MAX Light Rail

MAX Light Rail (for Metropolitan Area Express) is a light rail system in Portland, Oregon, United States, that is owned and operated by TriMet. It consists of 94 stations over a 59.7-mile (96.1 km) network and is served by five lines, each of which is designated by a color. The system connects all six sections of Portland; the suburban communities of Beaverton, Clackamas, Gresham, Hillsboro, and Milwaukie; and Portland International Airport to Portland City Center. MAX is the fourth-busiest light rail system in the United States after comparable light rail services in Los Angeles, Boston, and San Francisco. The system had an average daily ridership of 120,900 and nearly 39 million annual riders in 2019. Lines run seven days a week with headways of between 30 minutes off-peak and three minutes during rush hours.

MAX Light Rail
TriMet MAX logo.svg
Tilikum Crossing with streetcar and MAX train in 2016.jpg
Ad-free MAX train of two Type 2 cars on Steel Bridge in 2015.jpg
Top: A MAX train and a Portland Streetcar tram traversing Tilikum Crossing
Bottom: A westbound Type 2 Blue Line train crossing the Steel Bridge
Overview
OwnerTriMet
Area servedClackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties
LocalePortland, Oregon, U.S.
Transit typeLight rail
Number of lines5
Number of stations94 (1 temporarily closed)[1]
Daily ridership120,900 (as of 2019)[2]
Annual ridership38,817,600 (as of 2019)[2]
WebsiteMAX Light Rail
Operation
Began operationSeptember 5, 1986; 33 years ago (1986-09-05)
Operator(s)TriMet
Number of vehicles145[3]
Technical
System length59.7 mi (96.1 km)
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC, overhead catenary[4]

MAX was among the first second-generation American light rail systems to be built. It was conceived as a result of freeway revolts that took place in Portland in the early 1970s. Construction of the network's inaugural eastside segment, which was then known as the Banfield light rail project, began in 1982 following a study of mass transit alternatives using funds diverted from the canceled Mount Hood Freeway and Interstate 505 (I-505). Service commenced between 11th Avenue in downtown Portland and Cleveland Avenue in Gresham on September 5, 1986.

Building upon the original line, MAX was extended west to downtown Hillsboro in 1998, northeast to Portland Airport in 2001, north to the Expo Center in 2004, across the Portland Transit Mall in August 2009, and south to Clackamas Town Center in September 2009. The Orange Line's Portland–Milwaukie segment, which opened in 2015 and terminates just south of Milwaukie, is the system's latest extension. Future expansion plans include extending Red Line service further west to Fair Complex/Hillsboro Airport station in 2023, and if voters approve funding in November 2020, a planned rail extension through Southwest Portland and Tigard to Tualatin that is known as the Southwest Corridor light rail project, is scheduled to open in 2027.

MAX is one of three urban rail transit services operating in the Portland metropolitan area, the other two being the Portland Streetcar and WES Commuter Rail. MAX provides direct connections to additional modes of public transportation, including local and intercity buses at most stations and Amtrak at Portland Union Station. MAX trains operate at a maximum of two-car consists due to downtown Portland's short city blocks. The system's vehicles and platforms are fully accessible. Fares are charged at a flat rate and are mainly collected through the Hop Fastpass payment system.

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

In the early 20th century, privately funded streetcars and interurbans gave Portland one of the largest urban rail systems in the American West, including lines that once extended from Forest Grove to Troutdale and Vancouver, Washington to Eugene.[5]:7–8[6] Ben Holladay brought over Portland's first trolleys from San Francisco; they were introduced in 1872 and were initially drawn by horses and mules. In 1890, the first electric streetcar service opened in Albina, which was operated by the Willamette Bridge Railway Company, and the first cable car began running along 5th Avenue in Portland; these lines marked the start of an era of major streetcar line expansion.[7] The East Side Railway Company built the city's first long-distance interurban line in 1892, a 16-mile (25.7 km) route between Portland and Oregon City.[8] The Portland Railway, Light and Power Company took over all local streetcars by 1906,[9] and interurban operations by 1908.[10]:93 In 1912, as Portland's population exceeded 250,000, transit ridership rose to 70 million passengers annually.[5]:8 Passenger rail services started to decline by the 1920s in line with the rise of the automobile and suburban and freeway development.[5]:9 The region's last two interurban lines, which went to Oregon City and Bellrose (Southeast 136th Avenue), ceased operating in 1958.[10]:61, 93[5]:10

Early beginningsEdit

 
An original Bombardier light rail train entering the 11th Avenue turnaround loop in 1987

