; [another possibility for the earliest Heart Sutra,] the Shaolin Monastery Heart Sutra commissioned by Zhang Ai on the 8th lunar month of 649 CE [Xuanzang's translated the Heart Sutra on the 24th day of the 5th lunar month in 649 CE][14]:21 mentioned by Liu Xihai in his unpublished hand written draft entitled "Record of Engraved Stele's Surnames and Names", [regarding this stone stele, it] has so far not been located and neither has any ink impressions of the stele. It's possible that Liu made a regnal era transcription error. (He and Xu mention there was a Zhang Ai who is mentioned in another stone stele commissioned in the early 8th century and therefore the possibility Liu made a regnal era transcription error;however He and Xu also stated the existence of the 8th century stele does not preclude the possibility that there could have been two different persons named Zhang Ai.)[14]:22–23 The Shaolin Monastery Heart Sutra stele awaits further investigation."[14]:28
    On page 17 "The 661 CE and the 669 CE Heart Sutra located in Fangshan Stone Sutra mentioned that "Tripitaka Master Xuanzang translated it by imperial decree" (Xian's Beilin Museum's 672 CE Heart Sutra mentioned that "Śramaṇa Xuanzang translated it by imperial decree"..."
  9. ^ Harada's cross-philological study is based on Chinese, Sanskrit and Tibetan texts.
  10. ^ Choo :
    * On p 146–147 [quote from Woncheuk's Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra Commentary] "A version [of the Heart Sūtra] states that “[The Bodhisattva] illuminatingly sees that the five aggregates, etc., are all empty.” Although there are two different versions, the latter [that is, the new version] is the correct one because the word “etc.” is found in the original Sanskrit scripture. [The meaning of] “etc.” described in the latter [version] should be understood based on [the doctrine of Dharmapāla]."
  11. ^ Some Sanskrit Titles of the Heart Sutra from 8th–13th centuries CE
    1. āryabhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṃ (Holy Mother of all Buddhas Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom) Sanskrit title of Tibetan translation by unknown translator.
    2. bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṃ (Mother of all Buddhas Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom) Sanskrit title of Tibetan translation by Vimalamitra who studied in Bodhgayā (today's Bihar State in North Eastern India) in the 8th century CE.
    3. āryabhagavatīprajñāpāramitā (Holy Mother of all Buddhas Perfection of Wisdom) Sanskrit title of Chinese translation by Dānapāla who studied in Oddiyana (today's Swat Valley Pakistan near Afghanistan-Pakistan border) in the 11th century CE.
    4. āryabhagavatīprajñāpāramitā (Holy Mother of all Buddhas Perfection of Wisdom) Sanskrit title of Chinese translation by Dharmalāḍana in the 13th century CE.[21]:29
  12. ^ Sonam Gyaltsen Gonta : 直譯經題的「bCom ldan ’das ma」就是「佛母」之意。接下來我們要討論的是「shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i」(般若波羅蜜多)。....講述這個般若波羅蜜的經典有《十萬頌般若》、《二萬五千頌般若》、《八千頌般若》...而將《大般若經》的龐大內容、深遠幽玄本質,不但毫無損傷反而將其濃縮在極精簡扼要的經文中,除了《般若心經》之外沒有能出其右的了,因此經題中有「精髓」兩字。(transl: Directly translating the title "bCom ldan 'das ma" - it has the meaning of "Mother of all Buddhas". Now we will discuss the meaning of "shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i" (prajñāpāramitā).... Describing the prajñāpāramitā, we have the Śatasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 100,000 verses], the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 verses], Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 verses]...there are no works besides the Heart Sutra that even comes close to condensing the vast contents of the Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra's [(the name of a Chinese compilation of complete prajñāpāramitā sutras having 16 sections within it and including the 3 aforementioned sutras)] far-reaching profundity into an extremely concise form without any lost in meaning and therefore the title has the two words ["snying po"] meaning "essence" [or "heart"]
  13. ^ There were two waves of transliterations. One was from China which later mainly spread to Korea, Vietnam and Japan. Another was from Tibet. Classical transliterations of the mantra include:
    • simplified Chinese: 揭谛揭谛,波罗揭谛,波罗僧揭谛,菩提萨婆诃; traditional Chinese: 揭諦揭諦,波羅揭諦,波羅僧揭諦,菩提薩婆訶; pinyin: Jiēdì, jiēdì, bōluó jiēdì, bōluósēng jiēdì, pútí suōpóhē
    • Vietnamese: Yết đế, yết đế, Ba la yết đế, Ba la tăng yết đế, Bồ đề tát bà ha
    • Japanese: 羯諦羯諦、波羅羯諦、波羅僧羯諦、菩提薩婆訶; Japanese pronunciation: Gyatei gyatei haragyatei harasōgyatei boji sowaka
    • Korean: 아제 아제 바라아제 바라승아제 모지 사바하; romaja: Aje aje bara-aje baraseung-aje moji sabaha
    • Tibetan: ག༌ཏེ༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌སཾ༌ག༌ཏེ༌བོ༌དྷི༌སྭཱ༌ཧཱ། (gate gate paragate parasangate bodi soha)
  14. ^ Nguyen
    *gives the Vietnamese title of Phap Loa's commentary as 'Bát Nhã Tâm Kinh Khoa Sớ' which is the Vietnamese reading of the Sino-Viet title (also given) '般若心經科疏'. (The English translation is 'Commentary on the Prajñāhṛdaya Sutra'.)
