Filipino Americans (Filipino: Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent. The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to Fil-Ams or Pinoy. The earliest appearance of the term Pinoy (feminine Pinay), was in a 1926 issue of the Filipino Student Bulletin. Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines.
1.23% of the U.S. population (2017)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Western United States, Hawaii, especially in metropolitan areas, and elsewhere as of 2010|
|English (American, Philippine),|
Ilocano, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bikol, Visayan languages (Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray), and other languages of the Philippines.
Spanish (Chavacano), Chinese (Hokkien, Mandarin)
|65% Roman Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century, and other small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, when the Philippines was ceded from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris.
Filipino sailors were the first Asians in North America. The first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates back to October 1587 around Morro Bay, California, with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration began in the early 20th century when, for a period following the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was a territory of the United States. During the 1920s, a majority of Filipino immigrating to the United States were not skilled.
Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946. After independence in 1946, Filipino American numbers continued to grow. Immigration was reduced significantly during the 1930s, except for those who served in the United States Navy, and increased following immigration reform in the 1960s. The majority of Filipinos who immigrated after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 were skilled professionals and technicians.
The 2010 Census counted 3.4 million Filipino Americans; the United States Department of State in 2011 estimated the total at 4 million, or 1.1% of the U.S. population. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to 2010 American Community Survey. They are also the largest population of Overseas Filipinos. Significant populations of Filipino Americans can be found in California, Hawaii, the New York metropolitan area and Illinois.
The history of Spanish and American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated in a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures in the Philippines. Filipino American cultural identity has been described as fluid, adopting aspects from various cultures; that said there has not been significant research into the culture of Filipino Americans. Fashion, dance, music, theater and arts have all had roles in building Filipino American cultural identities and communities.[page needed]
In areas of sparse Filipino population, they often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", which is a key feature of Filipino culture. These organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date with local events. Organizations are often organized into regional associations. The associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in California and Hawaii. A few communities have "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community.
Some Filipinos retain Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others derive from Japanese, Indian, and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule. Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames, and celebrate fiestas. Due to the legacy of colonization, Filipinos are considered Latinos of Asia.
Despite being from Asia, Filipinos are sometimes called "Latinos" due to their historical relationship to Spanish colonialism. Similar to Puerto Rico, Filipinos have been subjected to both Spanish and American colonial structures and territory status. This shared history may also contribute to why some Filipinos choose to also identify as Hispanic or Latino, while others may not and identify more as Asian Americans. Only a small percentage of Filipino Americans identify as Latino.
Due to history, the Philippines and the United States are connected culturally. In 2016, there was $16.5 billion dollars worth of trade between the two countries, with the United States being the largest foreign investor in the Philippines, and more than 40% of remittances came from (or through) the United States. In 2004, the amount of remittances coming from the United States was $5 billion; this is an increase from the $1.16 billion sent in 1991 (then about 80% of total remittances being sent to the Philippines), and the $324 million sent in 1988. Some Filipino Americans have chosen to retire in the Philippines, buying real estate. Filipino Americans, continue to travel back and forth between the United States and the Philippines, making up more than a tenth of all foreign travelers to the Philippines in 2010; when traveling back to the Philippines they often bring cargo boxes known as a balikbayan box.
Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, and Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use. Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system and due to limited Spanish education. Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English. In 2000, among U.S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded that English is their primary language; nearly half of Filipino Americans speak English exclusively.
In 2003, Tagalog was the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers; by 2011, it was the fourth most-spoken language in the United States. Tagalog usage is significant in California, Nevada, and Washington, while Ilocano usage is significant in Hawaii. Many of California's public announcements and documents are translated into Tagalog. Tagalog is also taught in some public schools in the United States, as well as at some colleges. Other significant Filipino languages are Ilocano and Cebuano. Other languages spoken in Filipino American households include Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Bicolano and Waray. However, fluency in Philippine languages tends to be lost among second- and third-generation Filipino Americans. Other languages of the community include Spanish and Chinese (Minnan and Fujien).
The Philippines is 90% Christian, one of only two predominantly Christian countries in Southeast Asia, along with East Timor. Following the European discovery of the Philippines by Ferdinand Magellan, Spaniards made a concerted effort to convert Filipinos to Catholicism; outside of the Muslim Sultanates in the Philippines, missionaries were able to covert large numbers of Filipinos. and the majority are Roman Catholic, giving Catholicism a major impact on Filipino culture. Other Christian denominations include Protestants (Aglipayan, Episcopalian, and others), and nontrinitarians (Iglesia ni Cristo and Jehovah's Witnesses). Additionally there are those Filipinos who are Muslims, Buddhist or nonreligious; religion has served as a dividing factor within the Philippines and Filipino American communities.
During the early part of the United States governance in the Philippines, there was a concerted effort to convert Filipinos into Protestants. As Filipinos began to migrate to the United States, Filipino Roman Catholics were often not embraced by their American Catholic brethren, nor were they sympathetic to a Filipino-ized Catholicism, in the early 20th century. This led to creation of ethnic-specific parishes; one such parish was St. Columban's Church in Los Angeles. In 1997, the Filipino oratory was dedicated at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, owing to increased diversity within the congregations of American Catholic parishes. The first-ever American Church for Filipinos, San Lorenzo Ruiz Church in New York City, is named after the first saint from the Philippines, San Lorenzo Ruiz. This was officially designated as a church for Filipinos in July 2005, the first in the United States, and the second in the world, after a church in Rome.
In 2010, Filipino American Catholics were the largest population of Asian American Catholics, making up more than three fourths of Asian American Catholics. In 2015, a majority (65%) of Filipino Americans identify as Catholic; this is down slightly from 2004 (68%). Filipino Americans, who are first generation immigrants were more likely to attend mass weekly, and trended to be more conservative, than those who were born in the United States.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuisine of the Philippines in the United States.|
The number of Filipino restaurants does not reflect the size of the population. Due to the restaurant business not being a major source of income for the community, few non-Filipinos are familiar with the cuisine. Although American cuisine influenced Filipino cuisine, it has been criticized by non-Filipinos. Even on Oahu where there is a significant Filipino American population, Filipino cuisine is not as noticeable as other Asian cuisines. On television, Filipino cuisine has been criticized, such as on Fear Factor, and praised, such as on Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations, and Bizarre Foods America.
Filipino American chefs cook in many fine dining restaurants, including Cristeta Comerford who is the executive chef in the White House, though many do not serve Filipino cuisine in their restaurants. Reasons given for the lack of Filipino cuisine in the U.S. include colonial mentality, lack of a clear identity, a preference for cooking at home and a continuing preference of Filipino Americans for cuisines other than their own. Filipino cuisine remains prevalent among Filipino immigrants, with restaurants and grocery stores catering to the Filipino American community, including Jollibee, a Philippines-based fast-food chain.
In the 2010s, successful and critically reviewed Filipino American restaurants were featured in the New York Times. That same decade began a Filipino Food movement in the United States; it has been criticized for gentrification of the cuisine. Bon Appetit named Bad Saint in Washington, D.C. "the second best new restaurant in the United States" in 2016. Food & Wine named Lasa, in Los Angeles, one of its restaurants of the year in 2018. With this emergence of Filipino American restaurants, food critics like Andrew Zimmern have predicted that Filipino food will be "the next big thing" in American cuisine. Yet in 2017, Vogue described the cuisine as "misunderstood and neglected"; SF Weekly in 2019, later described the cuisine as "marginal, underappreciated, and prone to weird booms-and-busts".
Filipino Americans, similar to other people of color, undergo experiences that are unique to their own identities. These experiences derive from both the Filipino culture and American cultures individually and the dueling of these identities as well. These stressors, if great enough, can lead Filipino Americans into suicidal behaviors. Members of the Filipino community learn early on about kapwa, which is defined as “interpersonal connectedness or togetherness.”
With kapwa, many Filipino Americans have a strong sense of needing to repay their family members for the opportunities that they have been able to receive. An example of this is a new college graduate feeling the need to find a job that will allow them to financially support their family and themselves. This notion comes from “utang na loob,” defined as a debt that must be repaid to those who have supported the individual.
With kapwa and utang na loob as strong forces enacting on the individual, there is an “all or nothing” mentality that is being played out. In order to bring success back to one's family, there is a desire to succeed for one's family through living out a family's wants as opposed to one's own true desires. This can manifest as one entering a career path that they are not passionate in, but select in order to help support their family.
Despite many of the stressors for these students deriving from family, it also becomes apparent that these are the reasons that these students are resilient. When family conflict rises in Filipino American families, there is a negative association with suicide attempts. This suggests that though family is a presenting stressor in a Filipino American's life, it also plays a role for their resilience. In a study conducted by Yusuke Kuroki, family connectedness, whether defined as positive or negative to each individual, served as one means of lowering suicide attempts.