At the height of local freeway revolts in the 1970s, TriMet began a study for mass transit using funds made available by the passage of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973.[5]:20 These funds had been intended for the Mount Hood Freeway and I-505 projects,[5]:30 which were abandoned amid strong opposition from the Portland city government and neighborhood associations.[11][12] In 1973, Governor Tom McCall assembled a task force that helped determine several alternative options, including a busway and light rail.[13] Local jurisdictions originally favored the busway alternative but support for light rail prevailed following the mode's inclusion in a 1977 environmental impact statement.[14][15] The proposal became known as the Banfield light rail project, which was named for the Banfield Freeway, a segment of I-84 that part of the alignment followed. TriMet formally approved the project in September 1978.[16] Construction of the 15.3-mile (24.6 km), 27-station route between 11th Avenue in downtown Portland and Cleveland Avenue in Gresham began in March 1982.[17] Inaugural service commenced on September 5, 1986.[18] Less than two months before opening, TriMet adopted the name "Metropolitan Area Express" or "MAX" for the new line following an employee contest.[19]

As the planning of a light rail line to the west side gained momentum in the mid-1980s, the original MAX line came to be referred to as the Eastside MAX to distinguish it from what would become the Westside MAX extension.[20] Early proposals called for this extension to terminate just west of the BeavertonHillsboro city boundary on 185th Avenue in Washington County.[21] A dispute between TriMet and the Urban Mass Transportation Administration over a financing plan suspended the project for several years but planning resumed in 1988 and studies were completed in 1991.[21][22] Staunch lobbying by local and state officials led by Hillsboro Mayor Shirley Huffman forced an extension of the line further west to downtown Hillsboro in 1993.[23] Construction of the 20-station, 18-mile (29 km) line began that August with the excavation of the Robertson Tunnel.[24] The Westside MAX opened in two stages following delays in tunneling: the section from 11th Avenue to Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street was opened in 1997 and the section to Hatfield Government Center—the segment's current western terminus—was opened in 1998.[25] The resulting 33-mile (53 km) MAX line began operating as a single, through service on September 12, 1998.[26] This service was renamed the Blue Line in 2001 after TriMet adopted color designations for its light rail routes.[27]

South–North proposalEdit

At the same time TriMet was planning the Westside MAX in the mid-1980s, Metro regional government announced new light rail proposals for Clackamas County. Its planning committee—the Joint Policy Advisory Committee on Transportation (JPACT)—proposed two separate routes that would have run between downtown Portland and Oregon City via Milwaukie and between Portland International Airport and Clackamas Town Center via I-205.[28] Further planning led JPACT to favor the I-205 corridor due to an existing right-of-way along the I-205 Transitway, an unfinished mass transit component of the freeway that had been built to accommodate a busway.[29][30] TriMet, however, prioritized the Westside MAX during its bid for federal matching funds and the I-205 plans were put on hold.[31] In 1989, studies for both I-205 and Milwaukie proposals received funding from the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations under the condition that they included potential route extensions to Clark County, Washington.[32][33] Metro completed the studies in 1993, ultimately abandoning I-205 in favor of a route along the I-5 and Willamette River corridors.[34][35] It finalized a single 25-mile (40 km) line from Hazel Dell, Washington south to Clackamas Town Center via Milwaukie,[36][37] which TriMet formally named the South–North Line.[5]:80

In November 1994, 63% of Portland area voters passed a $475 million ballot measure to fund Oregon's portion of the project.[5]:80 The following February, however, Clark County residents defeated a tax measure that would have funded Washington's share.[38] To move the project forward, TriMet downsized the plan and abandoned the line's Clark County and North Portland segments up to the Rose Quarter.[39] That July, the Oregon House of Representatives approved a $750 million transportation package, which included $375 million for the scaled-back line.[40] The funding was annulled by the Oregon Supreme Court due to the inclusion of unrelated measures that violated the state's constitution.[41][42] The legislature met again in February 1996 and passed a revised $375 million package,[41] but light rail opponents forced a statewide vote and defeated it the following November.[43] A third proposal between Lombard Street in North Portland and Clackamas Town Center followed.[44] This time, Metro and TriMet pursued the project without seeking contributions from either Clark County or the state, instead sourcing funds from Clackamas County and Portland. In 1998, TriMet placed a new ballot measure to reaffirm voter support for the $475 million originally approved in 1994.[5]:80 The measure failed by 52% in November of that year, effectively canceling the proposed line.[45]

Airport and Interstate linesEdit

 
A Red Line train at Skidmore Fountain station

Compelled by the rapid expansion of Portland International Airport in the 1990s, the Port of Portland began exploring ways to alleviate worsening traffic congestion,[46] including the possibility of introducing MAX service,[47] which regional planners had not anticipated for at least another 20 years.[48] In 1997, engineering firm Bechtel accelerated plans by submitting an unsolicited proposal to design and build an airport rail link in exchange for 120 acres (49 ha) of Port property.[47][49] A public–private partnership between the company and local governments was negotiated and construction of the Airport MAX began in June 1999.[5]:82[50] With no federal assistance requested and right-of-way already secured,[5]:82 it was completed in just under two years.[51] The four-station, 5.5-mile (8.9 km) line between Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center and Portland International Airport station opened on September 10, 2001.[52][53] Celebrations scheduled for that weekend were canceled in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.[54] Red Line service originally ran between the airport and downtown, turning around at the loop tracks on 11th Avenue.[55] On September 1, 2003, it was extended west along existing tracks to Beaverton Transit Center to relieve overcrowding on the Blue Line and to create a one-seat airport connection for the west side.[56]

