Wikipedia:WikiProject Finance & Investment

The aim of this project is to make Wikipedia an authoritative, current, and useful site for anyone interested in better understanding the field of finance. It aims to make the world a better place by demystifying the workings of financial markets, its actors, and the underlying concepts.


Finance is based on fundamental concepts in economics, but focuses on real-world phenomena and business practices. This project encompasses:

  • corporate finance, i.e. the decisions made by firms in need of financing to implement their business strategies such as expansion, market entrance or exit, and associated regulatory and other externalities;
  • investment finance, both providers of financing with the expectation of a return on investment and methodologies used by such entities to realize returns

The project includes matters related to the risk of these activities. Specific finance and investment companies are within the scope of this project, as well as financial market structures and the financial industry in general.

The Finance & Investment project is a subset of Business and Economics. Since it is a large, complex, and important contributor to the global economy and society at large, it warrants its own wikiproject.

Goals and objectivesEdit

The goals of this project are to:

  • Provide guidelines, recommendations, and standards for articles related to the field of finance and the many related subtopics
  • Provide overarching conceptual frameworks to ensure that articles are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, including navigational devices and knowledge taxonomy, as needed
  • Provide a forum for discussing topics related to articles about the field of finance

The objectives of this project are to:

  • Organize the topical structure of the field, primarily by way of navigational templates
  • Recruit additional members
  • Identify clear gaps in article topics
  • Agree on quality standards and requirements for articles
  • Assess and prioritize improvement needs for existing articles
  • Bring second article up to Featured Article status


For a full list of the members, see Category:WikiProject Finance & Investment participants.

To join the Finance & Investment WikiProject:

  1. watch this page
  2. Place the following userbox on your user page:

{{User finance}}

 This user is a member of WikiProject Finance & Investment.

Other userboxes to add (if applicable) to your user page (many more available):

{{User degree/MBA}}

MBAThis user has a Master of
Business Administration

{{User CPA}}

CPAThis user holds the Certified Public Accountant credential.

{{User CFA}}

CFAThis user holds the Chartered Financial Analyst credential.

In the general search box you can search for more templates with: Templates:User ...

Ways to helpEdit

Expand stubsEdit

More waysEdit

  1. Add the {{WikiProject Finance & Investment}} tag to articles about finance
  2. Assess articles: Category:Unassessed Finance & Investment articles (See also assessment department)
  3. Respond to the backlog of requests on this page
  4. Work on refactoring the project talk page
  5. Subdivide more usefully Category:Economics and finance stubs (See WikiProject Stub sorting)
  6. Improve Outline of finance
  7. Improve on this page and all subpages of this page
  8. Seek out and improve articles that do not meet Wikipedia's core content policies: No original research, Verifiability, and Neutral point of view. There are numerous finance articles that are unreferenced, inadequately referenced, or lacking adequate inline citations, which may contain original research. Articles lacking in these areas should undergo radical improvement so that they reference material published by reliable sources.

Article alertsEdit

Did you know

Articles for deletion

Proposed deletions

Good article nominees

Requested moves

Articles to be merged

(2 more...)

Articles to be split

Articles for creation

(29 more...)

Related WikiProjectsEdit

WikiProject Business is the parent of this WikiProject.
Private Equity Task Force was created in 2008 as an inter-project initiative to coordinate the efforts of different WikiProjects in the areas of private equity and venture capital.
Universal Basic Income is a currently inactive WikiProject in need of revival.


Expand to view Finance categories
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Expand to view Investment categories
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{{WikiProject Finance & Investment}} is the banner to put at the top of an article's talk page to add it to the project. To use it with its optional parameters, copy and paste this code:

{{WikiProject Finance & Investment
 |class= <!-- FA, A, GA, B, Start, Stub, Dab, Cat, Template, and NA -->
 |importance= <!-- top, high, mid, low, and NA -->
 |attention= <!-- Immediate attention required. Needed by some bots. -->
 |peer-review= <!-- Need more input on your article? -->
WikiProject Finance & Investment (Rated NA-class)
This article is within the scope of WikiProject Finance & Investment, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of articles related to Finance and Investment on Wikipedia. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks.
  NA  This article has been rated as NA-Class on the project's quality scale.