Filipino Americans have traditionally been socially conservative, particularly with "second wave" immigrants; the first Filipino American elected to office was Peter Aduja. In the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election Republican president George W. Bush won the Filipino American vote over John Kerry by nearly a two-to-one ratio, which followed strong support in the 2000 election. However, during the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election, Filipino Americans voted majority Democratic, with 50% to 58% of the community voting for President Barack Obama and 42% to 46% voting for Senator John McCain. The 2008 election marked the first time that a majority of Filipino Americans voted for a Democratic presidential candidate.
According to the 2012 National Asian American Survey, conducted in September 2012, 45% of Filipinos were independent or nonpartisan, 27% were Republican, and 24% were Democrats. Additionally, Filipino Americans had the largest proportions of Republicans among Asian Americans polled, a position normally held by Vietnamese Americans, leading up to the 2012 election, and had the lowest job approval opinion of Obama among Asian Americans. In a survey of Asian Americans from thirty seven cities conducted by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, it found that of the Filipino American respondents, 65% voted for Obama. According to an exit poll conducted by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, it found that 71% of responding Filipino Americans voted for Hillary Clinton during the 2016 general election.
Due to scattered living patterns, it is nearly impossible for Filipino American candidates to win an election solely based on the Filipino American vote. Filipino American politicians have increased their visibility over the past few decades. Ben Cayetano, former governor of Hawaii, became the first governor of Filipino descent in the United States. The number of Congress-members of Filipino descent doubled to numbers not reached since 1937, two when the Philippine Islands were represented by non-voting Resident Commissioners, due to the 2000 Senatorial Election. In 2009 three Congress-members claimed at least one-eighth Filipino ethnicity; the largest number to date. Since the resignation of Senator John Ensign in 2011 (the only Filipino American to have been a member of the Senate), and Representative Steve Austria (the only Asian Pacific American Republican in the 112th Congress) choosing not to seek reelection and retire, Representative Robert C. Scott was the only Filipino American in the 113th Congress. In the 116th United States Congress, Scott was joined by Rep. TJ Cox, bringing the number of Filipino Americans in Congress to two.
The Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9225) made Filipino Americans eligible for dual citizenship in the United States and the Philippines. Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was reelected to a second term.
By 2005, about 6,000 Filipino Americans had become dual citizens of the two countries. One effect of this act was to allow Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines through land purchases, which are limited to Filipino citizens, and, with some limitations, former citizens.), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag. In 2013, for the Philippine general election there were 125,604 registered Filipino voters in the United States and Caribbean, of which only 13,976 voted.
Dual citizens have been recruited to participate in international sports events including athletes representing the Philippines who competed in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, and the Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.
Filipinos remain one of the largest immigrant groups to date with over 40,000 arriving annually since 1979. The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has a preference system for issuing visas to non-citizen family members of U.S. citizens, with preference based generally on familial closeness. Some non-citizen relatives of U.S. citizens spend long periods on waiting lists. Petitions for immigrant visas, particularly for siblings of previously naturalized Filipinos that date back to 1984, were not granted until 2006. As of 2016[update], over 380 thousand Filipinos were on the visa wait list, second only to Mexico and ahead of India, Vietnam and China. Filipinos have the longest waiting times for family reunification visas, as Filipinos disproportionately apply for family visas; this has led to visa petitions filed in July 1989 still waiting to be processed in March 2013.
It has been documented that Filipinos were among those naturalized due to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. In 2009, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that 270,000 Filipino were "unauthorized immigrants". This was an increase of 70,000 from a previous estimate in 2000. In both years, Filipinos accounted for 2% of the total. As of 2009[update], Filipinos were the fifth-largest community of illegal immigrants behind Mexico (6.65 million, 62%), El Salvador (530,000, 5%), Guatemala (480,000, 4%), and Honduras (320,000, 3%). In January 2011, the Department of Homeland Security estimate of "unauthorized immigrants" from the Philippines remained at 270,000. By 2017, the number of Filipinos who were in the United States illegally increased to 310,000. Filipinos who reside in the United States illegally are known within the Filipino community as "TnT's" (tago nang tago translated to "hide and hide").
Filipino Americans may be mistaken for members of other racial/ethnic groups, such as Latinos or Pacific Islanders; this may lead to "mistaken" discrimination that is not specific to Asian Americans. Filipino Americans additionally, have had difficulty being categorized, termed by one source as being in "perpetual absence".
In the period, prior to 1946, Filipinos were taught that they were American, and presented with an idealized America. They had official status as United States nationals. When ill-treated and discriminated by other Americans, Filipinos were faced with the racism of that period, which undermined these ideals. Carlos Bulosan later wrote about this experience in America is in the Heart. Even pensionados, who immigrated on government scholarships, were treated poorly.
In Hawaii, Filipino Americans often have little identification with their heritage, and it has been documented that many disclaim their ethnicity. This may be due to the "colonial mentality", or the idea that Western ideals and physical characteristics are superior to their own. Although categorized as Asian Americans, Filipino Americans have not fully embraced being part of this racial category due to marginalization by other Asian American groups and or the dominant American society. This created a struggle within Filipino American communities over how far to assimilate. The term "white-washed" has been applied to those seeking to further assimilate. Those who disclaim their ethnicity lose the positive adjustment to outcomes that are found in those who have a strong, positive, ethnic identity.
Of the ten largest immigrant groups, Filipino Americans have the highest rate of assimilation. with exception to the cuisine; Filipino Americans have been described as the most "Americanized" of the Asian American ethnicities. However, even though Filipino Americans are the second largest group among Asian Americans, community activists have described the ethnicity as "invisible", claiming that the group is virtually unknown to the American public, and is often not seen as significant even among its members. Another term used to describe this status is "forgotten minority".
This description has also been used in the political arena, given the lack of political mobilization. In the mid-1990s it was estimated that some one hundred Filipino Americans have been elected or appointed to public office. This lack of political representation contributes to the perception that Filipino Americans are invisible.
The concept is also used to describe how the ethnicity has assimilated. Few affirmative action programs target the group although affirmative action programs rarely target Asian Americans in general. Assimilation was easier given that the group is majority religiously Christian, fluent in English, and have high levels of education. The concept was in greater use in the past, before the post-1965 wave of arrivals.
The term "invisible minority" has been used to describe Asian Americans as a whole, and the term "model minority" has been applied to Filipinos as well as other Asian American groups. Filipino critics allege that Filipino Americans are ignored in immigration literature and studies.
As with fellow Asian Americans, Filipino Americans are viewed as "perpetual foreigners", even for those born in the United States. This has resulted in physical attacks on Filipino Americans, as well as non-violent forms of discrimination.
In college and high school campuses, many Filipino American student organizations put on annual Pilipino Culture Nights to showcase dances, perform skits, and comment on the issues such as identity and lack of cultural awareness due to assimilation and colonization.
Filipino American gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual identities are often shaped by immigration status, generation, religion, and racial formation.
Suicide ideation and depressionEdit
Mental health is a topic that is seldom spoken about among the Filipino American community because of the stigma that is attached to it. In the documentary “Silent Sacrifices: Voices of the Filipino American Family” Dr. Patricia Heras points out that a lack of communication between 1st generation and 2nd generation Filipino American immigrants can lead to family members not understanding the personal hardships that each one goes through. Some of the main topics of discussion in this documentary are depression and suicide ideation experienced by the 2nd generation youth. These topics are supported by a study that was conducted in 1997 by the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that revealed that 45.6% of Filipina American teenage students in San Diego public schools had seriously thought about committing suicide. Half of those students had actually attempted suicide. Although depression cannot be said to cause suicide, the high scores of depression and low self-esteem show a relation to the high scores of suicidal thoughts among Filipinos.
Depression in Filipinos can sometimes be difficult to notice without digging deeper into their feelings. Filipinos can display their depression in many ways such as showing extreme suffering or smiling even when it may not seem authentic. Some of the common causes of depression include: financial worries, family separation during the immigration process, and cultural conflict. One of these cultural conflicts is the belief that one must base decisions on what will “save face” for the family. A study was published in 2018 by Janet Chang and Frank Samson about Filipino American youth and their non-Filipino friends. They had found that Filipino American youth with three or more close non-Filipino friends were more likely to experience depression and anxiety more so than Filipino American youth with two or less non-Filipino friends that they considered to be close. Although having friends of diverse backgrounds gave these Filipinos a sense of inclusion among their peers, they also gained a heightened awareness of discrimination.