    Thich
    *gives Pháp Loa's name in Chinese as 法螺[30]
  15. ^ For those interested, the Chinese language titles are as follows:
    1. 《般若波羅蜜多心經幽贊》 ( 2 卷)[1]
    2. 《般若波羅蜜多心經贊》 ( 1 卷) [2]
    3. 《般若波羅蜜多略疏》 ( 1 卷) [3]
    4. 《般若心經疏》( 1 卷) [4]
    5. 《般若心經疏》( 1 卷) [5]
    6. 《般若心経秘鍵》( 1 卷) [6]
    7. 《心經直說》( 1 卷) [7]
    8. 《心經說》( 29 卷) (參11 卷) [8]
    9. 《心經釋要》( 1 卷) [9]
    10. 《般若心経毒語》[10]
  16. ^ For those interested, the CJKV names are as follows:
    1. 窺基
    2. 원측; 圓測
    3. 法藏
    4. 靖邁
    5. 慧淨
    6. 空海
    7. 憨山德清
    8. 紫柏真可
    9. 蕅益智旭
    10. 白隠慧鶴
  17. ^ For those interested, the Sanskrit titles are as follows:
    1.Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā
    2.Prajñāhṛdayaṭīkā
    3.Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayamaṭīkā
    4.Mantravivṛtaprajñāhṛdayavṛtti
    5.Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayavyākhyā
    6.Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā
    7.Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayārthamaparijñāna
    8.Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayathapradīpanāmaṭīkā
    9.Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā
  18. ^ Lopez, Jr.:
    [Vairocana, a disciple of Srisimha was] ordained by Śāntarakṣita at bSam yas c. 779 CE.
  19. ^ Zhou 1959 :
    (not the famous Āryadeva from the 3rd century CE but another monk with a similar name from c. 10th century)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b e-museum 2018   Ink on pattra (palmyra leaves used for writing upon) ink on paper Heart Sutra: 4.9x28.0 Dharani: 4.9x27.9/10.0x28.3 Late Gupta period/7–8th century Tokyo National Museum N-8'
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Pine 2004
  3. ^ McRae 2004, p. 314.
  4. ^ a b c d Lusthaus 2003
  5. ^ Buswell and Lopez 2014, p. 657: there is as yet no scholarly consensus on the provenance of the text
  6. ^ a b c d e f Lopez Jr. 1996
  7. ^ a b Harada 2010
  8. ^ Tai 2005
  9. ^ a b Sonam Gyaltsen Gonta 2009
  10. ^ प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र (मिलन शाक्य) [Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (tr. from Sanskrit to Nepal Bhasa)] (in Newari). Translated by Shākya, Milan. 2003.
  11. ^ Ledderose, Lothar (2006). "Changing the Audience: A Pivotal Period in the Great Sutra Carving Project". In Lagerway, John (ed.). Religion and Chinese Society Ancient and Medieval China. 1. The Chinese University of Hong Kong and École française d'Extrême-Orient. p. 395.
  12. ^ Lee, Sonya (2010). "Transmitting Buddhism to A Future Age: The Leiyin Cave at Fangshan and Cave-Temples with Stone Scriptures in Sixth-Century China". Archives of Asian Art. 60.
  13. ^ 佛經藏經目錄數位資料庫-般若波羅蜜多心經 [Digital Database of Buddhist Tripitaka Catalogues-Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtra]. CBETA (in Chinese). 【房山石經】No.28《般若波羅蜜多心經》三藏法師玄奘奉詔譯 冊數:2 / 頁數:1 / 卷數:1 / 刻經年代:顯慶六年[公元661年] / 瀏覽:目錄圖檔 [tr to English : Fangshan Stone Sutra No. 28 "Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya Sutra" Tripitaka Master Xuanzang translated by imperial decree Volume 2, Page 1 , Scroll 1 , Engraved 661 CE...]