In 1999, Portland business leaders and residents who were opposed to the cancellation of the South–North Line urged TriMet to revive the project.[57][58] TriMet responded with a new proposal that would expand MAX solely to North Portland via North Interstate Avenue.[59] The agency moved forward with this plan and the Interstate MAX broke ground in February 2001.[60] To minimize costs to taxpayers, the city created an urban renewal district and federal matching funds were allocated from the Airport MAX and Portland Streetcar projects, since these projects were locally funded.[61][62] The 10-station, 5.8-mile (9.3 km) extension from the Rose Quarter to the Expo Center opened on May 1, 2004, with its new service designated the Yellow Line.[63] From 2004 to 2009, the Yellow Line ran from Expo Center station in North Portland to 11th Avenue in downtown Portland, following the Blue and Red lines' downtown alignment from the Steel Bridge. On August 30, 2009, it was rerouted to terminate at the PSU Urban Center stations with the addition of light rail to the Portland Transit Mall.[64] In September 2012, this was extended further south to the PSU South stations, which had not been built due to the construction of nearby transit-oriented development.[65][66] The Yellow Line became interlined with the Orange Line in 2015; it now only operates the northbound segment of the transit mall.[67]

South Corridor extensionsEdit

 
An Orange Line train on Tilikum Crossing

In 2001, Metro revisited its former light rail plans for Clackamas County by reconsidering proposals similar to those of the canceled South–North Line project, with two routes extending to Clackamas and Milwaukie.[68] This resulted in a new study, which Metro referred to as the South Corridor transportation project,[69] that evaluated light rail among other alternatives.[70] The study's task force recommend both light rail options in 2003 and suggested splitting the project into two phases.[71][72] The first phase planned for the addition of light rail to I-205, between Gateway Transit Center and Clackamas Town Center. In October of that year, the first phase plans were amended to include adding light rail to the Portland Transit Mall following a petition from Portland business leaders.[73] The combined project was approved for federal funding in 2006 and work began in January 2007.[74][75] Light rail commenced service along the 14-station, 1.8-mile (2.9 km) Portland Transit Mall on August 30, 2009, first served by the Yellow Line.[64] The opening of the eight-station, 6.5-mile (10.5 km) I-205 MAX and Green Line service followed on September 12.[76]

The South Corridor project's second phase initially sought the extension of MAX between downtown Portland and Milwaukie via the Hawthorne Bridge.[77] Studies showed that this alignment would cause severe traffic bottlenecks in downtown.[73] As a result, Portland businesses pushed for the construction of a new bridge that led to the southern end of the Portland Transit Mall.[70] The locally preferred alignment was finalized in mid-2008; a new bridge would convey light rail across the Willamette River from the South Waterfront to just south of the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI).[78] TriMet designed this bridge, which was eventually inaugurated as Tilikum Crossing, to be "car-free" and to accommodate only transit vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians.[79] Construction of the line began in June 2011.[80] In September 2012, opponents passed a ballot initiative—with 60% of the vote—requiring all Clackamas County spending on light rail to be approved by voters.[81][82] Following the county's attempt to end its involvement and a suit filed by TriMet, a circuit court upheld the project's continuation.[83]:95–96 The 17-station, 7.3-mile (11.7 km) Portland–Milwaukie segment and Orange Line service opened on September 12, 2015.[84] The Orange Line, operating along the Portland Transit Mall's southbound segment, became the third service to serve this corridor.[67]

Future plansEdit

TriMet works with local jurisdictions and also other agencies to identify and recommend priority transit projects, which are then included in Metro's Regional Transportation Plan (RTP). The 2018 RTP is the plan's latest iteration; it lists three funding scenarios that divide the region's proposals into three priority levels. The highest priority projects, which are referred to as "2027 Constrained", are proposals the region expects to have funding for by 2027. The "2040 Constrained" lists projects that fit within the region's planned budget through 2040 while the "2040 Strategic" are projects that may be built if additional funding becomes available.[85]:5

Current projectsEdit

The 2018 RTP currently lists two MAX-related projects it expects will be funded by 2027; these are the Red Line improvements and Southwest Corridor projects.[85]:17

Project Status Description New
stations
Length Planned
opening
Projected
Cost
(mi) (km)
Better Red[86] Preliminary design Extends Red Line service from Beaverton Transit Center to Fair Complex/Hillsboro Airport station in Hillsboro using the existing Westside MAX alignment; it would serve 10 existing stations. On the east side, TriMet would add a second track to all single-track segments and reconfigure the Red Line approach to Gateway Transit Center to accommodate a new platform.[87] 2023 or
2024
$206 million[86]
Southwest Corridor[88] Preliminary design Extends MAX southwest from PSU to Bridgeport Village in Tualatin via Southwest Portland and Tigard. Much of the extension would run along the center of Southwest Barbur Boulevard, which is a part of OR 99W.[89] It would be served by Green Line trains.[90]:191 13 12 19 2027 $2.6–2.8 billion[91]
Downtown Tunnel[92] Feasibility study Constructs a tunnel beneath downtown Portland that extends from Goose Hollow to the Lloyd Center.[92]:7[93][94] $3–4.5 billion[92]:7

Other proposalsEdit

TriMet has indicated additional extensions and improvements have been studied or discussed with Metro and cities in the region.[85]:17[95] These proposals include the following, with light rail and alternatives being considered:

  • Extension to Forest Grove
  • Extension to Oregon City via McLoughlin Boulevard (OR 99E)
  • Extension to Bridgeport Village via I-205
  • Extension to Hillsboro via Sunset Highway (US 26)
  • Extension to Vancouver, Washington

NetworkEdit

LinesEdit

 
A geographic map of the MAX Light Rail network. The official system map can be viewed on the TriMet website.