During World War II, some 250,000 to 400,000 Filipinos served in the United States Military, in units including the Philippine Scouts, Philippine Commonwealth Army under U.S. Command, and recognized guerrillas during the Japanese Occupation. In January 2013, ten thousand surviving Filipino American veterans of World War II lived in the United States, and a further fourteen thousand in the Philippines, although some estimates found eighteen thousand or fewer surviving veterans.
The U.S. government promised these soldiers all of the benefits afforded to other veterans. However, in 1946, the United States Congress passed the Rescission Act of 1946 which stripped Filipino veterans of the promised benefits. One estimate claims that monies due to these veterans for back pay and other benefits exceeds one billion dollars. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States. The phrase "Second Class Veterans" has been used to describe their status.
Many Filipino veterans traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for these benefits. Since 1993, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress to pay the benefits, but all died in committee. As recently as 2018, these bills have received bipartisan support.
Representative Hanabusa submitted legislation to award Filipino Veterans with a Congressional Gold Medal. Known as the Filipino Veterans of World War II Congressional Gold Medal Act, it was referred to the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on House Administration. As of February 2012 had attracted 41 cosponsors. In January 2017, the medal was approved.
In the late 1980s, efforts towards reinstating benefits first succeeded with the incorporation of Filipino veteran naturalization in the Immigration Act of 1990. Over 30,000 such veterans had immigrated, with mostly American citizens, receiving benefits relating to their service.
Similar language to those bills was inserted by the Senate into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which provided a one time payment of at least 9,000 USD to eligible non-US Citizens and 15,000 USD to eligible US Citizens via the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund. These payments went to those recognized as soldiers or guerrillas or their spouses. The list of eligibles is smaller than the list recognized by the Philippines. Additionally, recipients had to waive all rights to possible future benefits. As of March 2011, 42 percent (24,385) of claims had been rejected; By 2017, more than 22,000 people received about $226 million in one time payments.
In the 113th Congress, Representative Joe Heck reintroduced his legislation to allow documents from the Philippine government and the U.S. Army to be accepted as proof of eligibility. Known as H.R. 481, it was referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. In 2013, the U.S. released a previously classified report detailing guerrilla activities, including guerrilla units not on the "Missouri list".
In September 2012, the Social Security Administration announced that non-resident Filipino World War II veterans were eligible for certain social security benefits; however an eligible veteran would lose those benefits if they visited for more than one month in a year, or immigrated.
Beginning in 2008, a bipartisan effort started by Mike Thompson and Tom Udall an effort began to recognize the contributions of Filipinos during World War 2; by the time Barack Obama signed the effort into law in 2016, a mere fifteen thousand of those veterans were estimated to be alive. Of those living Filipino veterans of World War II, there were an estimated 6,000 living in the United States. Finally in October 2017, the recognition occurred with the awarding of a Congressional Gold Medal. When the medal was presented by the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, several surviving veterans were at the ceremony. The medal now resides in the National Museum of American History.
Congress established Asian Pacific American Heritage Month in May to commemorate Filipino American and other Asian American cultures. Upon becoming the largest Asian American group in California, October was established as Filipino American History Month to acknowledge the first landing of Filipinos on October 18, 1587 in Morro Bay, California. It is widely celebrated by Fil-Ams.
|May||Asian Pacific American Heritage Month||Nationwide, USA|
|May||Asian Heritage Festival||New Orleans|
|May||Filipino Fiesta and Parade||Honolulu|
|May||FAAPI Mother's Day||Philadelphia|
|May||Flores de Mayo||Nationwide, USA|
|June||Philippine Independence Day Parade||New York City|
|June||Philippine Festival||Washington, D.C.|
|June||Philippine Day Parade||Passaic, NJ|
|June||Pista Sa Nayon||Vallejo, CA|
|June||New York Filipino Film Festival at The ImaginAsian Theatre||New York City|
|June||Empire State Building commemorates Philippine Independence||New York City|
|June||Philippine–American Friendship Day Parade||Jersey City, NJ|
|June 12||Fiesta Filipina||San Francisco|
|June 12||Philippine Independence Day||Nationwide, USA|
|June 19||Jose Rizal's Birthday||Nationwide, USA|
|July||Fil-Am Friendship Day||Virginia Beach, VA|
|July||Pista sa Nayon||Seattle|
|July||Philippine Weekend||Delano, CA|
|August 15 to 16||Philippine American Exposition||Los Angeles|
|August 15 to 16||Annual Philippine Fiesta||Secaucus, NJ|
|August||Historic Filipinotown Festival||Los Angeles|
|August||Pistahan Festival and Parade||San Francisco|
|September 25||Filipino Pride Day||Jacksonville, FL|
|September||Festival of Philippine Arts and Culture (FPAC)||Los Angeles|
|October||Filipino American History Month||Nationwide, USA|
|October||Filipino American Arts and Culture Festival (FilAmFest)||San Diego|
|November||Chicago Filipino American Film Festival (CFAFF)||Chicago|
|December 16 to 24||Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses||Nationwide, USA|
|December 25||Pasko Christmas Feast||Nationwide, USA|
|December 30||Jose Rizal Day||Nationwide, USA|
- "ASIAN ALONE OR IN ANY COMBINATION BY SELECTED GROUPS". U.S. Census Bureau, 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
4,037,564 +/-48,784horizontal tab character in
|quote=at position 10 (help)
- "California". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Hawaii". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Illinois". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Texas". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Washington". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "New Jersey". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "New York". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Nevada". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Florida". Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Melen McBride, RN, PhD. "HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE OF FILIPINO AMERICAN ELDERS". Stanford University School of Medicine. Stanford University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
- Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
Religious Affiliations Among U.S. Asian American Groups - Filipino: 89% Christian (21% Protestant (12% Evangelical, 9% Mainline), 65% Catholic, 3% Other Christian), 1% Buddhist, 0% Muslim, 0% Sikh, 0% Jain, 2% Other religion, 8% Unaffiliated[failed verification]
"Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
Filipino Americans: 89% All Christian (65% Catholic, 21% Protestant, 3% Other Christian), 8% Unaffiliated, 1% Buddhist
- "Fil-Am: abbreviation Filipino American.", allwords.com, Date accessed: 29 April 2011
Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III; Roger L. Kemp (18 February 2016). Immigration and America's Cities: A Handbook on Evolving Services. McFarland. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7864-9633-4.
Stanley I. Thangaraj; Constancio Arnaldo; Christina B. Chin (5 April 2016). Asian American Sporting Cultures. NYU Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4798-4016-8.
- Jon Sterngass (2007). Filipino Americans. Infobase Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4381-0711-0.
- Dawn Bohulano Mabalon (29 May 2013). Little Manila Is in the Heart: The Making of the Filipina/o American Community in Stockton, California. Duke University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8223-9574-4.
- Marina Claudio-Perez (October 1998). "Filipino Americans" (PDF). The California State Library. State of California. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
Filipino Americans are often shortened into Pinoy Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by the early Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Others claim that it implies "Filipino" thoughts, deeds and spirit.
- Mercene, Floro L. (2007). Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. The University of the Philippines Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-971-542-529-2. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Rodel Rodis (25 October 2006). "A century of Filipinos in America". Inquirer. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- "Labor Migration in Hawaii". UH Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- "Treaty of Paris ends Spanish–American War". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to the United States, the Philippines were bought for $20 million, and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate.
Rodolfo Severino (2011). Where in the World is the Philippines?: Debating Its National Territory. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 10. ISBN 978-981-4311-71-7.
Muhammad Munawwar (23 February 1995). Ocean States: Archipelagic Regimes in the Law of the Sea. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-7923-2882-7.
Thomas Leonard; Jurgen Buchenau; Kyle Longley; Graeme Mount (30 January 2012). Encyclopedia of U.S. - Latin American Relations. SAGE Publications. p. 732. ISBN 978-1-60871-792-7.
- Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
Most people think of Asians as recent immigrants to the Americas, but the first Asians—Filipino sailors—settled in the bayous of Louisiana a decade before the Revolutionary War.
- Bonus, Rick (2000). Locating Filipino Americans: Ethnicity and the Cultural Politics of Space. Temple University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-56639-779-7.
"Historic Site". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America.
Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA. PBS. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763.
Ohamura, Jonathan (1998). Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora: Transnational Relations, Identities, and Communities. Studies in Asian Americans Series. Taylor & Francis. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Filipino-Americans in the U.S." Filipino-American Community of South Puget Sound. 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Introduction, Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. March 1995. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- "Introduction, Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. March 1995. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "Background Note: Philippines". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. United States Department of State. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
There are an estimated four million Americans of Philippine ancestry in the United States, and more than 300,000 American citizens in the Philippines.
