MAX Yellow Line

The MAX Yellow Line is a light rail service in Portland, Oregon, United States, operated by TriMet as part of the MAX Light Rail system. It connects North Portland to Portland City Center and Portland State University (PSU). The Yellow Line begins at Portland Expo Center in the north and runs south to the Rose Quarter through a 5.8-mile (9.3 km) light rail segment along the median of North Interstate Avenue called the Interstate MAX. From there, it crosses the Willamette River via the Steel Bridge and enters downtown Portland, where it operates as a northbound-only service of the Portland Transit Mall on 6th Avenue. The line serves 17 stops from Expo Center station to PSU South/Southwest 6th and College station. It runs for approximately 21 hours daily with a minimum headway of 15 minutes during most of the day.

MAX Yellow Line
A MAX train composed of a low-floor car and a high-floor car southbound on 5th Avenue at Mill Street in downtown Portland
A two-car train on the Portland Transit Mall
Overview
Other name(s)Interstate MAX[1]
StatusOperational
OwnerTriMet
LocalePortland, Oregon, U.S.
TerminiExpo Center (north)
PSU South in downtown Portland (south)
Stations17
WebsiteMAX Yellow Line
Service
TypeLight rail
SystemMAX Light Rail
Operator(s)TriMet
Daily ridership12,960 (as of September 2019)[2]
History
OpenedMay 1, 2004 (2004-05-01)
Technical
Line length5.8 mi (9.3 km)[a]
CharacterAt-grade and elevated
Route diagram

Expo Center
Parking
Delta Park/Vanport
Parking
Kenton/N Denver
N Lombard TC
Rosa Parks
N Killingsworth St
N Prescott
Overlook Park
Albina/Mississippi
Interstate/Rose Quarter
Stadium - The Noun Project.svg
to Gresham to Clackamas to Airport
 
Most southbound Yellow Line
trains become Orange Line
 
Union Station/NW 5th & Glisan
Amtrak
Union Station/NW 6th & Hoyt
Amtrak
NW 5th & Couch
NW 6th & Davis
SW 5th & Oak
SW 6th & Pine
Pioneer Place
Pioneer Courthouse
to Gresham to Airport
City Hall/SW 5th & Jefferson
SW 6th & Madison
 B  Loop NS  Line (SW Market St)
PSU Urban Ctr/SW 5th & Mill
Portland Streetcar
 A  Loop NS  Line (SW Mill/SW Montgomery St)
PSU Urban Ctr/SW 6th & Montgomery
Portland Streetcar
PSU South/SW 5th & Jackson
PSU South/SW 6th & College
Terminus
Most northbound Orange Line
trains become Yellow Line

Following years of failed attempts to construct the South/North Corridor between Clackamas County and Clark County, Washington, Portland business leaders and local residents persuaded TriMet to build a MAX extension to North Portland in 1999. As a source of funding, the city created an urban renewal area, which has since been partly blamed for gentrifying historically black inner-city neighborhoods. The line began construction in 2001 and opened on May 1, 2004, four months ahead of schedule. From 2004 to 2009, the Yellow Line ran from Expo Center station in North Portland to the Library and Galleria stations in downtown Portland, sharing tracks within downtown with the Blue Line and the Red Line. In 2009, TriMet rerouted downtown Yellow Line service upon adding light rail tracks to the Portland Transit Mall.

Since 2015, the Yellow Line has operated as a northbound through service of the Orange Line from PSU South/Southwest 6th and College station, sharing its transit mall alignment on 6th Avenue with the Green Line. Conversely, most southbound Yellow Line trains, which had served the other half of the mall on 5th Avenue from 2009 to 2015, through operate into the Orange Line from Union Station/Northwest 5th & Glisan Street station and terminate at Southeast Park Avenue station in Milwaukie. As of September 2019, the Yellow Line is the fourth-busiest service in the MAX system, carrying an average of 12,960 riders each weekday.