For MAX, a "line" refers to the physical railroad track and stations a train serves between its designated termini, i.e. a train "route" or "service". The MAX system consists of five lines, each of which is assigned a color.[96] The use of colors to distinguish the separately-operated routes was adopted in 2000 and brought into use in 2001 with the opening Red Line service.[27][97][83]:83

All five lines traverse downtown Portland. The Blue and Red lines run north–south via First Avenue and east–west via Morrison and Yamhill streets. The Green, Orange, and Yellow lines run north–south via the Portland Transit Mall on 5th and 6th avenues. The Yellow Line, which began service in 2004, originally followed the same route into downtown as the Blue and Red lines, traveling along First Avenue and Morrison and Yamhill streets. It was shifted to a new alignment along the transit mall in 2009 when light rail service was introduced to that corridor.[98][64] In 2015, the Orange Line became partially confluent with the Yellow Line on the transit mall.[99]

All lines except the Orange Line cross the Steel Bridge and serve the Rose Quarter. The Orange Line is the only MAX service that travels across Tilikum Crossing. The Green Line is the only line that shares parts of its route with all of the other lines.[96]

Service Commenced Stations Termini
Blue Line[100] September 5, 1986[a] 48 Hatfield Government Center (Hillsboro) Cleveland Avenue (Gresham)
Green Line[101] September 12, 2009 30 PSU South Clackamas Town Center Transit Center
Orange Line[102] September 12, 2015 17 Union Station Southeast Park Avenue (Milwaukie)
Red Line[103] September 10, 2001 26 Beaverton Transit Center Portland International Airport
Yellow Line[104] May 1, 2004 17 Expo Center PSU South

SegmentsEdit

 
Evolution of MAX extensions

The MAX rail network is 59.7 miles (96.1 km) long; TriMet typically rounds this figure up to 60 miles (97 km).[3] It was built in a series of six projects starting with the Banfield—now Eastside—alignment. A portion of the Eastside MAX between 11th Avenue and Gateway Transit Center is now served by the Blue, Green, and Red lines. A section of the Westside MAX between Beaverton Transit Center and 11th Avenue is served by the Blue and Red lines. The Green, Orange, and Yellow lines share the segment that was built as part of the Portland Transit Mall light rail project. The four remaining segments, all of which are located outside the city center, are operated by one service, often making the service and segment synonymous (e.g. Red Line and Airport MAX).[48][90]:15

No. Project Opened Operating line(s) End points New
stations
Length
(mi) (km)
1 Banfield (Eastside)[20] September 5, 1986    27
(4 infills)
15.1 24.3[105][106][107]
2 Westside[108] September 12, 1998  
  • Hatfield Government Center
  • 11th Avenue
20 17.7 28.5[109]
3 Airport[48] September 10, 2001 4 5.5 8.9[5]:66
4 Interstate[110] May 1, 2004 10 5.8 9.3[110][5]:66
5 Portland Transit Mall[111] August 30, 2009   
  • Steel Bridge
  • PSU South
12
(2 infills)
1.8 2.9[112][98]
I-205[111] September 12, 2009
  • Gateway Transit Center
  • Clackamas Town Center Transit Center
8 6.5 10.5[95][112]
6 Portland–Milwaukie[113] September 12, 2015
  • PSU South
  • Southeast Park Avenue
10 7.3 11.7[113][5]:66
Total 59.7 96.1

AlignmentEdit

 
TriMet buses utilizing light rail right-of-way on the Portland Transit Mall

In parts of the MAX system, particularly in downtown Portland and downtown Hillsboro, MAX trains run on surface streets. Trains in these sections run in reserved lanes that are closed to other motorized vehicles, except within intersections.[4] Exceptions include the Portland Transit Mall,[114][115] Southwest Harbor Viaduct, and Tilikum Crossing,[116] where trains operate on the same lanes as transit buses but MAX has traffic priority.[4]

Elsewhere, MAX runs within its own exclusive right-of-way that includes street medians, former railroad lines, alongside freeways and existing freight lines, viaducts, and underground.[117]:10 Where the tracks run within a street median, such as the majority of the Interstate MAX and a section of the Eastside MAX along Burnside Street, intersections are controlled by traffic signals that give trains preemption. Where tracks run on a separate right-of-way, trains are protected by automated grade crossing gates when crossing roadways at-grade.[4] Some segments of MAX are elevated to carry trains over busy thoroughfares.[118][119] A three-mile (4.8 km) section of tracks run beneath Washington Park in Portland's West Hills through the Robertson Tunnel, the system's longest underground segment.[120]

