Diamond Head, Hawaii
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Diamond Head is a volcanic tuff cone on the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu and known to Hawaiians as Lēʻahi, most likely from lae 'browridge, promontory' plus ʻahi 'tuna' because the shape of the ridgeline resembles the shape of a tuna's dorsal fin. Its English name was given by British sailors in the 19th century, who mistook calcite crystals on the adjacent beach for diamonds.
Diamond Head cone seen from Tantalus-Round Top Road
|Elevation||762 ft (232 m) |
|Prominence||560 ft (170 m) |
|Location||Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, US|
|Parent range||Hawaiian Islands|
|Topo map||USGS Honolulu|
|Age of rock||200,000 years|
|Mountain type||Volcanic cone|
Diamond Head is part of the system of cones, vents, and their associated eruption flows that are collectively known to geologists as the Honolulu Volcanic Series, eruptions from the Koʻolau Volcano that took place long after the volcano formed and had gone dormant. The Honolulu Volcanic Series is a series of volcanic eruption events that created many of Oʻahu's well-known landmarks, including Punchbowl Crater, Hanauma Bay, Koko Head, and Mānana Island in addition to Diamond Head.
Diamond Head, like the rest of the Honolulu Volcanic Series, is much younger than the main mass of the Koʻolau Mountain Range. While the Koʻolau Range is about 2.6 million years old, Diamond Head is estimated to be about 500,000 to 400,000 years old.
The interior and adjacent exterior areas were the home to Fort Ruger, the first United States military reservation on Hawaii. Only Battery 407, a National Guard emergency operations center, and Birkhimer Tunnel, the Hawaii State Civil Defense Headquarters (HI-EMA), remain in use in the crater. An FAA air traffic control center was in operation from 1963 to 2001.
|Park Brochure: Diamond Head State Monument|
Diamond Head is a defining feature of the view known to residents and tourists of Waikīkī, and also a U.S. National Natural Monument. The volcanic tuff cone is a State Monument. While part of it is closed to the public and serves as a platform for antennas used by the U.S. government, the crater's proximity to Honolulu's resort hotels and beaches makes the rest of it a popular destination.
A 0.75-mile (1.1-km) hike leads to the edge of the crater's rim. Signs at the trailhead say that the hike takes 1.5–2 hours round-trip, and recommends that hikers bring water. Although not difficult, the signs also say that the hike is not a casual one: the mostly unpaved trail winds over uneven rock, ascends 74 steps, then through a tunnel and up another steep 99 steps. Next is a small lighted tunnel to a narrow spiral staircase (43 steps) inside a coastal artillery observation platform built in 1908. From the summit above the observation platform both Waikīkī and the Pacific Ocean can be seen in detail. It is a short but steep hike – it is a 170 m (560 ft) elevation gain for a total elevation of 232 m (762 ft). There is a water fountain near the bathrooms at the foot of the trail in case you want to hydrate before the hike or fill an empty bottle. The park closes at 6:00 pm and signs posted indicate that you are not allowed to head up the trail after 4:30 pm. A downloadable certificate is available to those who complete the climb.
National Natural LandmarkEdit
In 1968, Diamond Head was declared a National Natural Landmark. The crater, also called Diamond Head Lookout was used as a strategic military lookout in the early 1900s. Spanning over 475 acres (190 ha) (including the crater’s interior and outer slopes), it served as an effective defensive lookout because it provides panoramic views of Waikīkī and the south shore of Oahu.
In popular cultureEdit
The Crater was the location of several concerts in the 1960's and 1970's. First held on New Year's Day, 1969, and often known as Hawaiian Woodstock, Diamond Head Crater Festivals, sometimes called Sunshine Festivals, were all-day music celebrations held in the '60's & '70's attracting over 75,000 in attendance for performances of the Grateful Dead, The Rolling Stones (3 times), Carlos Santana, America, Styx, Journey, War, and Tower of Power, alongside Hawaii talent like Cecilio & Kapono and the Mackey Feary Band. These one day festivals became two day events in 1976 and 1977, but were cancelled by the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources because of community noise and environmental impact concerns (rubbish). Many items from the bands to the rubbish were brought into and out of the Crater by helicopter.