HistoryEdit

Early proposalsEdit

 
An aerial view of Interstate 5 (near center) and Interstate Avenue (upper right) facing south in 1973

Portland city planners originally conceived the idea of a northside passenger rail service in 1988 as part of Portland's Central City and Albina Community plans.[3][4] These plans sought to extend the Metropolitan Area Express (MAX)—the region's then-two-year-old light rail system—through North Portland across the Columbia River and into Vancouver and Clark County in Washington via potential routes on either North Interstate Avenue, Interstate 5 (I-5), or Northeast Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard (formerly Northeast Union Avenue).[5] As members of the U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senators Mark Hatfield of Oregon and Brock Adams of Washington combined these proposals with a greater Portland–Oregon City light rail plan that regional government Metro had separately developed, for which the committee appropriated $2 million in 1989.[6]

Preliminary alignment studies to Clark County, including an additional proposal for a line between Vancouver Mall and Clackamas Town Center along I-205, commenced shortly after.[7] Metro's Joint Policy Advisory Committee on Transportation (JPACT) identified a 25-mile (40 km) route from Hazel Dell through downtown Portland to Clackamas Town Center in 1994 that TriMet formally named the "South/North Corridor".[8][9]:80 That November, Metro asked Portland area voters if they would approve a $475 million bond measure to cover Oregon's portion of the project's estimated $2.8 billion cost; the measure passed by 63 percent.[10] Across the river, Clark County officials proposed a 0.3 percent increase in sales and vehicle excise taxes to provide Washington's $237.5 million share,[11] which voters turned down by 69 percent on February 7, 1995.[12][13]

Amid fears that ridership would not justify a North Portland segment if Clark County were excluded,[14] JPACT scaled back the project and released a second plan that would build the line only between the Rose Quarter and Clackamas Town Center.[15] To fill the funding gap that resulted from the exclusion of Clark County, the Oregon House of Representatives passed a $750 million transportation package that included $375 million for the project.[16] The Oregon Supreme Court promptly struck down this funding due to the inclusion of unrelated measures, which violated the state's constitution.[17][18] In February 1996, state legislators revised the package, but in November, light rail opponents forced a statewide vote that ultimately prevented the use of state funds.[17][19] In an effort to regain the support of North Portland residents, who had historically voted in favor of light rail, and to avoid seeking state funding,[20] JPACT announced a third plan in February 1997 that reinstated a segment within North Portland with a 15-mile (24 km) line from Lombard Street to Clackamas Town Center.[21] A few months later, the Portland City Council extended this proposed alignment through North Portland so that it would terminate another mile north of Lombard Street in Kenton.[22] That July, Metro advanced the final environmental studies for a line that would run 16 miles (26 km) between Kenton and Clackamas Town Center in its first phase, with a potential to extend it 21 miles (34 km) up to Clark County should financing be acquired.[23]

Due to the wording on the original ballot passed in 1994, which described the project extending into Clark County, regional transit agency TriMet elected to reaffirm voter support by drafting a new $475 million bond measure.[24] Portland area residents cast their vote on November 3, 1998, and those against the measure narrowly defeated it, 52 percent to 48 percent.[25] With the South/North line effectively canceled, light rail on the Portland Transit Mall and to Clackamas Town Center would not be built until 2009 for the Green Line.[26] Much of the proposal's southern half from the transit mall to Milwaukie would also remain shelved until the opening of the Orange Line in 2015.[27]

Revival and constructionEdit

 
The long viaduct north of Argyle Street built for the Interstate MAX

In 1999, North Portland residents and city business leaders urged TriMet to revive the South/North Corridor's northern portion but without the Clark County segment, arguing that 81 percent of Multnomah County voters had wanted light rail.[28][29] TriMet agreed and developed a proposal to build the line along the median of North Interstate Avenue, between the Portland Expo Center and the Rose Quarter.[30] Meetings and polls conducted in June of that year determined that locals overwhelmingly supported the project, which organizers began calling the "Interstate MAX", as long as it was less expensive than the South/North project, did not displace residents from their homes,[9]:83 and did not require any new taxes.[31] The city council subsequently endorsed this proposal.[32] TriMet projected the cost of the light rail extension at $350 million (equivalent to $504 million in 2019 dollars).[33]