- "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- Public Information Office (9 November 2015). "Census Bureau Statement on Classifying Filipinos". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
Joan L. Holup; Nancy Press; William M. Vollmer; Emily L. Harris; Thomas M. Vogt; Chuhe Chen (September 2007). "Performance of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Revised Race and Ethnicity Categories in Asian Populations". International Journal Intercultural Relations. 31 (5): 561–573. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.02.001. PMC 2084211. PMID 18037976.
- Jonathan Y. Okamura (11 January 2013). Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora: Transnational Relations, Identities, and Communities. Routledge. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-136-53071-5.
- Yengoyan, Aram A. (2006). "Christianity and Austronesian Transformations: Church, Polity, and Culture in the Philippines and the Pacific". In Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell (eds.). The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Comparative Austronesian Series. Australian National University E Press. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-920942-85-4.
Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State And Society In The Philippines. State and Society in East Asia Series. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1.
Natale, Samuel M.; Rothschild, Brian M.; Rothschield, Brian N. (1995). Work Values: Education, Organization, and Religious Concerns. Volume 28 of Value inquiry book series. Rodopi. p. 133. ISBN 978-90-5183-880-0.
Munoz, J. Mark; Alon, Ilan (2007). "Entrepreneurship among Filipino immigrants". In Dana, Leo Paul (ed.). Handbook of Research on Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship: A Co-evolutionary View on Resource Management. Elgar Original Reference Series. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 259. ISBN 978-1-84720-996-2. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Irisa Ona (15 April 2015). "Fluidity of Filipino American Identity". Engaged Learning. Southern Methodist University. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
The Historic Filipinotown Health Network; Semics LLC (November 2007). "Culture and Health Among Filipinos and Filipino-Americans in Central Los Angeles" (PDF). Search to Involve Pilipino Americans. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Bautista, Amanda Vinluan (May 2014). Filipino American Culture And Traditions: An Exploratory Study (PDF) (Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Work). California State University, Stanislaus. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- See, Sarita Echavez (2009). The Decolonized Eye: Filipino American Art and Performance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5319-5.
- Tyner, James A. (2007). "Filipinos: The Invisible Ethnic Community". In Miyares, Ines M.; Airress, Christopher A. (eds.). Contemporary Ethnic Geographies in America. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 264–266. ISBN 978-0-7425-3772-9.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Carlo Osi (26 March 2009). "Filipino cuisine on US television". Mind Feeds. Inquirer Company. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
In the United States, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultural groups often bond for organizational purposes, while Filipinos in general have not. Ethnically Filipino Americans are divided into Pampangeno, Ilocano, Cebuano, Tagalog, and so forth.
- Guevarra, Jr., Rudy P. (2008). ""Skid Row": Filipinos, Race and the Social Construction of Sapce in San Diego" (PDF). The Journal of San Diego History. 54 (1). Retrieved 26 April 2011.
Lagierre, Michel S. (2000). The global ethnopolis: Chinatown, Japantown, and Manilatown in American society. New York, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-312-22612-1.
- Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6.
- Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-313-29742-7. Filipino Americans at Google Books
Lee, Jonathan H. X.; Nadeau, Kathleen M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 334. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- Harold Hisona (14 July 2010). "The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan". Philippine Almanac. Philippine Daily. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
Varatarācaṉ, Mu (1988). A History of Tamil Literature. Histories of literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1–17. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Leupp, Gary P. (2003). Interracial Intimacy in Japan. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 52–3. ISBN 978-0-8264-6074-5.
- Bryan, One (2003). Filipino Americans. ABDO. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-57765-988-4.Filipino Americans at Google Books
- The Latinos of Asia: How Filipino Americans Break the Rules of Race. Stanford University Press. 2016. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8047-9757-3.
- Kramer, Paul (2006). "Race-Making and Colonial Violence in the U.S. Empire: The Philippine-American War as Race War". Diplomatic History. 30 (2): 169–210. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00546.x.
- Kevin R. Johnson (2003). Mixed Race America and the Law: A Reader. NYU Press. pp. 226–227. ISBN 978-0-8147-4256-3.
Yen Le Espiritu (11 February 1993). Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities. Temple University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-56639-096-5.
- Jeffrey S. Passel; Paul Taylor (29 May 2009). "Who's Hispanic?". Hispanic Trends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
In the 1980 Census, about one in six Brazilian immigrants and one in eight Portuguese and Filipino immigrants identified as Hispanic. Similar shares did so in the 1990 Census, but by 2000, the shares identifying as Hispanic dropped to levels close to those seen today.
Westbrook, Laura (2008). "Mabuhay Pilipino! (Long Life!): Filipino Culture in Southeast Louisiana". Louisiana Folklife Program. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation & Tourism. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Sri Kuhnt-Saptodewo; Volker Grabowsky; Martin Grossheim (1997). "Colonialism, Conflict and Cultural Identity in the Philippines". Nationalism and Cultural Revival in Southeast Asia: Perspectives from the Centre and the Region. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 247. ISBN 978-3-447-03958-1.
Garcia, Gabriel (29 September 2016). "Filipinos helped shape America of today". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Paul A. Rodell (2002). Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-313-30415-6.
Barrameda, Ina (8 May 2018). "Confessions of an Inglisera". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Esmaquel II, Paterno (21 October 2016). "Envoy reminds PH: 43% of OFW remittances come from US". Rappler. Philippines. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Joaquin Jay Gonzalez (1 February 2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8147-3297-7.
- Jonathan Y. Okamura (11 January 2013). "Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora". Imagining the Filipino American Diaspora: Transnational Relations, Identities, and Communities. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-136-53071-5.
- Orendian, Simone (17 July 2013). "Remittances Play Significant Role in Philippines". VOA. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Victoria P. Garchitoreno (May 2007). Diaspora Philanthropy: The Philippine Experience (PDF) (Report). Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Taylor, Marisa (27 March 2006). "Filipinos follow their hearts home". The Virginia-Pilot. Norfolk, Virginia. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Eric J. Pido (5 May 2017). Migrant Returns: Manila, Development, and Transnational Connectivity. Duke University Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-8223-7312-4.
- Garcia, Nelson (23 April 2017). "Special: Traveling to find lost heritage". KUSA. Denver. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Tagala, Don (27 September 2018). ""Diskubre" New Travel Reality Series Brings Young Filipino American Cast Overseas". Balitang American. Redwood Shores, California. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Faye Caronan (30 May 2015). Legitimizing Empire: Filipino American and U.S. Puerto Rican Cultural Critique. University of Illinois Press. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-252-09730-0.
- Shyong, Frank (28 April 2018). "These boxes are a billion-dollar industry of homesickness for Filipinos overseas". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Diana Mata-Codesal; Maria Abranches; Karina Hof (9 August 2017). "A Hard Look at the Balikbayan Box: The Philipine Disapora's Export Hospitality". Food Parcels in International Migration: Intimate Connections. Springer. pp. 94–114. ISBN 978-3-319-40373-1.
- Fong, Rowena (2004). Culturally competent practice with immigrant and refugee children and families. Guilford Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-57230-931-9. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
Andres, Tomas Quintin D. (1998). People empowerment by Filipino values. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 17. ISBN 978-971-23-2410-9. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
Pinches, Michael (1999). Culture and Privilege in Capitalist Asia. Routledge. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-415-19764-9.Filipino Americans at Google Books
Roces, Alfredo; Grace Roces (1992). Culture Shock!: Philippines. Graphic Arts Center Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-55868-089-0. Filipino Americans at Google Books
- J. Nicole Stevens (30 June 1999). "The History of the Filipino Languages". Linguistics 450. Brigham Young University. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
The Americans began English as the official language of the Philippines. There were many reasons given for this change. Spanish was still not known by very many of the native people. As well, when Taft’s commission (which had been established to continue setting up the government in the Philippines) asked the native people what language they wanted, they asked for English (Frei, 33).
Stephen A. Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tryon (1 January 1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Vol I: Maps. Vol II: Texts. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 272–273. ISBN 978-3-11-081972-4.
- Don T. Nakanishi; James S. Lai (2003). Asian American Politics: Law, Participation, and Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7425-1850-6.
- Bankston III, Carl L. (2006). "Filipino Americans". In Gap Min, Pyong (ed.). Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Sage focus editions. 174. Pine Forge Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5.
- Osalbo, Jennifer Guiang (Spring 2011). "Education". Filipino American Identity Development and its Relation to Heritage Language Loss (PDF) (Master of Arts). California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
Guevarra, Ericka Cruz (26 February 2016). "For Some Filipino-Americans, Language Barriers Leave Culture Lost in Translation". KQED. San Francisco Bay Area. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
Ph.D., Kevin L. Nadal, (15 July 2010). Filipino American Psychology: A Collection of Personal Narratives. AuthorHouse. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4520-0190-6.