  14. ^ a b c d He 2017
  15. ^ a b Nattier 1992, pp. 208–09
  16. ^ Harada 2002.
  17. ^ Fukui 1987.
  18. ^ Ishii 2015.
  19. ^ Siu 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d Choo 2006
  21. ^ a b Zhou 1959
  22. ^ Yifa 2005, p. 7.
  23. ^ "Prajñaparamita mantra: Gate gate paragate parasaṃgate bodhi svaha". wildmind.org. Retrieved 2018-08-10. Gate gate pāragate pārasamgate bodhi svāhā... The words here do have a literal meaning: “Gone, gone, gone beyond, gone utterly beyond, Enlightenment hail!
  24. ^ BTTS, 2002 & ps cf bottom of page, p. 46.
  25. ^ Shih and Lusthaus, 2006
  26. ^ a b Hakeda 1972.
  27. ^ a b c Dreitlein 2011
  28. ^ a b Waddell 1996.
  29. ^ Nguyen 2008
  30. ^ Thich 1975.
  31. ^ If listing starts with 'T' and followed by number then it can be found in the Taisho Tripitaka; if listing starts with 'M' and followed by number then it can be found in the Manjizoku Tripitaka; If listing starts with 'B' and followed by number then it can be found in the Supplement to the Great Tripitaka
  32. ^ Minoru 1978 (cf references)
  33. ^ a b c d Foguangshan 1989
  34. ^ Luk 1970
  35. ^ Lopez, Jr. 1988.
  36. ^ von Staël-Holstein, Baron A. (1999). Silk, Jonathan A. (ed.). "On a Peking Edition of the Tibetan Kanjur Which Seems to be Unknown in the West". Journal of International Association of Buddhist Studies. 22 (1): 216. cf footnote (b)-refers to Ōtani University (大谷大学) copy (ed.) of Peking Tripitaka which according to Sakurabe Bunkyō, was printed in China 1717/1720.
  37. ^ 藏文大藏經 [The Tibetan Tripitaka]. 全球龍藏館 [Universal Sutra of Tibetan Dragon]. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 北京版。又名嵩祝寺版。清康熙二十二年(1683)據西藏霞盧寺寫本在北京嵩祝寺刊刻,先刻了甘珠爾。至雍正二年(1724)續刻了丹珠爾。早期印本大部為硃刷,也稱赤字版。版片毀於光緒二十六年庚子之役。 (tr. to English: Beijing (Peking Tripitaka) ed., is also known as Songzhu Temple edition. In 1683, Beijing's Songzhu Temple first carved woodblocks for the Kangyur based on manuscripts from Tibet's Xialu Temple (Shigatse's Shalu Monastery). In 1724, they continued with the carving of woodblocks for the Tengyur. The early impressions were in large part, printed in vermilion ink and therefore are also known as the 'Vermilion Text Edition.' The woodblocks were destroyed in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion.)
  38. ^ If listing starts with 'M' and followed by number then it can be found in the Manjizoku Tripitaka
  39. ^ Fukuda 1964
  40. ^ a b Liao 1997
  41. ^ Beal (1865: 25–28)
  42. ^ Müller (1881)
  43. ^ DharmaSound (in web.archive.org): Sūtra do Coração in various languages (mp3)
  44. ^ 心经试听下载, 佛教音乐专辑心经 - 一听音乐网. lting.com (in Chinese).
  45. ^ 佛學多媒體資料庫. Buda.idv.tw. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  46. ^ 經典讀誦心經香港群星合唱迴向1999年, 台灣921大地震. Youtube.com. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
  47. ^ Faye Wong sings at Buddhist Event
  48. ^ 《大地震》片尾曲引爭議 王菲尚雯婕誰是主題曲. Sina Daily News (in Chinese). 2010-07-28.
  49. ^ 般若波罗密多心经. Archived from the original on 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  50. ^ 黄晓明《大唐玄奘》MV曝光 王菲版《心经》致敬 (in Chinese). People.com.cn Entertainment. 2016-04-21.
  51. ^ "Lou Harrison obituary" (PDF). Esperanto magazine. 2003. Retrieved December 15, 2014. (text in Esperanto)
  52. ^ Syncretism of Shinto and Buddhism by VOCALOID, 2015-11-12, retrieved 2018-07-19
  53. ^ Yu, 6
  54. ^ …ist denen, in welchen der Wille sich gewendet und verneint hat, diese unsere so sehr reale Welt mit allen ihren Sonnen und Milchstraßen—Nichts.