To build the Interstate MAX without the need for a significant new source of local funding, the city created an urban renewal district surrounding the alignment,[34] adopting the Interstate Corridor urban renewal area (ICURA) plan in August 2000.[35]:24 This covered an expansive 3,744-acre (1,515 ha) area within 10 neighborhoods and directed $30 million in tax increment funds towards the project.[33][36] Around this time, TriMet and the city had also completed funding the Airport MAX and Central City Streetcar projects without requesting any federal assistance; this allowed TriMet to declare them part of the Interstate MAX Project, which provided $257.5 million in matching federal funds that the Federal Transit Administration approved in September.[33][37] TriMet and Metro contributed $38.5 million and $24 million respectively to the remaining balance, sourced from their own general transportation funds.[1]

Construction of the Interstate MAX began in February 2001 with a ceremony held near the Rose Quarter.[38] Initial work on the line's junction with the Eastside MAX, located near the east end of the Steel Bridge, required a 16-day closure of the Eastside MAX segment between Rose Quarter Transit Center and Old Town/Chinatown station, during which buses shuttled riders between the two stations.[39] In April, TriMet contracted Stacy and Witbeck to lay tracks between the Rose Quarter and Kenton, and to build a new vehicular overpass in Lower Albina.[40] Meanwhile, the agency awarded the section between Kenton and the Expo Center, which included the construction of a 3,850-foot-long (1,173 m) dual-track bridge north of North Argyle Street,[41] to F.E. Ward Constructors.[39] The rapid pace of construction, which workers credited to improvements in track-laying and street reconstruction technology learned from previous MAX projects,[42] hit a halfway point in April 2002. TriMet marked this milestone with a concrete pouring ceremony at the line's intersection with Portland Boulevard.[43] Workers completed road and sidewalk improvements the following November, six months ahead of schedule.[44] In August 2003, with construction approximately 80 percent complete, TriMet officials announced the line's targeted opening for the following spring,[45] months earlier than the previously anticipated September commencement.[42] Line testing began in February 2004 and continued up to the extension's inauguration.[46]

Opening and service realignmentEdit

The 5.8-mile (9.3 km) Interstate MAX extension opened on May 1, 2004,[47] four months ahead of schedule and $25 million under budget.[1][48] TriMet created a new MAX service for the extension called the "Yellow Line",[49][50] which ran from Expo Center station in North Portland to the Library and Galleria stations in downtown Portland, turning around at the 11th Avenue tracks; it followed First Avenue and Morrison and Yamhill streets upon entry into downtown, serving this segment alongside the Blue and Red lines,[26] and replaced TriMet bus route 5–Interstate.[49] Over 20,000 people attended opening day celebrations and TriMet offered free rides for two days.[51] The presence of the line spurred redevelopment along the corridor, including new investments from Fred Meyer and New Seasons Market.[47]

On August 30, 2009, TriMet rerouted the Yellow Line to begin serving the light rail tracks added to the rebuilt Portland Transit Mall with the PSU Urban Center stations as its interim southern termini.[26][52] The agency had placed the construction of the intended PSU South termini on hold as it awaited transit-oriented development projects in the area to finish.[53] The PSU South stations opened in September 2012.[54] Following the completion of the Portland–Milwaukie light rail project, which extended MAX service to Milwaukie, the Yellow Line became partially interlined with the new Orange Line. TriMet claimed separating the lines would allow it to better control service frequencies from North Portland and Milwaukie to downtown Portland, as it expected higher ridership along the Orange Line. It also anticipated few riders from these communities traveling beyond the city center. Most Orange Line trains subsequently took over operation of the southbound 5th Avenue segment of the transit mall on September 12, 2015.[55]

Proposed extension to Clark County, WashingtonEdit

 
A Vancouver Line streetcar seen crossing the Interstate Bridge in 1917

Passenger rail services once operated between Portland and Vancouver in Clark County, Washington. The first service commenced in October 1888, operating as a steam dummy line owned by the Portland and Vancouver Railway Company called the Vancouver Line.[56]:6–8 Its tracks initially ran from the corner of First and Washington streets in downtown Portland and up to Hayden Island,[57]:73 where Vancouver-bound passengers needed to transfer to a ferry to continue across the Columbia River.[58]:16–17 The line became electrified in 1892 following its acquisition by the Portland Consolidated Street Railway.[57]:71 The first Interstate Bridge, built in 1917,[59] finally extended the tracks across the river and replaced the ferry service. The Vancouver Line remained operational as part of the Portland Railway, Light and Power Company until its closure in September 1940.[57]