Templates CreatedEdit

Top Level

Second Level
Lowest Level

Templates to be CreatedEdit

Top Level (Complete)

Second Level
Lowest Level
These Templates will be displayed on the bottom of the article
Financial Markets
Corporate Finance
Personal Finance
Public Finance
  • None for Public Finance
Banks and Banking
Financial regulation
History of finance

Old templatesEdit


Please add to this list any pages that need to be improved or created.

  • Environmental finance Requesting assessment. The article has started as a stub but I have contributed signifacntly and believe it is at least a C class article. Thanks!
  • Draft:Banpará, on a Northern Brazilian regional bank. I think it's good enough and I've added many examples of its notability Richevans69 (talk) 00:27, 2 February 2020 (UTC)
  • Draft:EvoShare, an AfC on a fintech startup that among other things, just launched a partnership with Paylocity, needs review and approval. It was added to this wikiproject by user Worldbruce. --TDuVal (talk) 18:13, 7 October 2019 (UTC)
  • Draft:Credinka, a Peruvian microlender. I just created this stub but I'm going to need help adding content from third-party sources. Maybe this subject doesn't warrant its own article, though, and it's better to make an article for its parent company, the Diviso Group, with a section for Credinka. Even the parent company doesn't have an article on Spanish Wikipedia, which has me worried. Qzekrom (talk) 17:21, 10 September 2018 (UTC)
  • User:MylaraLout/sandbox: I'm no expert, but this sandbox draft -- the sole work of the editor, put here in October -- looks like they took the Index trading article and mixed in random references to Binary options. I suspect a stealth spam tactic here, but could someone who is actually competent take a look and confirm? --Calton | Talk 15:50, 13 June 2017 (UTC) . Response --Attack68(13/6/2017): I disagree it is a stealth spam tactic but the article is poor and contains many incorrect statements. For example Index Trading is not also know as binary option trading. Indices do not always represent the top stocks on an exchange. I could go on. The page is also vague with links to a narrow set of exogenous influencing factors. I recommend this sandbox page in its current form is inaccurate and unhelpful.
  • The Dynamic currency conversion should be explained thoroughly by an expert discussing pros and cons in detail from neutral pov.
  • The Commodity Futures Trading Commission lists the five current commissioners. As you can see, only one, the chair, has an article.
  • William Toy - just created, based on source cited; please review and update with current information if available / known. Thanks Fintor (talk)
  • Special dividend - wording is really confusing on this tiny article. The small amount of info might be better integrated into the dividend article. I don't understand exactly what is being pointed out in several places, so I'll leave it to someone with better knowledge of the topic and sources. --Mmdoogie (talk) 03:38, 17 June 2010 (UTC)
  • I'd like to see the history of the carried interest 'loophole'. When was it passed, at least?Craig234
  • Angel investor could use a rewrite from more authoritative references. --Ronz (talk) 03:45, 13 October 2011 (UTC)
That seems to be one not really trivial aspect of the HIRE Act[1]
(  ... or better not really sure to get the right infos as non-expert in this subject and to make matters worse in awareness of my alien English)
It would be nice, if a native speaker & expert could clarify this knowledge gap! (Jaybear (talk) 16:42, 21 December 2012 (UTC))
  • Super Bowl indicator - The section on Accuracy is misleading in that, while the correlation between which league wins the Super Bowl and stock bull markets is good, it's just a coincidence (which is why the article calls it a myth). I'd like to see some explanation of that. I might work something up for others to poke at, but don't be afraid to beat me to it. Scott Snelson (talk) 04:31, 1 March 2013 (UTC)
  • Financial economics - just "completed" a major re-write. Please review the article, as well revisit its quality-rating. Fintor (talk) 07:59, 7 March 2014 (UTC). Please review changes of last few days. Fintor (talk) 12:59, 6 January 2016 (UTC)
  • Emmanuel Lemelson - I would appreciate some assistance with these two pages (see the respective talk pages here: [1] and here: [2] for more detail). While the two pages have drawn the interest and involvement of a couple experienced editors, they are not unfortunately at all familiar with the investment or finance fields. One wrote an entire paragraph about the subject owning a stock, which he had actually shorted, and was prepared to let that stand as accurate until I intervened. Another is asking basic questions about basic functional roles, like "activist investor" (which applies to the subject), and another is removing en masse notable information about the subject's investment activism and replacing it with trivial information about the subject's vastly less encyclopedic early career.