  55. ^ Dieses ist eben auch das Pradschna–Paramita der Buddhaisten, das 'Jenseit aller Erkenntniß,' d.h. der Punkt, wo Subjekt und Objekt nicht mehr sind. (Isaak Jakob Schmidt, "Über das Mahâjâna und Pradschnâ-Pâramita der Bauddhen". In: Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des sciences de St. Pétersbourg, VI, 4, 1836, 145–149;].)

SourcesEdit

  • Beal, Samuel. (1865) The Paramita-hridaya Sutra. Or. The Great Paramita Heart Sutra. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No.2 Dec 1865, 25-28
  • BTTS (Buddhist Text Translation Society) (2002). Daily Recitation Handbook : Sagely City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ISBN 0-88139-857-8
  • Buswell Jr., Robert E. (ed). (2003) Encyclopedia of Buddhism MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 0-02-865718-7
  • Buswell Jr., Robert E. and Lopez Jr., Donald S. (ed). (2014) The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism Princeton and Cambridge: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-15786-3
  • Choo, B. Hyun (2006) 'An English Translation of the Banya paramilda simgyeong chan: Wonch'uk's Commentary on the Heart Sūtra (Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra)' International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture. February 2006, Vol.6, pp. 121–205.
  • Conze, Edward (1948). Text, Sources, and Bibliography of the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 80(1-2): 33-51.
  • Conze, Edward (1967). ‘The Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛdaya Sūtra’ in Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies: Selected Essays, Bruno Cassirer. pp. 147–167.
  • Conze, Edward (1974). The Short Prajñāpāramitā Texts. London and Totowa NJ: Luzac and Company, Ltd. and Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-87471-192-4
  • Conze, Edward. (1975). Buddhist Wisdom Books: Containing the "Diamond Sutra" and the "Heart Sutra" (New edition). Thorsons. ISBN 0-04-294090-7
  • Conze, Edward. (2000) Prajnaparamita Literature Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers ISBN 81-215-0992-0 (originally published 1960 by Mouton & Co.)
  • Dreitlein, Thomas Eijō (2011). An Annotated Translation of Kūkai's Secret Key to the Heart Sūtra. 24. 高野山大学密教文化研究所紀要(Bulletin of the Research Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture). pp. 1–48(L).[12]
  • e-Museum, National Treasures & Important Cultural Properties of National Museums, Japan (2018), "Sanskrit Version of Heart Sutra and Vijaya Dharani", e-Museum
  • Foguangshan Foundation for Buddhist Culture and Education (佛光山文教基金會) (1989). 佛光山大詞典 [Foguangshan Dictionary of Buddhism] (in Chinese). ISBN 9789574571956.
  • Fukuda, Ryosei (福田 亮成) (1964). 般若理趣經・智友Jñānamitra釋における一・二の問題 [A Few Problems with Jñānamitra's Commentary on the Adhyardhaśatikā prajñāpāramitā] (in Japanese). Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. pp. 144–145.
  • Fukui, Fumimasa (福井 文雅) (1987). 般若心経の歴史的研究 [Study of the History of the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shunjūsha (春秋社). ISBN 4-393-11128-1.
  • Hakeda, Y.S. (1972) Kūkai, Major works: Translated and with an account of his life and a study of his thought. New York: Columbia University Press. (esp. pp 262-276 which has the English translation of Secret Key to the Heart Sutra)ISBN 978-0231059336
  • Harada, Waso (原田 和宗) (2002). 梵文『小本・般若心経』和訳 [An Annotated Translation of The Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya] (in Japanese). Association of Esoteric Buddhist Studies. pp. L17–L62.
  • Harada, Waso (原田 和宗) (2010). 「般若心経」の成立史論」 [History of the Establishment of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtram] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Daizō-shuppan 大蔵出版. ISBN 9784804305776.
  • He, Ming (贺铭); Xu, Xiao yu (续小玉) (2017). "2" 早期《心经》的版本 [Early Editions of the Heart Sutra]. In Wang, Meng nan (王梦楠); Fangshan Stone Sutra Museum (房山石经博物馆); Fangshan Stone Sutra and Yunju Temple Culture Research Center (房山石经与云居寺文化研究中心) (eds.). 石经研究 第一辑 [Research on Stone Sutras Part I] (in Chinese). 1. Beijing Yanshan Press. pp. 12–28. ISBN 9787540243944.
