The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana. Kana itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements; and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for emphasis. Almost all written Japanese sentences contain a mixture of kanji and kana. Because of this mixture of scripts, in addition to a large inventory of kanji characters, the Japanese writing system is considered to be one of the most complicated currently in use.
mixedlogographic (kanji), syllabic (hiragana and katakana)
|4th century AD to present|
|Direction||When written vertically, Japanese text is written from top to bottom, with multiple columns of text progressing from right to left. When written horizontally, text is almost always written left to right, with multiple rows progressing downward, as in standard English text. In the early to mid-1900s, there were infrequent cases of horizontal text being written right to left, but that style is very rarely seen in modern Japanese writing.|
|ISO 15924||Jpan (413), Japanese (alias for Han + Hiragana + Katakana)|
Several thousand kanji characters are in regular use, which mostly originate from traditional Chinese characters. Others made in Japan are referred to as “Japanese kanji” (和製漢字, wasei kanji; also known as “country’s kanji” 国字, kokuji). Each character has an intrinsic meaning (or range of meanings), and most have more than one pronunciation, the choice of which depends on context. Japanese primary and secondary school students are required to learn 2,136 jōyō kanji as of 2010. The total number of kanji is well over 50,000, though this includes tens of thousands of characters only present in historical writings and never used in modern Japanese.
In modern Japanese, the hiragana and katakana syllabaries each contain 46 basic characters, or 71 including diacritics. With one or two minor exceptions, each different sound in the Japanese language (that is, each different syllable, strictly each mora) corresponds to one character in each syllabary. Unlike kanji, these characters intrinsically represent sounds only; they convey meaning only as part of words. Hiragana and katakana characters also originally derive from Chinese characters, but they have been simplified and modified to such an extent that their origins are no longer visually obvious.
Texts without kanji are rare; most are either children's books — since children tend to know few kanji at an early age — or early electronics such as computers, phones, and video games, which could not display complex graphemes like kanji due to both graphical and computational limitations.
To a lesser extent, modern written Japanese also uses initialisms from the Latin alphabet, for example in terms such as "BC/AD", "a.m./p.m.", "FBI", and "CD". Romanized Japanese is most frequently used by foreign students of Japanese who have not yet mastered kana, and by native speakers for computer input.
Use of scriptsEdit
Kanji (漢字) are logographic characters (Japanese-simplified since 1946) taken from Chinese script and used in the writing of Japanese.
It is known from archaeological evidence that the first contacts that the Japanese had with Chinese writing took place in the 1st century AD, during the late Yayoi period. However, the Japanese people of that era probably had little to no comprehension of the script, and they would remain relatively illiterate until the 5th century AD in the Kofun period, when writing in Japan became more widespread.
They are used to write most content words of native Japanese or (historically) Chinese origin, which include the following:
- many nouns, such as 川 (kawa, "river") and 学校 (gakkō, "school")
- the stems of most verbs and adjectives, such as 見 in 見る (miru, "see") and 白 in 白い (shiroi, "white")
- the stems of many adverbs, such as 速 in 速く (hayaku, "quickly") and 上手 as in 上手に (jōzu ni, "masterfully")
- most Japanese personal names and place names, such as 田中 (Tanaka) and 東京 (Tōkyō). (Certain names may be written in hiragana or katakana, or some combination of these, plus kanji.)
Some Japanese words are written with different kanji depending on the specific usage of the word—for instance, the word naosu (to fix, or to cure) is written 治す when it refers to curing a person, and 直す when it refers to fixing an object.
Most kanji have more than one possible pronunciation (or "reading"), and some common kanji have many. These are broadly divided into on'yomi, which are readings that approximate to a Chinese pronunciation of the character at the time it was adopted into Japanese, and kun'yomi, which are pronunciations of native Japanese words that correspond to the meaning of the kanji character. However, some kanji terms have pronunciations that correspond to neither the on'yomi nor the kun'yomi readings of the individual kanji within the term, such as 明日 (ashita, "tomorrow") and 大人 (otona, "adult").