- Ryan, Camille (August 2013). Language Use in the United States: 2011 (PDF) (Report). United States Census Bureau. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- Nucum, Jun (2 August 2017). "So what if Tagalog is 3rd most spoken language in 3 US states?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- "Language Requirements" (PDF). Secretary of State. State of California. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Malabonga, Valerie. (2019). Heritage Voices: Programs - Tagalog.
Blancaflor, Saleah; Escobar, Allyson (30 October 2018). "Filipino cultural schools help bridge Filipino Americans and their heritage". NBC News. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- "Ilokano Language & Literature Program". Communications department. University of Hawaii at Manao. 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Joyce Newman Giger (14 April 2014). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and Intervention. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 407. ISBN 978-0-323-29328-0.
- Potowski, Kim (2010). Language Diversity in the USA. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-76852-8. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, ed. (2002). Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion: Views from the Other Side. Fortress Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-8006-3569-5. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
Axel, Joseph (January 2011). Language in Filipino America (PDF) (Doctoral disertation). Arizona State University. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Professor Susan Russell. "Christianity in the Philippines". Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Cindy Kleinmeyer (June 2004). "Religions in Southeast Asia" (PDF). Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
Gonzales, Joseph; Sherer, Thomas E. (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography. Penguin. p. 334. ISBN 978-1-59257-188-8. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (25 August 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-19-976764-9.
Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tyron, Darrell; Yengoyan, Aram A. (April 1995). "America and Protestantism in the Philippines". The Austronesians. Australia National University. ISBN 978-0731521326. Archived from the original on 2006.
America. America Press. 1913. p. 8.
Catholic World. Paulist Fathers. 1902. p. 847.
- Laderman, Gary; León, Luís D. (2003). Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-57607-238-7. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. 1901.
- Thema Bryant-Davis; Asuncion Miteria Austria; Debra M. Kawahara; Diane J. Willis Ph.D. (30 September 2014). Religion and Spirituality for Diverse Women: Foundations of Strength and Resilience: Foundations of Strength and Resilience. ABC-CLIO. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4408-3330-4.
- Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 357. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
Sucheng Chan (1991). Asian Americans: an interpretive history. Twayne. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8057-8426-8.
- Thomas A. Tweed (28 June 2011). America's Church: The National Shrine and Catholic Presence in the Nation's Capital. Oxford University Press. pp. 222–224. ISBN 978-0-19-983148-7.
Broadway, Bill (2 August 1997). "50-ton Symbol of Unity to Adorn Basilica". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz". Philippine Apostolate / Archdiocese of new York. Archived from the original on 2008-08-03. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
Fr. Diaz (1 August 2005). "Church of Filipinos opens in New York". The Manila Times. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Mark Gray; Mary Gautier; Thomas Gaunt (June 2014). "Cultural Diversity in the Catholic Church in the United States" (PDF). United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
Some 76 percent of Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander Catholics are estimated to self-identify as Filipino (alone and in combinations with other identities).
- Lipka, Michael (9 January 2015). "5 facts about Catholicism in the Philippines". Fact Tank. Pew Research. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Tony Carnes; Fenggang Yang (1 May 2004). Asian American Religions: The Making and Remaking of Borders and Boundaries. NYU Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-8147-7270-6.
- Stephen M. Cherry (3 January 2014). Faith, Family, and Filipino American Community Life. Rutgers University Press. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0-8135-7085-3.
- Cowen, Tyler (2012). An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies. Penguin. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-101-56166-9. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
Yet, according to one source, there are only 481 Filipino restaurants in the country;
- Shaw, Steven A. (2008). Asian Dining Rules: Essential Strategies for Eating Out at Japanese, Chinese, Southeast Asian, Korean, and Indian Restaurants. New York, New York: HarperCollins. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-06-125559-5.
- Dennis Clemente (1 July 2010). "Where is Filipino food in the US marketplace?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Alice L. McLean (28 April 2015). Asian American Food Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-56720-690-6.
- Woods, Damon L. (2006). The Philippines: a global studies handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
Jennifer Jensen Wallach; Lindsey R. Swindall; Michael D. Wise (12 February 2016). The Routledge History of American Foodways. Routledge. p. 402. ISBN 978-1-317-97522-9.
- Sokolov, Raymond (1993). Why We Eat What We Eat: How Columbus Changed the Way the World Eats. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-671-79791-1.
- "A Brief History of Filipinos in Hawaii". Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii-Manoa. 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Carpenter, Robert; Carpenter, Robert E.; Carpenter, Cindy V. (2005). Oahu Restaurant Guide 2005 With Honolulu and Waikiki. Havana, Illinois: Holiday Publishing Inc. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-931752-36-7.
- KATRINA STUART SANTIAGO (8 June 2011). "Balut as Pinoy pride". GMA. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
The balut is one claim to fame we're uncertain about, seeing as it is equated with hissing cockroaches on Fear Factor. Talk about bringing us back to the dark ages of being the exotic and barbaric brown siblings of America.
- Carlo Osi (26 March 2006). "Filipino cuisine on US television". Global Nation. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
- Keli Dailey (9 February 2012). "Andrew Zimmern's eating through San Diego". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
"Tita's sisig, best I have ever tasted . San Diego Philippine (sic) food is crazy good," he tweeted.
- Amy Scattergood (25 February 2011). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Laudan, Rachel (1996). The food of Paradise: exploring Hawaii's culinary heritage. Seattle: University of Hawaii Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-8248-1778-7.
- Melanie Henson Narciso (2005). Filipino Meal Patterns in the United States of America (PDF) (Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree). University of Wisconsin-Stout. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- Kristy, Yang (30 July 2011). "Filipino Food: At Least One Reason to Envy California". Dallas Observer. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Bray, Jared (2 February 2011). "Filipino Cuisine a New Hit in Salt Lake City". ABS-CBN. North America Bureau. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Berndes, Barry (1981). The SAN DIEGAN - 41st Edition. The SAN DIEGAN. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-890226-13-8.
Vergara, Benito (2008). Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City. Asian American history and culture. Temple University Press. pp. 41, 149. ISBN 978-1-59213-664-3. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
Tovin Lapan (3 December 2009). "Training day at Tita's Kitchenette". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Krean Given (13 November 2012). "In Southern California, Filipino restaurants crowd the strip malls". Boston Globe. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
Marc Ballon (16 September 2002). "Jollibee Struggling to Expand in U.S." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- Mishan, Ligaya (15 November 2011). "Authentic Filipino Modern Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
Wells, Pete (29 November 2016). "Review of Bad Saint in New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
Mishan, Ligaya (12 March 2018). "Filipino Food Finds a Place in the American Mainstream". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- "Nicole Ponseca Aims to Bring Filipino Food 'to the Masses'". NBC News. 11 October 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
Rocha, Michael James (19 April 2018). "San Diego chefs to showcase Filipino cuisine at screening of 'Ulam: Main Dish' documentary". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
Kauffman, Jonathan (7 January 2016). "The Bay Area's Filipino Food Movement sparks a national conversation". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
"Ep. 2, Barkada: L.A.'s Exploding Filipino Food Movement". The Migrant. KCET. 24 October 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Neff, Lydia (8 October 2016). "Filipino Food Movement panned as it goes to Oakland, Calif". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- Knowlton, Andrew (16 August 2016). "No. 02". Bonappetit.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Rothman, Jordana. "Food & Wine Restaurants of the Year 2018". Food & Wine. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- Kim, Gene; Appolonia, Alexandra (16 August 2017). "Andrew Zimmern: Filipino food will be the next big thing in America — here's why". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- McNeilly, Claudia (1 June 2017). "How Filipino Food Is Becoming the Next Great American Cuisine". Vogue. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Kane, Peter Lawrence (21 February 2019). "FOB Kitchen Deserves to Become a Filipino Hotspot". SF Weekly. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Kuroki, Yusuke (2015). "Risk Factors for Suicidal Behaviors Among Filipino Americans: A Data Mining Approach". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 85: 34–42. doi:10.1037/ort0000018. PMID 25110976.
- Mendoza, Perkinson, S. Lily, Jim (2003). "Filipino "Kapwa" in Global Dialogue: A Different Politics of Being-With the "Other"". Intercultural Communication Studies. 12: 177–194.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Samura, Michelle (2014). "Wrestling with expectations: An Examination of How Asian American College Students Negotiate Personal, Parental, and Societal Expectations". Journal of College Student Development. 56 (6): 602–618. doi:10.1353/csd.2015.0065.