Hawaii Film StudioEdit
Located at 510 18th Avenue on Diamond Head, the 7.5 acre Hawaii Film Studio, owned by the State of Hawaii's Film Office, is the first film and television studio in Hawaii and is the first state owned film and television studio in the United States.[a] In 1975, CBS Productions leased about 4.8 acres of land from the University of Hawaii at Manoa on what is now the Hawaii Film Studio for the television series Hawaii Five-0. The land was part of the 52 acres that the University of Hawaii's Board of Regents had acquired from the former Fort Ruger in 1974. The Hawaii State Legislature later transferred control of the property to the Hawaii State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. From 1980 to 1988, it was the home for Magnum, P.I.. In the late 1980s, the studio expanded to 7.5 acres. In the early 1990s, a sound stage was added. The Hawaii Film Studio was the home for Jake and the Fatman, Raven, The Byrds of Paradise, One West Waikiki, Baywatch Hawaii, Hawaii, North Shore, Lost, The River, and Last Resort; movies-of-the-week; episodic television shows such as Beverly Hills 90210 and ER (Africa episodes); documentaries; commercials; and feature films such as Final Fantasy, Blue Crush, Tears of the Sun, The Rundown, and 50 First Dates. As of December 2017, the studio is currently the home to the new Hawaii Five-O. In the spring of 2017, a $3.3 million renovation was announced as a phase of a much larger, on-going renovation project.
- Hawaii's nickname is Hollywood's Tropical Backlot. From 1975 to 2017, the Hawaii Film Studio was the only film and television studio in Hawaii. The Hawaii Film Office has another film and television studio in a former very large aircraft hanger at Barbers Point which was leased by Disney, Marvel Studios and IMAX in February 2017 for the ABC television series Marvels The Inhumans. The Barbers Point production facility is Hawaii's second film and television studio.
- USGS Topo map at http://ims.er.usgs.gov/gda_services/download?item_id=5643694&quad=Honolulu&state=HI&grid=7.5X7.5&series=Map%20GeoPDF
- HAW411.com website.
- Mary Kawena Pukui, Samuel H. Elbert, Esther K. Mookini, eds. (1964). Place Names of Hawaii, revised and expanded edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-8248-0524-0.
- John R. K. Clark (2002). Hawai'i Place Names: Shores, Beaches, and Surf Sites. University of Hawaii Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8248-2451-8.
- "A geologic tour of the Hawaiian Islands: Oʻahu". HVO Volcano Watch. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. 14 January 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "American Seacoast Defenses Forts, Military Reservations and Batteries 1794-1945: Oahu 1922" (PDF). Coast Defense Study Group (cdsg.org). Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Fawcett, Denby (August 3, 2014). "Tunnel Vision". Star-Advertiser. Honolulu. Archived from the original on August 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- FAA presence inside Diamond Head vanishes, Suzanne Roig, Honolulu Advertiser, September 28, 2001.
- Hike Diamond Head
- "Diamond Head Lookout". Pearl Harbor Website. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- US Airmail Stamps 1941-1961
- "The Diamond Head Game" (1975)
- "Diamond Head State Monument Honolulu Concert Setlists". setlist.fm. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Borreca, Richard (November 1, 1999). "Rebellion & Renaissance, Groovin' in the crater with music and mindbenders: In the '60s and '70s, music moves Hawaii's youth to come together and to speak out". Star-Bulletin. Honolulu. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- Dekneef, Matthew (April 20, 2016). "Memories of the Diamond Head Crater Festivals, Hawaii's own 'Woodstock'". Hawai'i Magazine. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- "Do You Remember... Crater Festivals". Midlife Crisis Hawaii. March 22, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
- "Film Hawaii: Hawaii Film Studio" (PDF). August 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- "State of Hawaii Film Office: Hawaii Film Studio". Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Shimogawa, Duane (March 9, 2017). "Hawaii Film Studio to undergo $3.3M renovation". Pacific Business News. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- "Hawaii Film Office". Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Shimogawa, Duane (February 8, 2017). "Disney, Marvel head to Hawaii to film 'Marvel: The Inhumans' IMAX movie and TV series". Pacific Business News. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Moriki, Darin (September 16, 2015). "Hawaii Film Studio set for multimillion-dollar facelift next year". Pacific Business News. Retrieved December 21, 2017.