Unusual or nonstandard kanji readings may be glossed using furigana. Kanji compounds are sometimes given arbitrary readings for stylistic purposes. For example, in Natsume Sōseki's short story The Fifth Night, the author uses 接続って for tsunagatte, the gerundive -te form of the verb tsunagaru ("to connect"), which would usually be written as 繋がって or つながって. The word 接続, meaning "connection", is normally pronounced setsuzoku.
Hiragana (平仮名) emerged as a manual simplification via cursive script of the most phonetically widespread kanji among those who could read and write during the Heian period (794-1185). The main creators of the current hiragana were ladies of the Japanese imperial court, who used the script in the writing of personal communications and literature.
Hiragana is used to write the following:
- okurigana (送り仮名)—inflectional endings for adjectives and verbs—such as る in 見る (miru, "see") and い in 白い (shiroi, "white"), and respectively た and かった in their past tense inflections 見た (mita, "saw") and 白かった (shirokatta, "was white").
- various function words, including most grammatical particles, or postpositions (joshi (助詞))—small, usually common words that, for example, mark sentence topics, subjects and objects or have a purpose similar to English prepositions such as "in", "to", "from", "by" and "for".
- miscellaneous other words of various grammatical types that lack a kanji rendition, or whose kanji is obscure, difficult to typeset, or considered too difficult to understand for the context (such as in children's books).
- Furigana (振り仮名)—phonetic renderings of hiragana placed above or beside the kanji character. Furigana may aid children or non-native speakers or clarify nonstandard, rare, or ambiguous readings, especially for words that use kanji not part of the jōyō kanji list.
There is also some flexibility for words with common kanji renditions to be instead written in hiragana, depending on the individual author's preference (all Japanese words can be spelled out entirely in hiragana or katakana, even when they are normally written using kanji). Some words are colloquially written in hiragana and writing them in kanji might give them a more formal tone, while hiragana may impart a softer or more emotional feeling. For example, the Japanese word kawaii, the Japanese equivalent of "cute", can be written entirely in hiragana as in かわいい, or with kanji as 可愛い.
Some lexical items that are normally written using kanji have become grammaticalized in certain contexts, where they are instead written in hiragana. For example, the root of the verb 見る (miru, "see") is normally written with the kanji 見 for the mi portion. However, when used as a supplementary verb as in 試してみる (tameshite miru) meaning "to try out", the whole verb is typically written in hiragana as みる, as we see also in 食べてみる (tabete miru, "try to eat [it] and see").
Katakana (片仮名) emerged around the 9th century, in the Heian period, when Buddhist monks created a syllabary derived from Chinese characters to simplify their reading, using portions of the characters as a kind of shorthand. The origin of the alphabet is attributed to the monk Kūkai.
Katakana is used to write the following:
- transliteration of foreign words and names, such as コンピュータ (konpyūta, "computer") and ロンドン (Rondon, "London"). However, some foreign borrowings that were naturalized may be rendered in hiragana, such as たばこ (tabako, "tobacco"), which comes from Portuguese. See also Transcription into Japanese.
- commonly used names of animals and plants, such as トカゲ (tokage, "lizard"), ネコ (neko, "cat") and バラ (bara, "rose"), and certain other technical and scientific terms, such as mineral names
- occasionally, the names of miscellaneous other objects whose kanji are rare, such as ローソク (rōsoku, "candle")
- onomatopoeia, such as ワンワン (wan-wan, "woof-woof"), and other sound symbolism
- emphasis, much like italicisation in European languages.
Katakana can also be used to impart the idea that words are spoken in a foreign or otherwise unusual accent; for example, the speech of a robot.
The first contact of the Japanese with the Latin alphabet occurred in the 16th century, during the Muromachi period, when they had contact with Portuguese navigators, the first European people to visit the Japanese islands. The earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Anjirō.
The Latin alphabet is used to write the following:
- Latin-alphabet acronyms and initialisms, such as NATO or UFO
- Japanese personal names, corporate brands, and other words intended for international use (for example, on business cards, in passports, etc.)