Since 1940, other attempts have been made to restore passenger rail service to Clark County apart from the failed South/North line. Planners first considered the idea in 1974, when TriMet proposed a light rail line at the same time a governor's task force studied options for allocating federal assistance funds diverted from the canceled Mount Hood Freeway project.[60] Then in 1984, a bi-state advisory committee revisited the concept, envisioning 8,000 commuters from Clark County by the year 2000.[61] Both proposals were shelved due to feasibility issues and a lack of funding.[60][61] Following the South/North line's initial defeat, planning for a separate North Portland to Clark County segment continued. New studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a light rail-only bridge or a tunnel,[62] while other studies suggested light rail on a third vehicular bridge,[63][64] an idea that had been considered since the late 1980s.[65][66] An environmental study released in February 1998 for the South/North line's third iteration included an option for a low bridge with a lift span.[67] Before the South/North line's cancellation, a decision was made to reserve the option for a later phase.[68]

In 2004, Oregon and Washington embarked on efforts to replace the aging Interstate Bridge, citing the bridge's declining structural integrity and worsening congestion.[69] This culminated in the Columbia River Crossing project in 2008. The project would have replaced the bridge and extended MAX further north from the Expo Center through Hayden Island and across the Columbia River to downtown Vancouver and Clark College. It would have added seven new stations along 2.9 miles (4.7 km) of new track. Planners projected the extension to cost upwards of $3.5 billion (equivalent to $4.01 billion in 2019 dollars).[70]:3 In June 2013, three months after the Oregon Legislature authorized $450 million in state funding, the Washington State Senate declined to fund Washington's share, with opponents citing the inclusion of light rail as a common reason for rejecting the proposal.[71] The states terminated the project in March 2014.[72]

With vehicular traffic expected to worsen between Vancouver and Portland,[73][74] a light rail extension into Clark County remains part of Metro's 2018 Regional Transportation Plan for 2040. The plan assumes a cost of $4.1 billion for the entire project, of which $3.1 billion would be used to replace the Interstate Bridge, $80 million to build a second bridge connecting Hayden Island to Portland Expo Center, and $850 million for the remainder of the extension.[75] The Southwest Washington Regional Transportation Council also includes the light rail corridor in their own 2040 plan.[76]

RouteEdit

 
MAX near the intersection of North Interstate Avenue and Lombard Street

The Yellow Line serves the Interstate MAX extension, which is 5.8 miles (9.3 km) long.[a] Its northern terminus is Expo Center station, situated on the east end of the Portland Expo Center parking lot. From there, the line heads south adjacent to North Expo Road.[77] Before Delta Park/Vanport station, the alignment gradually elevates as it enters a 3,850-foot-long (1,170 m) viaduct,[41] which crosses over North Victory Boulevard, North Interstate Avenue, the Columbia Slough, and North Columbia Boulevard before approaching a level crossing on North Argyle Street.[78][79] Just south of Kenton/North Denver Avenue station, the tracks enter the median of North Interstate Avenue and proceed south towards Interstate/Rose Quarter station at the Rose Quarter. The Interstate MAX connects with the Eastside MAX segment at the east end of the Steel Bridge, where Yellow Line trains continue west across the Willamette River and into downtown Portland via the Northwest Glisan Street ramp.[80] A wye just south of Union Station splits the double-tracks to establish the northern end of the Portland Transit Mall on 5th and 6th avenues.[81]