- Ocampo, Anthony Christian (2016). The Latinos of Asia: How Filipino Americans Break the Rules of Race. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
- Thomas Chen (26 February 2009). "WHY ASIAN AMERICANS VOTED FOR OBAMA". PERSPECTIVE MAGAZINE. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
A survey of Filipino Americans in California—the second largest Asian American ethnic group and traditionally Republican voters
- Vergara, Benito (2009). Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City. Asian American History & Culture. Temple University Press. pp. 111–12. ISBN 978-1-59213-664-3.
- Jon Sterngass (1 January 2009). Filipino Americans. Infobase Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-4381-0711-0.
- Jim Lobe (16 September 2004). "Asian-Americans lean toward Kerry". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Bendixen & Associates and The Tarrance Group (14 September 2004). "National Poll of Asian Pacific Islanders on the 2004 Election". New American Media. Pacific News Service. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- Gus Mercado (November 10, 2008). "Obama wins Filipino vote at last-hour". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
A pre-election survey of 840 active Filipino community leaders in America showed a strong shift of undecided registered voters towards the Obama camp in the last several weeks before the elections that gave Senator Barack Obama of Illinois a decisive 58–42 share of the Filipino vote.
- Mico Letargo (19 October 2012). "Fil-Ams lean towards Romney – survey". Asian Journal. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
In 2008, 50 percent of the Filipino community voted for President Barack Obama (the Democrat candidate back then) while 46 percent voted for Republican Senator John McCain.
- Thomas Chen (26 February 2009). "Why Asian Americans Voted for Obama". PERSPECTIVE. Harvard University. Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- "In The Know: 2.6 million Filipino-Americans". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III; Roger L. Kemp (2 March 2016). Immigration and America's Cities: A Handbook on Evolving Services. McFarland. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-4766-2379-5.
- Ujala Sehgal; Glenn Magpantay (17 January 2013). "New Findings: Asian American Vote in 2012 Varied by Ethnic Group and Geographic Location". Press release. Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Wang, Hansi Lo (18 April 2017). "Trump Lost More Of The Asian-American Vote Than The National Exit Polls Showed". National Public radio. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- Reimers, David M. (2005). Other Immigrants: The Global Origins Of The American People. NYU Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-8147-7535-6.
- Edmund M. Silvestre (18 January 2009). "A Fil-Am on Capitol Hill". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
There are now three members of U.S. Congress with Filipino lineage: Rep. Robert "Bobby" Scott, an African-American representing Virginia's 3rd congressional district; and Sen. John Ensign of Nevada.
Maxwell, Rahasaan (5 March 2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-107-37803-2.
These numbers include politicians with only the slightest connection to the Philippines. For example, Bobby Scott of Virginia is commonly considered an African American and his only connection to the Philippines is one maternal grandmother. John Ensign of Nevada only has one Filipino great-grandparent.
- Peter Urban (3 May 2011). "In final speech to Senate, Ensign apologizes to colleagues". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Samson Wong (15 November 2012). "The Party With The Parity". AsianWeek. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Jonathan Strong (17 January 2012). "How Rep. Steve Austria Became a Sacrificial Republican". Roll Call. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
Rachel Weiner (30 December 2011). "Ohio Republican Rep. Steve Austria retiring". Washington Post. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Henni Espinosa (8 November 2012). "Fil-Ams who won and lost in the US elections". ABS-CBN. Milpitas, California. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
Bill Sizemore (7 November 2012). "Results: Scott cruises to re-election in 3rd District". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Almadin-Thornhill, Lenn (4 December 2018). "Virginia Rep. Bobby Scott on TJ Cox, Beginning A New Term in Congress". Balitang America. San Francisco, California. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
"2 Fil-Ams take oath as members of 116th US Congress". GMA News. Philippines. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- Martinez, Kathleen Melissa (2007). Finding a Home for Filipino-American Dual Citizens: Membership and the Filipino National Identity (PDF) (Master of Arts in Communication, Culture and Technology thesis). Georgetown University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Carlos H. Conde (11 May 2004). "Philippine Elections Are Marred by Violence". New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
This was also the first time the Philippines allowed absentee voting for Filipinos overseas. About 200,000 of the 350,000 overseas voters cast their votes.
"Number of Overseas Absentee Voters as of March 12, 2004" (PDF). National Statistical Coordination Board. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Yoo, Grace J. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1.
- "Batas Pambansa Bilang. 185". Chanrobles Law Library. March 16, 1982. Retrieved 2008-06-02. (Section 2)
"Republic Act No. 8179". Supreme Court of the Philippines. March 28, 1996. Retrieved 2008-06-02. (Section 5)
- Nadia Trinidad; Don Tagala (14 May 2013). "Why most Filipinos in US didn't vote". ABS CBN North America Bureau. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Jamal Thalji (16 November 2001). "Student charged in fight will swim at state mee". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Nelson, Shane (2008). "Personal Best". Honolulu Magazine. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Balikbayan Program". Consulate General of the Philippines in Los Angeles. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Introduction: Filipino Settlements in the United States" (PDF). Temple University Press. Temple University. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
Since 1979, over 40,000 Filipinos have been admitted annually, making the Philippines the second largest source of all immigration, surpassed only by Mexico.
- "Immigration Preferences and Waiting Lists". lawcom.com. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- "Green-card limbo". Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-12-15.
- "Annual Report of Immigrant Visa Applicants in the Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the National Visa Center as of November 1, 2016" (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs. United States Secretary of State. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- "Families of Filipino World War II vets largely still waiting for visa, dozen years later". Public Radio International. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Rick Bonus (2000). Locating Filipino Americans: Ethnicity and the Cultural Politics of Space. Temple University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-56639-779-7.
Alex Tizon. "My Family's Slave". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Hoefer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Baker, Bryan C. (January 2010). "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009" (PDF). DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Stoney, Sierra; Batalova, Jeanne (5 June 2013). "Filipino Immigrants in the United States". Migration Information Source. ISSN 1946-4037. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Layug, Margaret Claire (10 August 2017). "Trump's Raise Act to cost 400k Filipinos chance to live in US, says expert". GMA News. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Philip Ella Juico (6 February 2013). "Ex-Star columnist makes mark in US". Philippine Star. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8147-3297-7.
- Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-118-01975-7.
- Antonio T. Tiongson; Edgardo V. Gutierrez; Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez; Ricardo V. Gutierrez (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-59213-123-5.
- M. Licudine v. D. Winter, JR 1086, p. 5 (U.S. District Court for D.C. 2008).
Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1.
- Henry Yu. "Asian Americans" (PDF). Department of History. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Guerrero, AP; Nishimura, ST; Chang, JY; Ona, C; Cunanan, VL; Hishinuma, ES (2010). "Low cultural identification, low parental involvement and adverse peer influences as risk factors for delinquent behaviour among Filipino youth in Hawai'i" (PDF). International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 56 (4): 371–387. doi:10.1177/0020764009102772. PMID 19617281. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (2008). Ethnicity and inequality in Hawaiʻi. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-59213-755-8.
Corky Trinidad (11 December 2005). "The vanishing Filipinos". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T. (2009). "Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans". Social Science Quarterly. 90 (2): 428–445. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00625.x. PMC 2811329. PMID 20107617.
David, E.J.R. (2008). "A Colonial Mentality Model of Depression for Filipino Americans" (PDF). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 14 (2): 118–127. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.624.1514. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.118. PMID 18426284. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Ng, Franklin (ed.). Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4.
McFerson, Hazel M. (2002). Mixed blessing: the impact of the American colonial experience on politics and society in the Philippines. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-313-30791-1.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Ng, Franklin (ed.). Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4.
- Nadal, Kevin (2010). Filipino American Psychology: A Collection of Personal Narratives. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-470-95136-1.
- Haya El Nasser (13 May 2008). "Study: Some immigrants assimilate faster". USA Today. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
N.C. aizenman (13 May 2008). "Study Says Foreigners in U.S. Adapt Quickly". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Chen, Desiree; Yates, Ronald E.; Hirsley, Michael; Matsushita, Elaine T. (27 April 1992). "Filipino Americans Set Standard For Fitting In". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Amy Scattergood (25 February 2010). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
That Filipino food has, by and large, not been assimilated into mainstream American cuisine is ironic, given how adept Filipinos historically have been at assimilating into other dominant cultures (the country is Catholic; English is the second official language), and given how assimilated the myriad cuisines have been within the country itself.
- Nakanishi, Don T.; James S. Lai (2003). Asian American politics: law, participation, and policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7425-1850-6.
- "Asian Americans: Growth and Diversity". Retrieved 15 March 2011.
Bernardo, Joseph (2014). From "Little Brown Brothers" to "Forgotten Asian Americans": Race, Space, and Empire in Filipino Los Angeles (Ph.D.). University of Washington.