- foreign names, words, and phrases, often in scholarly contexts
- foreign words deliberately rendered to impart a foreign flavour, for instance, in commercial contexts
- other Japanized words derived or originated from foreign languages, such as Jリーグ (jei rīgu, "J. League"), Tシャツ (tī shatsu, "T-shirt") or B級グルメ (bī-kyū gurume, "B-rank gourmet [cheap and local cuisines]")
Arabic numerals (as opposed to traditional kanji numerals) are often used to write numbers in horizontal text, especially when numbering things rather than indicating a quantity, such as telephone numbers, serial numbers and addresses. Arabic numerals were introduced in Japan probably at the same time as the Latin alphabet, in the 16th century during the Muromachi period, the first contact being via Portuguese navigators. These numerals did not originate in Europe, as the Portuguese inherited them during the Arab occupation of the Iberian peninsula. See also Japanese numerals.
Hentaigana (変体仮名), a set of archaic kana made obsolete by the Meiji reformation, are sometimes used to impart an archaic flavor, like in items of food (esp. soba).
Jukujikun refers to instances in which words are written using kanji that reflect the meaning of the word though the pronunciation of the word is entirely unrelated to the usual pronunciations of the constituent kanji. Conversely, ateji refers to the employment of kanji that appear solely to represent the sound of the compound word but are, conceptually, utterly unrelated to the signification of the word.
Sentences are commonly written using a combination of all three Japanese scripts: kanji (in red), hiragana (in purple), and katakana (in orange), and in limited instances also include Latin alphabet characters (in green) and Arabic numerals (in black):
The same text can be transliterated to the Latin alphabet (rōmaji), although this will generally only be done for the convenience of foreign language speakers:
Translated into English, this reads:
All words in modern Japanese can be written using hiragana, katakana, and rōmaji, while only some have kanji. Words that have no dedicated kanji may still be written with kanji by employing either ateji (as in man'yogana, から = 可良) or jukujikun, as in the title of とある科学の超電磁砲 (超電磁砲 being used to represent レールガン).
|煙草 or 莨||たばこ||タバコ||tabako||tobacco, cigarette|
|東京||とうきょう||トーキョー||tōkyō||Tokyo, literally meaning "eastern capital"|
|none||です||デス||desu||is, am, to be (hiragana, of Japanese origin); death (katakana, of English origin)|
Although rare, there are some words that use all three scripts in the same word. An example of this is the term くノ一 (rōmaji: kunoichi), which uses a hiragana, a katakana, and a kanji character, in that order. It is said that if all three characters are put in the same kanji "square", they all combine to create the kanji 女 (woman/female). Another example is 消しゴム (rōmaji: keshigomu) which means "eraser", and uses a kanji, a hiragana, and two katakana characters, in that order.
A statistical analysis of a corpus of the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun from the year 1993 (around 56.6 million tokens) revealed:
Collation (word ordering) in Japanese is based on the kana, which express the pronunciation of the words, rather than the kanji. The kana may be ordered using two common orderings, the prevalent gojūon (fifty-sound) ordering, or the old-fashioned iroha ordering. Kanji dictionaries are usually collated using the radical system, though other systems, such as SKIP, also exist.
Direction of writingEdit
Traditionally, Japanese is written in a format called tategaki (縦書き), which was inherited from traditional Chinese practice. In this format, the characters are written in columns going from top to bottom, with columns ordered from right to left. After reaching the bottom of each column, the reader continues at the top of the column to the left of the current one.
Modern Japanese also uses another writing format, called yokogaki (横書き). This writing format is horizontal and reads from left to right, as in English.
A book printed in tategaki opens with the spine of the book to the right, while a book printed in yokogaki opens with the spine to the left.
Spacing and punctuationEdit
Japanese is normally written without spaces between words, and text is allowed to wrap from one line to the next without regard for word boundaries. This convention was originally modelled on Chinese writing, where spacing is superfluous because each character is essentially a word in itself (albeit compounds are common). However, in kana and mixed kana/kanji text, readers of Japanese must work out where word divisions lie based on an understanding of what makes sense. For example, あなたはお母さんにそっくりね。 must be mentally divided as あなた は お母さん に そっくり ね。 (Anata wa okāsan ni sokkuri ne, "You're just like your mother"). In rōmaji, it may sometimes be ambiguous whether an item should be transliterated as two words or one. For example, 愛する ("to love"), composed of 愛 (ai, "love") and する (suru, "to do") (here a verb-forming suffix), is variously transliterated as aisuru or ai suru.