MAX crosses the Willamette River using the Steel Bridge and Tilikum Crossing. In the studies conducted for the Eastside MAX, planners recommended the use of the Steel Bridge due to its former function as a river crossing for the city's historic streetcar operations. When MAX service commenced in 1986, trains shared the bridge's center lanes with vehicular traffic.[117]:26–27 In 2008, workers closed the bridge's upper deck to allow for the construction of a junction connecting the existing MAX tracks with newer tracks on the Portland Transit Mall at the bridge's western end. Upon reopening, the two inner lanes became exclusive to MAX trains, and cars, buses, and other motorized traffic were restricted to the two outer lanes.[121] TriMet designed and built the newer Tilikum Crossing to only allow its use by transit vehicles (MAX, streetcar, and buses), cyclists, and pedestrians. It does not accommodate private vehicles except for those used by emergency responders, if necessary.[116] Tilikum Crossing is recognized as the first major "car-free" bridge in the United States.[79]

SignalingEdit

Approximately 70% of the MAX system uses automatic block signaling (ABS). This allows for faster operating speeds—up to 55 miles per hour (89 km/h)[108][122][123]—and short headways. In particular, between Lloyd Center/Northeast 11th Avenue station and Gateway Transit Center along the Banfield Freeway—where Blue, Green, and Red lines interline—ABS allows for an operating headway of two minutes. In these sections, automatic train stops (ATS) enforce speed limits and automatically apply the brakes should a train operator fail to do so. The remaining 30% of the system, which runs in city street medians, relies on traffic signals and line-of-sight operation. Speeds do not exceed 35 mph (56 km/h) in these sections.[4]

StationsEdit

 
A shelter at Gresham City Hall station, renovated in 2017

MAX serves 94 stations throughout the Portland metropolitan area, of which 48 are served by the Blue Line, 30 by the Green Line, 26 by the Red Line, 17 by the Orange Line, and 17 by the Yellow Line. Moreover, 32 stations are served by at least two lines and eight stations are served by three lines.[124] The system's central stations, where all MAX services interconnect, are situated within two blocks of downtown Portland occupied by the Pioneer Courthouse and Pioneer Courthouse Square. They are the Pioneer Courthouse and Pioneer Place stations—which are served by the Green, Orange, and Yellow lines—and the Pioneer Square stations—which are served by the Blue and Red lines.[96]

MAX stations vary in size but are generally simple and austere. Platforms are about 200 feet (61 m) long as a result of Portland's short city blocks in downtown,[124] restricting trains to two-car consists.[125][126] Like many other light rail systems in North America,[127] MAX stations do not have faregates; paid fare zones are delineated but remain accessible to anyone. In 2015, TriMet proposed installing turnstiles at some stations along the Orange Line but never did so.[128] Stations are typically equipped with trash cans, shelters, and ticket vending machines.[124][129] Most have arrival information displays that show when trains arrive and update riders about service disruptions. These displays were initially installed on I-205 MAX and Portland Transit Mall stations and a federal grant in 2013 enabled TriMet to add more to additional locations.[130] Concessionaires sometimes open coffee shops at certain stations.[131][132]

 
Washington Park station, the deepest transit station in North America at 260 feet (79 m) below ground

A majority of MAX stations are at street level, correlating to the system's predominant alignment.[133] A few stations, including Sunset Transit Center, Southeast Bybee Boulevard, and stations along the Banfield Freeway, are below street level.[124][134] One station, Lents Town Center/Southeast Foster Road, is elevated.[135] Washington Park is the system's only underground station; it is currently North America's deepest transit station at 260 feet (79 m) below ground.[136][137]

Many MAX stations facilitate transfers to other modes of transportation. Eleven stations operate as TriMet transit centers, providing connections to several local and intercity bus lines.[138] Currently, Beaverton Transit Center is the only MAX-served transit center with a transfer to WES Commuter Rail, which operates between the westside cities of Beaverton, Tigard, Tualatin, and Wilsonville.[139] Within the Portland Transit Mall, trains connect with numerous bus lines; bus stops are situated in transit mall blocks that are not occupied by light rail platforms.[140] In Portland's Central City district, riders can transfer to the Portland Streetcar at stations near points where MAX and streetcar lines intersect.[141] Riders may also connect to Amtrak via two stations near Portland Union Station.[140] The Red Line operates as an airport rail link and terminates at a MAX station attached to the main passenger terminal of Portland International Airport.[142]

TriMet has built a total of six infill stations. Four were built on the original Eastside MAX alignment—Mall/Southwest 4th Avenue (1990), Mall/Southwest 5th Avenue (1990),[143] Convention Center (1990),[144] and Civic Drive (2010)[145]—and two were built on the Portland Transit Mall—PSU South/Southwest 6th and College (2012) and PSU South/Southwest 5th and Jackson (2012).[65] On March 1, 2020, TriMet closed the Mall infill stations served by the Blue and Red lines in an effort to speed up travel times in downtown Portland. In addition, the agency temporarily closed Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street station for a trial period ending on March 1, 2021.[1][146]