  • Ishii, Kōsei (石井 公成) (2015). 『般若心経』をめぐる諸問題 : ジャン・ナティエ氏の玄奘創作説を疑う [Issues Surrounding the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya: Doubts Concerning Jan Nattier’s Theory of a Composition by Xuanzang] (in Japanese). 64. Translated by Kotyk, Jeffrey. 印度學佛教學研究. pp. 499–492. English translation --> [13]
  • Kelsang Gyatso, Geshe (2001). Heart of Wisdom: An Explanation of the Heart Sutra, Tharpa Publications, (4th. ed.). ISBN 978-0-948006-77-7
  • Liao, Bensheng (廖本聖) (1997), 蓮花戒《般若波羅蜜多心經釋》之譯注研究 (廖本聖著) [Research on the Translation of Kamalaśīla’s Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayamaṭīkā], Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal, 10 (in Chinese): 83–123
  • Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (1988), The Heart Sutra Explained: Indian and Tibetan Commentaries, State Univ of New York Pr., ISBN 0-88706-589-9
  • Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (1996), Elaborations on Emptiness: Uses of the Heart Sūtra, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691001883
  • Luk, Charles (1970), Ch'an and Zen Teaching (Series I), Berkeley: Shambala, pp. 211–224, ISBN 0877730091 (cf pp 211-224 for tr. of Hanshan Deqing's Straight Talk on the Heart Sutra (Straightforward Explanation of the Heart Sutra))
  • Lusthaus, Dan (2003). The Heart Sūtra in Chinese Yogācāra: Some Comparative Comments on the Heart Sūtra Commentaries of Wŏnch’ŭk and K’uei-chi. International Journal of Buddhist Thought & Culture 3, 59–103.
  • McRae, John (2004), "Heart Sutra", in Buswell, Jr., Robert E. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, MacMillan
  • Minoru Kiyota (1978). Mahayana Buddhist Meditation: Theory and Practice Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. (esp. Cook, Francis H. ‘Fa-tsang’s Brief Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra.’ pp. 167–206.) ISBN 978-8120807600
  • Müller, Max (1881). ‘The Ancient Palm Leaves containing the Prajñāpāramitā-Hṛidaya Sūtra and Uṣniṣa-vijaya-Dhāraṇi.’ in Buddhist Texts from Japan (Vol 1.iii). Oxford Univers* ity Press. Online
  • Nattier, Jan (1992). 'The Heart Sūtra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?'. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15 (2), 153–223.
  • Nguyen, Tai Thu (2008). The History of Buddhism in Vietnam. Institute of Philosophy, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences-The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. ISBN 978-1565180987.
  • Pine, Red (2004). The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
  • Shih, Heng-Ching & Lusthaus, Dan (2006). A Comprehensive Commentary on the Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita-hyrdaya-sutra). Numata Center for Buddhist Translation & Research. ISBN 978-1886439115
  • Siu, Sai yau (蕭世友) (2017). 略本《般若波羅蜜多心經》重探:漢譯,譯史及文本類型 [Reinvestigation into the Shorter Heart Sūtra: Chinese Translation, History, and Text Type] (in Chinese). Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • Sonam Gyaltsen Gonta, Geshe (索南格西); Shithar, Kunchok(貢卻斯塔); Saito, Yasutaka(齋藤保高) (2009). 西藏的般若心經 [The Tibetan Heart Sutra] (in Chinese). Translated by 凃, 玉盞 (Tu Yuzhan). (Original language in Japanese). Taipei: Shangzhou Press (商周出版). ISBN 9789866369650.
  • Tai Situ Rinpoche (2005). Ground, Path and Fruition. Zhyisil Chokyi Ghatsal Chatitable Trust. ISBN 978-1877294358
  • Tanahashi, Kazuki (2014). The Heart Sutra: A Comprehensive Guide to the Classic of Mahayana Buddhism. Shambala. ISBN 978-1611803129
  • Thích, Thiện Ân (1979). Buddhism and Zen in Vietnam in relation to the development of Buddhism in Asia. Charles E.Tuttle & Co. ISBN 978-0804811446.
  • Waddell, Norman (1996).Zen Words for the Heart. Shambala. (English translation of Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra : 般若心経毒語).ISBN 978-1-57062-165-9
  • Yifa (Ven.) (2005), Owens, M.C., Romaskiewicz, P.M. Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra, Buddha's Light Publishing.
  • Yu, Anthony C. (1980). The Journey to the West. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-97150-6. First published 1977.
  • Zhou, Zhi'an (周止菴) (1959). 般若波羅蜜多心經詮注 [Commentaries on the Prañāpāramitāhṛdaya Sutra] (in Chinese). Taichung: The Regent Store.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

DocumentaryEdit

TranslationsEdit