On the Portland Transit Mall, southbound Yellow Line trains through operate into the Orange Line bound for Milwaukie at Union Station/Northwest 5th & Glisan station on 5th Avenue. Conversely, Yellow Line trains serve the northbound 6th Avenue segment as through-routed continuations of the Orange Line from PSU South/Southwest 6th and College station alongside Green Line trains.[82] Near PSU Urban Center/Southwest 6th & Montgomery station, MAX tracks cross with the Portland Streetcar, which serves a stop on Southwest Mill Street. Between the Pioneer Courthouse and Pioneer Courthouse Square at Pioneer Courthouse/Southwest 6th station, the 6th Avenue MAX line intersects with east–west MAX lines on Yamhill and Morrison streets, facilitating a transfer to the Pioneer Square South and Pioneer Square North stations. The line continues northward, entering Northwest Portland after passing West Burnside Street, eventually reaching the north end of the transit mall at Union Station/Northwest 6th and Hoyt station.[83]

From its opening in 2004 until 2009, the Yellow Line followed the Eastside MAX alignment from the east end of the Steel Bridge to the 11th Avenue tracks in downtown Portland, serving the stations from Old Town/Chinatown to Library and Galleria alongside Blue and Red line trains.[84] It was rerouted to the Portland Transit Mall in August 2009 after the addition of light rail to 5th and 6th avenues.[26]

 
A geographic map of the MAX Yellow Line (in red) relative to the rest of the network (in black) with icons marking the line's termini. The official system schematic can be viewed on the TriMet website.

StationsEdit

 
Expo Center station, the Yellow Line's northern terminus
 
North Killingsworth Street station
 
PSU South/Southwest 6th & College station, where most northbound Orange Line trains switch to Yellow Line service

The Interstate MAX extension consists of ten stations from Expo Center to Interstate/Rose Quarter. Of these ten stations, seven occupy the median of North Interstate Avenue, giving the line its name. The Yellow Line is the only service that serves stations on the Interstate MAX. It also serves seven stations in downtown Portland along the northbound segment of the Portland Transit Mall on 6th Avenue; these are shared with the Green Line. Transfers to the Orange Line, which runs southbound from Union Station in downtown Portland to Milwaukie, can be made at any of the seven stations along the transit mall's 5th Avenue alignment, although most southbound Yellow Line trains through operate into the Orange Line.[1] Transfers to the Blue and Red lines are available at Pioneer Courthouse/Southwest 6th station, and to the Blue, Green, and Red lines at Interstate/Rose Quarter station.[1] The Yellow Line also provides connections to local and intercity bus services at several stops across the line, to Amtrak near Union Station/Northwest 6th & Hoyt station,[83] and to the Portland Streetcar at PSU Urban Center/Southwest 6th & Montgomery station.[85]

Key
Icon Purpose
  Terminus
  Northbound travel only[b]
List of MAX Yellow Line stations
Station Location Commenced Line transfers[86] Other connections and notes[83][86][c]
Expo Center  North
Portland
May 1, 2004 Serves Portland Expo Center
Delta Park/Vanport   C-Tran
Serves Portland International Raceway
Kenton/North Denver Avenue
North Lombard Transit Center
Rosa Parks
North Killingsworth Street
North Prescott Street
Overlook Park
Albina/Mississippi
Interstate/Rose Quarter   C-Tran
Serves Rose Quarter
Union Station/Northwest 6th & Hoyt  Portland
Transit
Mall
August 31, 2009   Amtrak
  Greyhound, POINT, TCTD
Serves Portland Union Station
Northwest 6th & Davis 
Southwest 6th & Pine 
Pioneer Courthouse/Southwest 6th  Serves Pioneer Courthouse, Pioneer Courthouse Square
Southwest 6th & Madison 
PSU Urban Center/Southwest 6th & Montgomery    Portland Streetcar
Serves Portland State University
PSU South/Southwest 6th and College   September 2, 2012
Serves Portland State University

ServiceEdit

The Yellow Line operates for approximately 21 hours per day with the first northbound train arriving at Interstate/Rose Quarter station at 4:15 am as a through service of the Blue Line. The first southbound train departs Expo Center station for Union Station/Northwest 5th and Glisan at 5:03 am, where most trains continue as Orange Line services bound for Southeast Park Avenue station in Milwaukie. The first northbound train from PSU South/Southwest 6th and College departs for the Expo Center station at 5:05 am; end-to-end travel takes approximately 35 minutes. In the evenings, select southbound trains turn into eastbound Blue Line trains at Interstate/Rose Quarter station and continue on to Ruby Junction/East 197th Avenue station in Gresham, while other trains proceed along the Portland Transit Mall as part of the Green Line, terminating at PSU South/Southwest 5th and Jackson. The last northbound train departs PSU South station at 12:21 am and the last southbound train departs Expo Center station at 1:04 am.[87] TriMet designates the Yellow Line as a "Frequent Service" route, running on a headway of 15 minutes during most of the day, which extends up to 30 minutes in the early morning and late evening hours.[88]