Accessibility and safetyEdit

A wayside lift at Old Town/Chinatown station undergoing maintenance, shown in 1996
An extended doorway bridgeplate in a low-floor car and tactile paving on the platform

Stations on the original MAX line had been fitted with electric wayside lifts to accommodate riders with mobility devices on the high-floor, first-generation vehicles. Each station had two lifts, one for each direction of travel.[147] The lifts were installed on platforms rather than on trains to prevent malfunctions from delaying services.[20] Increased use of the lifts eventually became the cause of delays and many users felt stigmatized by the lifts' "box" design and time-consuming operation.[148][5]:54 With the passing into law of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), TriMet developed a paratransit plan in January 1992.[5]:53 Just before the start of the Westside MAX project, MAX became the first light rail system in North America to procure low-floor vehicles after a TriMet study of European systems.[148] The low-floor cars, which TriMet and Siemens jointly developed,[149] entered service in August 1997.[5]:54

MAX achieved full accessibility in April 1999.[5]:53 Ticket vending machines provide information and instructions in audio, raised lettering, and braille. Station platforms also have signs with braille and raised lettering to indicate which lines provide service and where they go. The edge of platforms have tactile paving to warn riders should they stand too close to the edge,[150] and non-street level platforms may be accessed with elevators.[134] Most light rail cars, with the exception of Type 1, are low-floor and have ramps that extend onto platforms to allow mobility devices to board.[150] High-floor Type 1 cars are paired with low-floor Type 2 or 3 vehicles to maintain accessibility.[151] In each train, an audio system and LED signs announce the name of each upcoming station. All trains have spaces and priority seating areas reserved for seniors and people with disabilities and service animals are permitted aboard.[150]

In 2011, TriMet began upgrading the oldest sections of the Blue Line to improve pedestrian safety and compliance with updated ADA standards.[152] In 2013, pipe barriers were installed at Gateway Transit Center platform crossings to force pedestrians to slow down and face oncoming trains before crossing the tracks. In 2014, TriMet realigned sidewalks and crosswalks at four at-grade crossings in Gresham. Other improvements made throughout the line include the installation of pedestrian warning signals and the upgrading of tactile paving.[153]

Parking facilitiesEdit

As of 2019, TriMet provides a total of 12,614 park and ride spaces, of which 10,219 directly serve 25 out of 94 MAX stations.[154]:3 They are all located outside of Portland's city center and are free to use. TriMet allows vehicles to park at most stalls overnight as long as they do not remain for more than 24 hours.[155] Most facilities are surface parking lots while some are multi-level parking garages.[154]:2 At certain locations, TriMet negotiates with nearby establishments for additional spaces.[156] Westside MAX stations contain 3,643 parking spaces, the highest number of spaces in a corridor.[154]:3 Clackamas Town Center Transit Center on the Green Line includes a 750-space parking garage, the largest capacity parking facility of any single station on the MAX network. Southeast Holgate Boulevard station, also on the Green Line, provides the least number of parking spaces at 125 stalls.[155]

 
A park and ride with a bike and ride component near Southeast Park Avenue station

Passengers originating from official TriMet park and ride facilities account for 5 percent of TriMet's total weekday ridership. In 2017, the Orange Line exhibited a 100 percent usage rate of its available spaces, followed by 85 percent along the Blue Line's westside segment. The corridor with the lowest use of available parking spaces is the Green Line's I-205 segment at 30 percent. TriMet attributes this to several factors, including inconvenient lot access and the Green Line's indirect route to downtown Portland compared with the availability of more direct bus routes. The cost-per-space for building park and ride facilities is estimated at $18,000 per surface-lot space and $52,000 per structured space.[154]:3–5

TriMet offers four different bicycle parking options at its MAX stations, although not all options are available at every station.[157] Bike and ride facilities are secure, enclosed spaces that are accessible by keycard and are monitored 24 hours per day by security cameras; as of 2020 they are available at seven stations,[158] with more planned at other locations.[159] Electronic bicycle lockers, or eLockers, are secure lockers that may also be accessed by keycard and are made available on a first-come, first-served basis. TriMet contracts keycard access to BikeLink.[160] Other lockers may be reserved and rented by users.[161] Bicycle racks are the most common form of bicycle parking.[162]

Rolling stockEdit

 
A MAX train composed of one low-floor car and one high-floor car on the Portland Transit Mall in 2015

As of 2020, TriMet operates five models of light rail vehicles that are designated as "Type 1" through "Type 5", of which two are successive upgrades of the same model. The agency has 145 cars that vary in length, from 88 feet (26.8 m)[163][164] to 95 feet (29.0 m), and are all used interchangeably by every service on the network.[151] With Portland's relatively small 200-foot (61 m) downtown blocks,[165] services operate with only one or two cars to prevent stationary trains from blocking intersections. Type 2 and 3 low-floor vehicles may run singularly or coupled to another Type 1, 2, or 3 vehicle. Type 1 high-floor vehicles are also capable of running singularly, but doing so would constrain accessibility due a lack of wheelchair access. Thus, a high-floor car must be coupled with a low-floor car. Type 4 and 5 cars can only be coupled to one another.[151]