Before some of the destructive, minimizing, confusing and POV edits of the past few weeks, this was be a pretty good page. See, for instance, this version: [3].

Thanks for any assistance. Orthodox2014 (talk) 18:53, 17 January 2016 (UTC)

Emmanuel Lemelson (amended) - This request has taken on some greater urgency since it now includes documentably inaccurate, likely libelous content. I've documented these urgent concerns here: [4].
The article has in recent weeks had inserted documentably innacurate content and other destructive edits, including a wholesale removal of a notable section.
I am proposing that the page be reverted back to this version before the inaccurate/libelous content was added: [5]. I am not defending this earlier version as perfect but it is at least accurate (no editors dispute that. From it, proposed revisions to it can and should be discussed on the now extensive talk page. I also am soliciting the input of subject editors, since the current active editors have made repeated, egregious mistakes, many of which stand in the current live version. Thanks for your attention/assistance. Orthodox2014 (talk) 01:22, 20 January 2016 (UTC)
  • There are a number of missing articles related to actuarial science. For example, standard property and casualty reserving techniques such as chain-ladder have no articles and are, in my opinion, notable. -KaJunl (talk) 01:32, 28 February 2016 (UTC)

Requests backlogEdit

  • Meat and Livestock Australia Hi, I have expanded this article over the past few months and the article has reached a C-class article status. Assessment against the b-class article criteria would be highly appreciated. Thank you! Umbrella.Won (talk) 01:31, 11 December 2020 (UTC)
  • Net capital rule - This article really needs someone with regulatory knowledge and the expertise to interpret the online news articles covering the post-2004 changes to this topic. I've done some work on the intro (watch for subtle bias throughout), but the rest of the article (and the ghastly footnote section) reads like a lawyer trying to make sense out of a bunch of primary documents.—DMCer 14:59, 4 January 2010 (UTC)
  • Debt-to-capital ratio - This is a short job, but it's been requesting attention from an expert in the economics portal for ~2 years. It just needs a bit of cleanup (there's talk of including it in Template:Stock market once this happens). Thanks.—DMCer 14:59, 4 January 2010 (UTC)
  • Put option - I believe the formula listed for calculating the premium paid to the seller of a put contract is flawed completely undermining article.SamISmyth (talk) 06:44, 17 December 2009 (UTC)
  • Debt coverage ratio - Not sure how active this project is, but I tripped over this page while doing work for Wikify project. This article needs help badly. --Jayron32|talk|contribs 03:59, 5 June 2007 (UTC)
  • Forex swap and Currency swap - The Forex swap as well as the Currency swap page needs to be review as it is not completely correct. There also seems to be some confusion regarding currency swaps? And cross currency interest rate swaps. It seems that the two mentioned pages details are mixing the foreign exchange type of swap with the interest rate derivative type of swap. An FX Swap / Currency Swap should be defined as: Two Foreign Exchange transactions executed simultaneously Trade 1 spot FX trade and Trade 2 a forward FX trade. Example: BUY USD ag JPY value spot and SELL USD ag JPY forward. This has nothing to do with fixed rate or floating rates or any type of interest rate derivatives. There seems to be some confusion over "FX Swaps" "Currency Swaps" and Interest rate derivatives such as and overnight index swaps (OIS). 18:20, 31 August 2007 (UTC)