RidershipEdit

The Yellow Line is the fourth-busiest MAX service, averaging 12,960 riders on weekdays in September 2019,[2] down from 13,170 for the same month in 2018.[89] Ridership projections in 2003, several months before the line's opening, expected 13,900 passengers per day during the line's first few years, growing to 20,000 daily passengers by 2020.[42] For the 2015 fiscal year, the Yellow Line recorded 4.9 million total boardings, down from 5.4 million recorded in 2012.[1][90] The drop in ridership, experienced systemwide, is attributed to crime and to lower-income riders being forced out of the inner city by rising housing prices.[91][92]

Impact of urban renewalEdit

The presence of the Interstate MAX and its accompanying ICURA plan has partly been blamed for gentrification in historically black Portland neighborhoods.[93][94][95] In an analysis conducted by The Oregonian on the 2010 United States Census, approximately 10,000 people of color have left Portland's Central City between 2000 and 2010. Of this number, 8,400 had lived in inner North and Northeast Portland neighborhoods. According to another report by the Portland Housing Bureau, neighborhoods around Interstate Avenue and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard were the only areas in Portland that experienced double-digit percentage declines in minority population from 2000 to 2013.[96] During the same period, the Interstate Corridor gained more than 13,000 new white and non-Hispanic residents.[97]

The 2000-adopted ICURA plan had outlined policies to prevent the displacement of existing residents—such as ensuring that affordable housing would be top priority—that the Portland Development Commission (PDC) later eliminated. Amid mounting pressure from the community, the PDC began setting aside 30 percent of the urban renewal funds for affordable housing in 2006.[36] The PDC amended the ICURA plan in July 2011, expanding its boundaries to 3,990 acres (1,610 ha) and 17 neighborhoods.[98]:15 In 2016, the city allocated a budget of $52 million to help pay for housing projects within the urban renewal area and devised a housing plan referred to as the "preference policy", which offered a way for affected residents to stay or return to their neighborhoods.[99][100]