Twenty-six Type 1 high-floor vehicles were produced for the Banfield light rail project by a joint venture between Bombardier and La Brugeoise et Nivelles beginning in 1983.[164] TriMet announced it would purchase seven additional vehicles that August,[166] but a budget shortfall forced the agency to withdraw this proposal the following November.[167] The cars are similar in design to Bombardier vehicles that had been used in Rio de Janeiro.[164] Bombardier built the frames in Quebec, but its factory in Barre, Vermont manufactured the majority of each car,[168] the first of which arrived in Portland in 1984.[169] Each 45-short-ton (41 t) car is single-articulated and contains six axles.[151][170] The high floors connect with the low platforms through interior steps, which necessitated platform wheelchair lifts until the arrival of low-floor cars.[151] A car sits 76 passengers with an overall capacity of 166.[164][171]

In 1992, TriMet officials conducted an accessibility study and determined that low-floor cars were the most cost-effective alternative to providing universal access.[151] MAX then became the first light rail system in North America to acquire low-floor train sets when TriMet procured 39 model SD660 cars from Siemens in 1993.[172][173][174] These Type 2 cars were equipped with doorway wheelchair ramps.[175] They entered service during the partial opening of the Westside MAX in 1997.[176] By 2000, TriMet had ordered 17 more Type 2 cars including six for the Airport MAX project.[50][151] The system's 27 Type 3 vehicles, which the agency purchased as part of the Interstate MAX project and first brought into use in 2003, are the same model as the Type 2 vehicles but with technical upgrades and a new livery.[151][177]

Twenty-two Siemens S70 low-floor cars, which were designated Type 4, were purchased in conjunction with the I-205 MAX and Portland Transit Mall projects, and were first used in 2009. Type 4 cars have a more streamlined design and more seating, and are lighter and more energy-efficient than the previous models. The Type 4 cars were the first in the MAX network to use LED-type destination signs.[178] The second series of S70 cars, TriMet's Type 5 vehicles, were procured for the Portland–Milwaukie light rail project. TriMet placed an order for the Type 5 cars with Siemens in 2012 and delivery commenced in 2014.[179] These vehicles include some improvements over the Type 4 cars, including less-cramped interior seating, and improvements to the air-conditioning system and wheelchair ramps.[180][181]

In July 2019, TriMet placed an order for 26 Siemens S700 light rail vehicles that are intended to replace the system's Type 1 vehicles. The first car is expected to be delivered in 2021.[149]

FacilitiesEdit

The main building at the Ruby Junction maintenance facility
Interior of TriMet's Elmonica maintenance facility

TriMet's vehicle-maintenance complexes for the MAX system are the Ruby Junction facility in Gresham and the smaller Elmonica facility in Beaverton.[182][183] The Ruby Junction facility is located near Ruby Junction/East 197th Avenue station while the Elmonica facility is adjacent to Elmonica/Southwest 170th Avenue station; both are on the Blue Line.[184]

Ruby Junction began with one building that TriMet built as part of the original MAX project in the early 1980s; it had expanded to three multi-story buildings totaling 143,000 square feet (13,300 m2) occupying 17 acres (6.9 ha) by 2010,[182] and to four buildings totalling 149,000 square feet (13,800 m2) occupying 23 acres (9.3 ha) by 2016. It contains 13 maintenance bays and its yard tracks have the capacity to store 87 light rail cars. In 2016, around 200 employees worked at Ruby Junction and almost 200 MAX operators operated trains that were based there. In addition to vehicle maintenance, crews who maintain the MAX system's tracks and signals are also based at Ruby Junction.[183] In 2015, some maintenance-of-way personnel moved into the Portland Vintage Trolley carbarn next to Rose Quarter Transit Center after Vintage Trolley service was discontinued.[185]

Ruby Junction original housed TriMet's operations, communications, and administrative workers.[186]

The Elmonica facility was built as part of the Westside MAX Project in the mid-1990s and was completed in 1996. Its building has 78,000 square feet (7,200 m2) of space.[187]

ServicesEdit

From Monday to Thursday, MAX trains run for 22​12 hours per day. Additional late-night trips are provided on Fridays. Except for additional late-night trips on Saturdays, weekend service runs on a slightly reduced schedule.[188] TriMet designates all MAX lines as "Frequent Service" routes, which ensures service runs on a 15-minute headway for most of each day.[189] During the early morning and late evening hours, trains operate with headways of up to 30 minutes. During rush hours, headways can be as short as three minutes, particularly in the central section of the system where lines overlap.[4] At many stations, a live display shows the destination and time-to-arrival of the next several trains using data gathered by a vehicle tracking system installed on the light rail tracks.[190]