  • Agreed. I have removed the paragraph in the Forex swap page that reads: "The fixed rate in this transaction is the forward rate that is locked in by the forward contract. The floating rate will be the overnight rate that is realized on a daily basis by the spot transaction. Typically, the floating side of these trades are indexed to the Overnight Index Swap (OIS) rate. This rate is an average of the rates that are paid based on a survey." Are there other changes that need to be made? Finnancier 12:24, 12 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Payday loan and Predatory lending - The payday loan article has suffered from back and forth editing from both sides of this issue and could use the expertise of financial editors who can cut through the lobbying/pr/advocate/other noise stuff to get to the encyclopedic tone and sources. I can usually help with sourcing, but please see the article history and Talk:Payday loan. Flowanda | Talk 02:46, 11 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Enhanced indexing This article needs more clarity to explain the underlying concept. References to related articles would be helpful. Neeraj Shokeen 08:04, 23 September 2007 (UTC)
  • I've removed information that is repeated on the passive management and active management pages. I've also rewritten the article to remove any advertising material (although the term "enhanced indexing" is, to some extent, an advertising gimmick by investment companies). Please feel free to revert the changes, or post a follow-up request below. Finnancier 05:01, 29 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Currency pair and percentage in point: The currency pair page contains a lot of information on pips, when there is an existing stub on percentage in point. Both pages need work. Finnancier 15:21, 30 September 2007 (UTC)
  • Repurchase agreement, Federal funds rate and LIBOR - what is the relationship between these rates? In the US context, the Fed can directly affect the repo rate (i.e., the rate for secured loans with the highest quality collateral) so as to indirectly affect the Fed funds rate (i.e., the rate for unsecured loans between banks for funds held at the Fed). LIBOR is for unsecured loans between banks for funds not held at the Fed. Is that correct? If so, should this relationship be made clear in each of the respective articles? Finnancier (talk) 12:28, 15 December 2007 (UTC)
LIBOR and the other rates are not related at source. Only their spheres of influence may be the same, but even then, exactly what effect they have on the markets may be dissimilar. I think we can add some information about such things. Nshuks7 (talk) 15:20, 6 January 2008 (UTC)
What's left to do in this? Can someone spot what needs to be done? Nshuks7 (talk) 16:52, 13 January 2008 (UTC)

*Mezzanine loan and mezzanine capital should be merged under the former heading. Finnancier (talk) 06:39, 6 February 2008 (UTC)