David, E.J.R. (6 April 2016). "Why Are Filipino Americans Still Forgotten and Invisible?". Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- Nakano, Satoshi (June 2004). "The Filipino World War II veterans equity movement and the Filipino American community" (PDF). Seventh Annual International Philippine Studies: 53–81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Whitney, Philip B. (July–September 1972). "Forgotten Minority: Filipinos in the United States". Bulletin of Bibliography and Magazine Notes (3): 73–83.
Cathy J. Schlund-Vials; K. Scott Wong; Jason Oliver Chang (10 January 2017). Asian America: A Primary Source Reader. Yale University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-300-22519-8.
Lon Kurashige; Alice Yang (6 July 2015). Major Problems in Asian American History. Cengage Learning. p. 338. ISBN 978-1-305-85560-1.
- Maxwell, Rahsaan (2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–208, 274. ISBN 978-1-107-00481-8.
- Okamura, Jonathan Y. (1998). Imagining the Filipino American diaspora: transnational relations, identities, and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8153-3183-4.
Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6.
- Mendoza, Susanah Lily L. (2002). Between the homeland and the diaspora: the politics of theorizing Filipino and Filipino American identities : a second look at the poststructuralism-indigenization debates. Psychology Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-415-93157-1. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly (2009). "Contextualizing Asian American education through critical race theory: An example of U.S. Pilipino college student experiences" (PDF). New Directions for Institutional Research. 2009 (142): 69–81. doi:10.1002/ir.297. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Sterngass, Jon (2006). Filipino Americans. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7910-8791-6.
- Belinda A. Aquino (10 December 2006). "The Filipino Century in Hawaii: Out of the Crucible" (PDF). Center for Philippine Studies. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "The Invisible Minority". The Harvard Crimson. January 17, 2003.
- "America's 'Invisible' Minority Is Ready for Its Closeup". Voice of America. February 23, 2015.
- Nguyen, Mimi Thi (2007). Thuy Linh N. Tu (ed.). Alien encounters: popular culture in Asian America. Duke University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8223-3922-9.
Cropp, Fritz; Frisby, Cynthia M.; Mills, Dean (2003). Journalism across cultures. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwel. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8138-1999-0. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Tojo Thatchenkery (31 March 2000). "Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze". International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. modelminority.com. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
Ho-Asjoe, Henrietta (2009). William Baragar Bateman (ed.). Praeger handbook of Asian American health: taking notice and taking action. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-313-34703-0.
- Espiritu, Yen Le (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives Across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-23527-4.
- Baker, Lee D. (2004). Life in America: Identity and Everyday Experience. John Wiley & Sons. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4051-0564-4. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Tiongson, Antonio T.; Gutierrez, Edgardo Valencia (2006). Ricardo Valencia Gutierrez (ed.). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities And Discourse. Temple University Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-1-59213-122-8. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
- "In the Court of the Sultan: Orientalism, Nationalism, and Modernity in Philippine and Filipino American Dance" (PDF). Sites.uci.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- IV, Martin F. Manalansan (2003-12-10). Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the Diaspora. Duke University Press Books. ISBN 9780822332176.
- Gaw, Albert (June 2007). "Mental Health Care of Filipino Americans". Psychiatric Services. 58 (6): 810–815. doi:10.1176/ps.2007.58.6.810. PMID 17535941.
- Heras, Patricia (2001). "Silent Sacrifices: Voices of the Filipino American Family". doi:10.1037/e575322010-001.
- Wolf, Diane L. (September 1997). "Family Secrets: Transnational Struggles among Children of Filipino Immigrants". Sociological Perspectives. 40 (3): 457–482. doi:10.2307/1389452. ISSN 0731-1214. JSTOR 1389452.
- Rumbaut, Ruben G. (1994). "The Crucible within: Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Segmented Assimilation among Children of Immigrants". International Migration Review. 28 (4): 748–794. doi:10.2307/2547157. ISSN 0197-9183. JSTOR 2547157.
- Ta, Van (2017). "Generational Status and Family Cohesion Effects on the Receipt of Mental Health Services Among Asian Americans: Findings from the National Latino and Asian American Study". American Journal of Public Health. 100 (1): 115–121. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.160762. PMC 2791260. PMID 19910344.
- Chang, Janet (2018). "Ethnically Heterogeneous Friendships and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Among Filipino Americans". Asian American Journal of Psychology. 9 (2): 158–168. doi:10.1037/aap0000102.
- Evangeline Canonizado Buell; Evelyn Luluguisen; Lillian Galedo; Eleanor Hipol Luis (2008). Filipinos in the East Bay. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7385-5832-5.
Maria Virginia Yap Morales (2006). Diary of the war: World War II memoirs of Lt. Col. Anastacio Campo. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-971-550-489-8.
- "Asian Heritage in the National Park Service Cultural Resources Programs" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- Keith Rogers (21 January 2013). "100-year-old Filipino-American veteran dies". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
About 10,000 live in the United States and 14,000 are in the Philippines.
- Joseph Pimental (12 January 2011). "Bill to give Filipino WWII veterans full equality". Asian Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
Matsukawa, Lori (11 May 2017). "Filipino American WWII veteran gets Congressional Gold Medal". KING. Seattle, Washington. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
Julian Nicholas is one of about 18,000 surviving Filipino American veterans from World War II, and he's getting a congressional gold medal at age 91.
- Josh Levs (23 February 2009). "U.S. to pay 'forgotten' Filipino World War II veterans". CNN. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
- Frank, Sarah (2005). Filipinos in America. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Lerner Publications. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8225-4873-7.
Kimberely Jane T. Tan (7 September 2009). "Fil-Am photographer pays tribute to 'America's second-class veterans'". GMA News. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Chen, Edith Wen-Chu (2010). Yoo, Grace J. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-313-34751-1.
- Cabotaje, Michael A. (January 1999). "Equity Denied: Historical and Legal Analyses in Support of the Extension of U.S. Veterans' Benefits to Filipino World War II Veterans". Asian American Law Journal. 6 (1): 67–97. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "US senators revive call for full benefits to Filipino WWII veterans". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippines. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Richard Simon (30 January 2013). "Philippine vets still fighting their battle over WWII". Stars and Stripes. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Committees: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Cosponsors: H.R.111 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Richard, Sam (3 January 2017). "If not full recompense, Gold Medal is welcome recognition for WW II Filipino soldiers". East Bay Times. Hercules, California. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
- Henni Espinosa (17 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Group Pursues Lawsuits Despite New Equality Bill". Balitang America. Archived from the original on 2011-11-16. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "World War II Filipino Veteran Rights". Filipino American Curriculum Project. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Maze, Rick (2008-01-29). "Senate puts Filipino vet pensions in stimulus" (News Article). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company.
Buried inside the Senate bill, which includes tax cuts and new spending initiatives intended to create jobs in the U.S., the Filipino payment was inserted at the urging of Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, the new chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and a longtime supporter of monthly pensions for World War II Filipino veterans.
- Bayron, Heda (2009-03-25). "Filipino War Veterans Take Advantage of Delayed US Response". Voice Of America.
"Stimulus Bill Provides $198 Million for Filipino Veterans". Public and Intergovernmental Affairs. United States Depart of Veterans Affairs. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Representative Joe Heck (5 February 2013). "Bidding Farewell to Two Members of the Las Vegas Mighty Five (House of Representatives – February 05,2013)". Thomas. Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
Congress finally acknowledged the dedicated service of many of these denied veterans when it established the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund in 2009.
- Jaleco, Rodney (2009-03-28). "Excluded Fil-Vets Now Eligible for Lump-Sum Money". ABS-CBN. Archived from the original on 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
- Joseph G. Lariosa (9 January 2011). "Filipino Veterans Fairness bill filed at US Congress". GMA News. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
The bill likewise proposes to invalidate the "quit claim" or the waiver of the right of Filipino veterans to receive future benefits, like a lifetime monthly pension, as provided for in the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation (FVEC) of the $787-billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).