RidershipEdit

MAX carried over 38.8 million total passengers in 2019, an average of 120,900 riders per day on weekdays. This is slightly lower than the number of riders recorded in 2018 and represents the system's third consecutive year of fallen ridership. MAX ridership peaked in 2012, when the system recorded around 42.2 million annual passengers. 2016 marks the last year ridership increased; this was due to the opening of the Orange Line.[2] TriMet attributes falling ridership to perceived crime within trains and stations and lower-income riders being forced out of the inner city by rising housing prices.[191][192] As of 2019, MAX is the fourth-busiest light rail system in the United States after the light rail services of Metro Rail in Los Angeles, the MBTA in Boston, and Muni Metro in San Francisco.[193]

Annual ridership
Year Ridership
2000 21,165,600  
2005 31,920,000 +50.8%
2010 38,390,400 +20.3%
2011 41,200,160 +7.3%
2012 42,193,180 +2.4%
2013 39,036,500 −7.5%
2014 38,228,800 −2.1%
2015 37,746,000 −1.3%
2016 40,019,560 +6.0%
2017 39,699,760 −0.8%
2018 38,906,694 −2.0%
2019 38,817,600 −0.2%
Source: TriMet[2]

FaresEdit

 
A TriMet ticket vending machine with Hop Fastpass branding
 
A Hop Fastpass card and ticket reader at a MAX station

As is standard practice on North American light rail systems,[194] MAX uses a proof-of-payment fare collection system and its stations do not have ticket barriers.[128] Most ticket vending machines at stations accept cash as well as credit and debit cards but some machines accept only cards.[195] TriMet employs an automated fare collection system through a stored-value, contactless smart card called Hop Fastpass,[196] which can be purchased from participating retail stores.[197] Alternatively, chip-embedded, single-use tickets may be purchased from ticket vending machines.[198] A virtual card is available to Android and Apple users.[199][200] Smartphones with a debit or credit card loaded into Google Pay, Samsung Pay, or Apple Pay can also be used on the MAX network.[201] Portland Streetcar ticket vending machines issue two-and-a-half-hour tickets and one-day passes that are valid on MAX.[202]

Before boarding a MAX train, riders must tap their fare medium onto one of the card readers that are located within the station.[197] Fares are flat rate and are capped according to use.[203] Using Hop Fastpass, riders may transfer to other TriMet services, C-Tran, and the Portland Streetcar.[204]

Rider[204] 2​12-hour ticket Day Pass Month Pass
Adult $2.50 $5 $100
Youth, Honored Citizen $1.25 $2.50 $28

Discontinued servicesEdit

From the MAX system's opening until 2012, riding trains within Fareless Square, which was known as the Free Rail Zone from 2010 to 2012, was free of charge. Fareless Square included all of downtown and, starting in 2001, part of the Lloyd District. The 37-year-old fare-free zone was discontinued on September 1, 2012, as part of system-wide cost-cutting measures. As part of the same budget cuts, TriMet discontinued its zonal fares and moved to a flat-fare system. Zones had been in place since 1986; higher fares were charged for longer journeys across four paid zones.[66][122]

The MAX Mall Shuttle operated on weekday afternoons from when it was introduced on September 14, 2009, until 2011.[205] It acted as a supplement to the light rail service provided on the Portland Transit Mall by the Green and Yellow lines.[206] The Mall Shuttle operated between Union Station and Portland State University every 30 minutes from noon until 5:30 p.m.[206] TriMet discontinued this supplementary shuttle service on June 5, 2011.[207][208] Along with bus services, the mall continues to be served by two MAX lines in each direction—Green and Yellow lines northbound and Green and Orange lines southbound—which provide a combined average headway of 7.5 minutes in each direction at most times.

The Portland Vintage Trolley operated on the MAX system on most weekends from 1991 until 2014, serving the same stops. This service used 1991-built replicas of 1904 Portland streetcars. Originally, the Vintage Trolley service followed a section of the original MAX line between the Library and Galleria stations and Lloyd Center. In September 2009, the service moved to the newly opened MAX alignment along the transit mall, running between Union Station to Portland State University,[98][209] and remained on this route in subsequent seasons. In 2011, the service was reduced to seven or eight Sundays per year,[210] and in July 2014 it was discontinued entirely and the two remaining faux-vintage cars were sold to a group planning a streetcar line in St. Louis.[211][212]

2017 stabbing incidentEdit

On May 26, 2017, at approximately 4:30 pm, a man fatally stabbed two people and injured a third after he was confronted for shouting anti-Muslim slurs at two teenage girls inside a MAX train.[213] Two men—a technician and U.S. Army veteran, and a recent university graduate—died from wounds to their necks while a third victim, who is also male, survived.[214] The attacker, who described himself as a white nationalist,[215] was arrested and charged with murder, attempted murder, and other crimes.[216] On February 21, 2020, the perpetrator was found guilty on all charges, including two counts of first-degree murder.[217]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Until the opening of the Airport MAX extension, the service between Hillsboro and Gresham, which ran the entire length of the Eastside and Westside MAX segments, had simply been referred to as MAX. Color designations were adopted in fall 2000 and implemented on September 10, 2001.[27][97]

ReferencesEdit

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