Words in potentially unfamiliar foreign compounds, normally transliterated in katakana, may be separated by a punctuation mark called a 中黒 (nakaguro, "middle dot") to aid Japanese readers. For example, ビル・ゲイツ (Biru Geitsu, Bill Gates). This punctuation is also occasionally used to separate native Japanese words, especially in concatenations of kanji characters where there might otherwise be confusion or ambiguity about interpretation, and especially for the full names of people.
The Japanese full stop (。) and comma (、) are used for similar purposes to their English equivalents, though comma usage can be more fluid than is the case in English. The question mark (？) is not used in traditional or formal Japanese, but it may be used in informal writing, or in transcriptions of dialogue where it might not otherwise be clear that a statement was intoned as a question. The exclamation mark (！) is restricted to informal writing. Colons and semicolons are available but are not common in ordinary text. Quotation marks are written as 「 ... 」, and nested quotation marks as 『 ... 』. Several bracket styles and dashes are available.
History of the Japanese scriptEdit
Importation of kanjiEdit
Japan's first encounters with Chinese characters may have come as early as the 1st century AD with the King of Na gold seal, said to have been given by Emperor Guangwu of Han in AD 57 to a Japanese emissary. However, it is unlikely that the Japanese became literate in Chinese writing any earlier than the 4th century AD.
Initially Chinese characters were not used for writing Japanese, as literacy meant fluency in Classical Chinese, not the vernacular. Eventually a system called kanbun (漢文) developed, which, along with kanji and something very similar to Chinese grammar, employed diacritics to hint at the Japanese translation. The earliest written history of Japan, the Kojiki (古事記), compiled sometime before 712, was written in kanbun. Even today Japanese high schools and some junior high schools teach kanbun as part of the curriculum.
The development of man'yōganaEdit
No full-fledged script for written Japanese existed until the development of man'yōgana (万葉仮名), which appropriated kanji for their phonetic value (derived from their Chinese readings) rather than their semantic value. Man'yōgana was initially used to record poetry, as in the Man'yōshū (万葉集), compiled sometime before 759, whence the writing system derives its name. Some scholars claim that man'yōgana originated from Baekje, but this hypothesis is denied by mainstream Japanese scholars. The modern kana, namely hiragana and katakana, are simplifications and systemizations of man'yōgana.
Due to the large number of words and concepts entering Japan from China which had no native equivalent, many words entered Japanese directly, with a similar pronunciation to the original Chinese. This Chinese-derived reading is known as on'yomi (音読み), and this vocabulary as a whole is referred to as Sino-Japanese in English and kango (漢語) in Japanese. At the same time, native Japanese already had words corresponding to many borrowed kanji. Authors increasingly used kanji to represent these words. This Japanese-derived reading is known as kun'yomi (訓読み). A kanji may have none, one, or several on'yomi and kun'yomi. Okurigana are written after the initial kanji for verbs and adjectives to give inflection and to help disambiguate a particular kanji's reading. The same character may be read several different ways depending on the word. For example, the character 行 is read i as the first syllable of iku (行く, "to go"), okona as the first three syllables of okonau (行う, "to carry out"), gyō in the compound word gyōretsu (行列, "line" or "procession"), kō in the word ginkō (銀行, "bank"), and an in the word andon (行灯, "lantern").
Some linguists have compared the Japanese borrowing of Chinese-derived vocabulary as akin to the influx of Romance vocabulary into English during the Norman conquest of England. Like English, Japanese has many synonyms of differing origin, with words from both Chinese and native Japanese. Sino-Japanese is often considered more formal or literary, just as latinate words in English often mark a higher register.