- JFAV (23 March 2011). "WW II Filvet to lead delegation to US Congress for full equity". Asian Journal. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
Tarra Quismundo (23 February 2013). "US willing to review Filipino veterans' denied claims". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- Merina, Dorian (31 July 2018). "Their Last Fight: Filipino Veterans Make A Final Push For Recognition". Texas Public Radio. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- Dymphina Calica-La Putt (26 September 2012). "Heck introduces bill to aid denied Filipino WWII vets". Asian Journal. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
Dymphna Calica-La Putt (2 February 2013). "Nevada Solon to resubmit bill on Filvets compensation". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Asian Journal. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Committees: H.R.481 [113th]". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Chuck N. Baker (6 March 2013). "Filipino soldiers who fought for the U.S. now battle for benefits". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Cynthia De Castro (18 September 2012). "Special benefits available for WW II vets outside of US". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Richards, Sam (3 January 2017). "If not full recompense, Gold Medal is welcome recognition for WW II Filipino soldiers". East Bay Times. Hercules, California. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- Sanchez, Tatiana (14 July 2016). "Family of Filipino vets can enter US under new program". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
- Castillo, Walbert (25 October 2017). "Fought and forgotten: Filipino World War II veterans honored with medal 75 years later". USA Today. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
Brekke, Dan (25 October 2017). "To Help Heal an Unhappy History, Congress Awards Medal to Filipino World War II Vets". The California Report. San Francisco, California. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- Basco, Isabella (27 October 2017). "Filipino WWII veterans officially awarded US Congressional Gold Medal". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- Hilbig, Valeska; Machado, Melinda (26 October 2017). "Smithsonian Collects Filipino Congressional Gold Medal". National Museum of American History. Smithsonian. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- Santos, Hector. "Sulat sa Tanso". Archived from the original on 2006-08-26. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "history". Asian Pacific heritage. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "Filipino Apostolate" (PDF). Our Lady of Hope Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "PhilFest 2011". Philippine Cultural Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Asian Heritage Festival 2011". Asian/Pacific American Society. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Tiffany Hill. "Field Guide: Filipino Fun". Honolulu Magazine. Aio. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
Paul Raymund Cortes (3 June 2011). "19 Annual Filipino Fiesta". Philippine Consulate General Honolulu. Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc". Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
FAAPI also continues to hold the annual Mother of the Year celebration (started in 1950s) to honor motherhood on Mothers Day in May.
- "Flores de Mayo at Santacruzan". Center for Southeast Asian Studies Northern Illinois University. Northern Illinois University. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Mark Rabago (26 June 2006). "First-ever Flores de Mayo on Saipan tonight". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Flores de Mayo at the San Gabriel Mission". Asian Journal. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Jose Antonio Vargas (11 June 2006). "Where Everyone Gets to Tagalog". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Washington Concert for Children's Choir". Manila Standard. 16 April 1993. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Rodney J. Jaleco (18 November 2009). "Fil-Am is deputy mayor of US Capital". ABS-CBN North America News Bureau. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Filipino Art Exhibition and Workshop". Events and Programs Schedule. Passaic Public Library. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Jim Belarmino (6 April 1995). "Philippine parade in Passaic, N.J. on June 11". Filipino Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Vallejo Pista Sa Nayon". Philippine Cultural Committee. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Quinto, Olivia J. "Empire State lights up for Filipinos—again". Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
- "Jersey City's Filipino community holds the 19th annual Friendship Day Parade and Festival". The Jersey Journal. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Ricardo Kaulessar (18 July 2010). "Rain on their parades". Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"GMA stars grace New Jersey Fil-Am Day parade". The Philippine Star. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Vanessa Cubillo (29 July 2010). "PHOTOS: 2010 Philippine American Friendship Day Parade". Jersey City Independent. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Fiesta Filipina USA". Fiesta Filipina USA. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"San Francisco celebrates a Philippine Independence weekend". Linda B. Bollido. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Marconi Calindas (27 June 2009). "RP stars celebrate Independence Day with Fil-Ams". Saipan Tribune. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Golin Harris (30 June 2009). "The Filipino Channel Awards Kapamilya Circle Member 1 Million Philippine Pesos During Wowowee; San Jose Woman Wins At Special U.S. Edition Of Game Show". Business Wire. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Jose Rizal Day in Carson on June 19". Asian Journal. 18 June 2011. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Chicago Celebrates 150 years of Dr. Jose P. Rizal". Filipino American Historical Society of Chicago. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Holton, Paul, ed. (2007). Fodor's Seattle. New York: Random House Digital, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4000-1854-3.
Filipino Cultural Heritage Society of Washington. "Pagdiriwang Philippine Festival". Festal 2011. Seattle Center. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- Angelique Miller (16 May 2008). "Fil-Am Friendship Day slated for July 5". GMA News. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Patrick K. Lackey (5 July 1992). "Filipinos in are come together on July fourth \ Diverse group seeking unity". The Virginia-Pilot. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Pista Sa Nayon". Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Seafair Highlights: Hollywood-themed parade". The Seattle Times. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
Evi Sztajino (25 July 2008). "Seafair events to close streets around the city". Seattle Post Intelligencer. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Filipino weekend". United Filipino weekend.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
Kasiner, Dorothy (2000). Delano Area 1930–2000. Chicago, Illinois: Arcadia Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7385-0775-0.
- "Philippine–American Expo". California Examiner. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Cynthia De Coastro (21 December 2010). "Bernardo Bernardo: A Man of Many Hats". Asian Journal. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "Philippine Fiesta". philippinefiesta.com. Retrieved 2006-08-28.
Don Tagala (18 August 2010). "Philippine Fiesta Draws Thousands to the East Coast". Balitang America. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
- "St. Augustine Church, Philadelphia: Immigration & Filipino Transformation". Scribe Video Center. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
Dr. Vivienne SM. Angeles (1998). ""Sinulog" in Philadelphia". The Pluralism Project. Harvard University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Historic Filipinotown festival set this week". GMA News. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
"Historic Filipinotown Festival/5KRun". Asian Journal. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Pistahan Parade and Festival". Filipino American Arts Exposition. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Luis Chong (13 August 2010). "This Weekend: Huge Array of Filipino Eats at S.F.'s Annual Pistahan Festival". SF Weekly. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "Filipino Pride Day". We Filipinos Inc. 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
Deirdre Conner (18 June 2009). "Festival highlights Jacksonville's Filipino culture". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
- "FilAmArts". The Association for the Advancement of Filipino American Arts and Culture. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "The Filipino American Network's Adobo Festival".
- "FilAmFest". Retrieved 2009-06-08.
"San Diego FilAmFest set for Oct. 5". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippines. 28 September 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
Malou Amparo (10 October 2011). "Kicking off Pilipino-American History Month at the 8th Annual FilAmFest in San Diego". Bakitwhy.com. Kasama Media, LLC. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- "Chicago Filipino American Film Festival".
- Gonzalez, Joaquin Lucero (2009). Filipino American faith in action: immigration, religion, and civic engagement. New York: NYU Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8147-3197-0.
- "Christmas: A National Fiesta". Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Espiritu, Yen (1995). Filipino American Lives. Temple University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-56639-317-1.
- Crisostomo, Isabelo T. (1996). Filipino achievers in the USA & Canada: profiles in excellence. Bookhaus Publishers. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-931613-11-1.
- Labrador, Roderick N. Building Filipino Hawai'i (University of Illinois Press, 2015) 170pp
- Bankston III, Carl L. (2005). "Filipino Americans". In Min, Pyong Gap (ed.). Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Pine Forge Press. pp. 180–202, 368. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5.
- Isaac, Allan Punzalan (2006). American Tropics: Articulating Filipino America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8166-4274-8.
- Pido, Antonio J. A. (1986). The Pilipinos in America: macro/micro dimensions of immigration and integration. CMS Migration and Ethnicity Series. Center for Migration Studies. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-913256-78-7.
- Tiongson, Antonio; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Guiterrez, Edgardo, eds. (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-59213-121-1.
- Stephen M. Cherry (3 January 2014). Faith, Family, and Filipino American Community Life. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-7085-3.
- Cannery Workers and Farm Laborers Union, Local 7 Records, 1915–1985; Predominantly 1933–1982. 46.31 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Carlos Bulosan Papers, 1914–1976. 4.65 cubic feet, 17 microfilm reels. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Chris D. Mensalvas Papers, 1935–1974. .25 cubic feet, 1 sound cassette. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Chris D. Mensalvas Photograph Collection, 1937–1956. 1 folder of photographic prints. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
- Trinidad Rojo Papers, 1923–1991. 2.81 cubic feet. At the Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Filipino Americans.|
- Eloisa Gomez Borah (2012). "Americans of Filipino Descent – FAQs". UCLA Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles.
- "FANHS National". Filipino American National Historical Society. 2014.
- "Filipino American Heritage Website". Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. Smithsonian Institution. 2008.
- de Castro, Christian; Abarquez-de la Cruz, Prosy (9 October 2012). "The Filipino American Library". Filipino American Heritage Institute.
- "Filipino American Resources". Lemieux Library. Seattle University.
- "Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center". Smithsonian Institution.
- Filipino American National Historical Society Hampton Roads Chapter; Council of United Filipino Organizations of Tidewater; MacArthur Memorial Museum; Virginia Beach City Public Schools (2019). "Born of Empires - Content Academy". Filipino American National Historical Society Hampton Roads Chapter.