Explanatory notesEdit

  1. ^ a b TriMet publications only provide the total length of the Interstate MAX extension, i.e., the 5.8-mile (9.3 km) section that was newly built. The total length of Yellow Line service, which includes segments of the Eastside MAX and the Portland Transit Mall, is undetermined.[1]
  2. ^ Most Yellow Line trains on the Portland Transit Mall travel northbound only. Most southbound trains through operate into the Orange Line bound for Southeast Park Avenue in Milwaukie at Union Station/Northwest 5th & Hoyt.[86]
  3. ^ This list of service connections excludes TriMet bus connections. For a complete list that includes all transfers, see: List of MAX Light Rail stations.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Interstate MAX Yellow Line" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "September 2019 Monthly Performance Report" (PDF). TriMet. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 26, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  3. ^ Oliver, Gordon (July 12, 1988). "Economic planning outlined". The Oregonian. p. B6. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  4. ^ Pickett, Nelson (February 25, 1992). "Planning commission looks at Albina Community Plan". The Oregonian. p. B2. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  5. ^ Mayer, James (May 15, 1989). "Planners seek economic niche for inner city; bureau plans 3-years study of North, Northeast Portland, hoping to help revive area". The Oregonian. p. B2. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  6. ^ Kohler, Vince; Stewart, Bill (September 10, 1989). "Light-rail proposals gain ground in Congress; senate panel approves transportation funding bill, aiding plans for new Oregon City, Vancouver lines". The Oregonian. p. C2. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  7. ^ Stewart, Bill (September 24, 1989). "Clark County light-rail plans chugging along; more than $1 million will be spent on studies on both sides of the river". The Oregonian. p. C2. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  8. ^ Maves, Norm Jr. (October 27, 1994). "25-mile route encompasses hundreds of steps". The Oregonian. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  9. ^ a b Selinger, Philip (2015). "Making History: 45 Years of Transit in the Portland Region" (PDF). TriMet. pp. 80, 83–85. OCLC 919377348. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  10. ^ Oliver, Gordon (November 10, 1994). "One down, more to go for reality of north–south rail line". The Oregonian. p. C10. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  11. ^ Rose, Joseph (July 11, 2012). "C-Tran sends light-rail sales tax to Clark County voters". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  12. ^ Oliver, Gordon (February 8, 1995). "Clark County turns down north–south light rail". The Oregonian. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  13. ^ Oliver, Gordon (February 9, 1995). "Light-rail rejection stirs doubt on project". The Oregonian. p. C1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  14. ^ Spicer, Osker; Nkrumah, Wade (March 2, 1995). "Left Behind?". The Oregonian. p. D2. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  15. ^ Oliver, Gordon; Stewart, Bill (March 1, 1995). "MAX may skip Clark County, N. Portland". The Oregonian. p. B1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  16. ^ Green, Ashbel S.; Mapes, Jeff (August 4, 1995). "Legislature is finally working on the railroad". The Oregonian. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  17. ^ a b "Some light-rail history". The Oregonian. October 7, 1996. p. A8. Retrieved April 18, 2021 – via NewsBank.
  18. ^ Spicer, Osker (January 31, 1996). "Light-rail expansion would be good for areas". The Oregonian. p. C2. Retrieved April 18, 2021 – via NewsBank.
  19. ^ Oliver, Gordon; Hunsenberger, Brent (November 7, 1996). "Tri-Met still wants that rail line to Clackamas County". The Oregonian. p. D1. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  20. ^ Oliver, Gordon (February 12, 1997). "South–North light-rail issue keeps on going". The Oregonian. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  21. ^ Oliver, Gordon (February 12, 1997). "Returning to light rail". The Oregonian. p. A20. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  22. ^ Stewart, Bill (June 19, 1998). "Portland officially maps a South–North rail line". The Oregonian. p. B3. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  23. ^ Oliver, Gordon (July 24, 1998). "Metro votes advance South–North light rail". The Oregonian. p. D6. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved December 23, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  24. ^ Oliver, Gordon (August 6, 1998). "Tri-Met will put rail plan on ballot". The Oregonian. p. B1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  25. ^ Oliver, Gordon (November 7, 1998). "South–North Line backers find themselves at a loss after election day defeat". The Oregonian. p. B1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  26. ^ a b c d "New MAX line opens downtown". Portland Tribune. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  27. ^ "TriMet Expands Service with Opening of Max Orange Line". Mass Transit. August 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  28. ^ Oliver, Gordon (March 16, 1999). "New light-rail plan rises from the ashes". The Oregonian. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  29. ^ Stewart, Bill (March 25, 1999). "Tri-Met involvement urged in north light-rail line". The Oregonian. p. B3. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  30. ^ Oliver, Gordon (May 3, 1999). "Tri-Met adds detail to proposal to build light rail in north". The Oregonian. p. C2. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  31. ^ Oliver, Gordon (June 5, 1999). "Light-rail proponents take heart in poll results". The Oregonian. p. B3. Archived from the original on January 31, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  32. ^ Oliver, Gordon (June 17, 1999). "Council revives Interstate Avenue MAX line plan". The Oregonian. p. B3. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  33. ^ a b c Stewart, Bill (February 5, 2000). "NW prominent in Clinton money plan; MAX: The North Portland Interstate". The Oregonian. p. A1. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  34. ^ Stewart, Bill (August 26, 1999). "Interstate MAX on track but not final". The Oregonian. p. D2. Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via NewsBank.
  35. ^ Interstate Corridor Urban Renewal Plan (PDF) (Report). Portland Development Commission. August 2000. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  36. ^ a b Hannah-Jones, Nikole (May 1, 2011). "Lessons learned? What Portland leaders did – and didn't do – as people of color were forced to the fringes". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
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