Maybe it should be standardized like this: Senior debt and Subordinated debt, of which Mezzanine debt is an example. Finnancier (talk) 07:14, 6 February 2008 (UTC)
Merger completed moving mezzanine loan into mezzanine capital which is a distinct asset class|► ϋ r b a n я e n e w a l ◄| (talk) 03:11, 23 June 2008 (UTC)
Should these types of debt be broken down further? I know that CDS contracts, which are on the company/capital tier level, are broken down into Secured Debt, Senior Unsecured Debt, Subordinated Unsecured Debt, Junior Subordinated Unsecured Debt and Preference Shares for Bond CDS and First Lien, Second Lien, Third Lien and Mezzanine for Loan CDS. Should we have articles on each or are some just types within other types? Is there some sort of hierarchy here?--Terets (talk) 22:18, 2 January 2009 (UTC)
Trying to break down "mezzanine" into finer tiers is not a productive exercise. It would be more useful to explicate the various ways that mezzanine debt can be structured and compare and contrast the benefits and risks to the various parties. It is almost impossible to enumerate, much less quantify or rank, the various ways that mezzanine debt can be structured.
As a similar point, there is no reason to distinguish between CDS Second Lien and CDS Third Lien, any more than it would make sense to have a separate article on Fourth Lien or Fifth Lien or Sixth Lien or Seventh Lien. They all work the same way, and their rank in the capital structure is obvious. If you understand how a second lien works, you understand all the rest.
By definition, "mezzanine" is between two other layers of capital, the same way the mezzanine in a building lobby sits above one story but below the "next" story. It is not really a story itself; it is that which is in between.
Mezzanine debt in commercial real estate is usually structured as a senior loan secured by the stock of a special company that owns a property and doesn't own anything else. The company's property is mortgaged. There may also be a second mortgage and a third mortgage, etc. If any mortgage holder forecloses on the company and takes the property, then the company doesn't have any assets (since its only asset was the property). Now the mezzanine is a senior loan secured by the stock of a company that has no assets. IE the mezz is worthless. It's still a senior loan, but it will never collect any money. So in a sense, it ranks below all of the mortgages, even though the mezzanine has a first lien on the stock of the company.
It's similar to a junior mortgage, except that if you default on a junior mortgage, the junior mortgage holder can force a foreclosure sale of the property. That might result in a distressed sale which doesn't generate enough money to pay the senior debt. So the first mortgage holders often will not permit junior mortgages. But they will permit mezzanines, because in the worst case, the mezzanine holder only has exactly the same rights as the equity. The worst thing the mezzanine holder can do (from the perspective of the mortgage holder) is take the company's stock and then control the company. But then he will have exactly the same rights that the company would have had if there were no mezzanine.
Mezzanine debt can be structured in multiple tiers (Sstuyvesant Town in NYC had ten tiers of mezzanine debt), and it could sit below multiple tiers of mortgages, but fundamentally it all works the same way. If you understand what a mezzanine is, you understand what a second mezzanine or a third mezzanine is. There is no need to contrast a second mezz and a third mezz. The difference is obvious.
In contrast, Mezzanine debt in corporates usually just means "in the middle." There is no technical definition. There are as many different ways to structure corporate mezzanine as there are corporations. Sometimes a "second lien" is called a "mezzanine" if there is also a third lien (or a "junior"). In that case it is equivalent to a second lien, it just has a different name. Sometimes a mezzanine is secured by certain assets but not others. Sometimes the "unsecured" debt is called "mezzanine" if there is a senior secured and a junior unsecured. It's just the thing in the middle, and it's mostly about marketing (ie the investment bankers give it the name that will sell the best). But if there is more than one mezzanine, they would almost always be structured identically (ie same collateral, same rights), except one has first dibs and the other has second dibs. It would be too confusing to have two different types of mezzanine (e.g. if one tranche of "junior secured" were called a "mezzanine" but also a different tranche of "senior unsecured" were also called mezzanine.) It's just too confusing. For that reason one company never has more than one type of mezzanine. It could have multiple tiers (first, second, third, etc) but if you understand how one tier works then you understand how the others work. It would be more useful to describe the various ways of structuring mezzanine debt than to try to rank which type is "better" than another type.

That's probably a lot more than you wanted. I'm not even sure why I spent the time to wrote all that. But the upshot is, I recommend you delete the foregoing request, for the reasons stated, and I hope this was helpful. Tpkaplan (talk) 00:03, 5 February 2015 (UTC)

  • Money market deposit account is full of guesses and conflicting information with no sources on what should be a simple topic. Someone should go clear it and write a short definitional article with a handful of sources. --Tibbetts2c (talk) 23:58, 30 March 2008 (UTC)
You might like to join WP:Wikiproject Investment where that article is highlighted as a potential candidate for work. Zain Ebrahim (talk) 11:50, 30 May 2008 (UTC)
  • Sovys / Sovereign yield spread futures. I've created a redirect to CME but I think an article could make sense... however they're so shite that it's hardly important! Egg Centric 08:59, 4 July 2011 (UTC)
  • Regulation S-K: I just copyedited this, and there are a number of areas needing attention - most especially making sure I didn't introduce any errors by misunderstanding the frequently-unclear material that was there earlier! Allens (talk | contribs) 19:50, 30 May 2012 (UTC)