The significant reforms of the 19th century Meiji era did not initially impact the Japanese writing system. However, the language itself was changing due to the increase in literacy resulting from education reforms, the massive influx of words (both borrowed from other languages or newly coined), and the ultimate success of movements such as the influential genbun itchi (言文一致) which resulted in Japanese being written in the colloquial form of the language instead of the wide range of historical and classical styles used previously. The difficulty of written Japanese was a topic of debate, with several proposals in the late 19th century that the number of kanji in use be limited. In addition, exposure to non-Japanese texts led to unsuccessful proposals that Japanese be written entirely in kana or rōmaji. This period saw Western-style punctuation marks introduced into Japanese writing.
In 1900, the Education Ministry introduced three reforms aimed at improving the process of education in Japanese writing:
- standardization of hiragana, eliminating the range of hentaigana then in use;
- restriction of the number of kanji taught in elementary schools to about 1,200;
- reform of the irregular kana representation of the Sino-Japanese readings of kanji to make them conform with the pronunciation.
The first two of these were generally accepted, but the third was hotly contested, particularly by conservatives, to the extent that it was withdrawn in 1908.
Pre–World War IIEdit
The partial failure of the 1900 reforms combined with the rise of nationalism in Japan effectively prevented further significant reform of the writing system. The period before World War II saw numerous proposals to restrict the number of kanji in use, and several newspapers voluntarily restricted their kanji usage and increased usage of furigana; however, there was no official endorsement of these, and indeed much opposition. However, one successful reform was the standardization of hiragana, which involved reducing the possibilities of writing down Japanese morae down to only one hiragana character per morae, which led to labeling all the other previously used hiragana as hentaigana and discarding them in daily use.
Post–World War IIEdit
The period immediately following World War II saw a rapid and significant reform of the writing system. This was in part due to influence of the Occupation authorities, but to a significant extent was due to the removal of traditionalists from control of the educational system, which meant that previously stalled revisions could proceed. The major reforms were:
- gendai kanazukai (現代仮名遣い)—alignment of kana usage with modern pronunciation, replacing the old historical kana usage (1946);
- promulgation of various restricted sets of kanji:
- tōyō kanji (当用漢字) (1946), a collection of 1850 characters for use in schools, textbooks, etc.;
- kanji to be used in schools (1949);
- an additional collection of jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字), which, supplementing the tōyō kanji, could be used in personal names (1951);
- simplifications of various complex kanji letter-forms shinjitai (新字体).
At one stage, an advisor in the Occupation administration proposed a wholesale conversion to rōmaji, but it was not endorsed by other specialists and did not proceed.
In addition, the practice of writing horizontally in a right-to-left direction was generally replaced by left-to-right writing. The right-to-left order was considered a special case of vertical writing, with columns one character high[clarification needed], rather than horizontal writing per se; it was used for single lines of text on signs, etc. (e.g., the station sign at Tokyo reads 駅京東).
The post-war reforms have mostly survived, although some of the restrictions have been relaxed. The replacement of the tōyō kanji in 1981 with the 1,945 jōyō kanji (常用漢字)—a modification of the tōyō kanji—was accompanied by a change from "restriction" to "recommendation", and in general the educational authorities have become less active in further script reform.
In 2004, the jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字), maintained by the Ministry of Justice for use in personal names, was significantly enlarged. The jōyō kanji list was extended to 2,136 characters in 2010.
Unicode provides various japanese symbol:
|ッ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU||U+30C3|
|ツ||KATAKANA LETTER TU||U+30C4|
|ヅ||KATAKANA LETTER DU||U+30C5|
|ミ||KATAKANA LETTER MI||U+30DF|
|テ||KATAKANA LETTER TE||U+30C6|
|デ||KATAKANA LETTER DE||U+30C7|
|ト||KATAKANA LETTER TO||U+30C8|
|ド||KATAKANA LETTER DO||U+30C9|
|ナ||KATAKANA LETTER NA||U+30CA|
|ぁ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL A||U+3041|
|あ||HIRAGANA LETTER A||U+3042|
|ぃ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL I||U+3043|
|い||HIRAGANA LETTER I||U+3044|
|ぅ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL U||U+3045|
|う||HIRAGANA LETTER U||U+3046|
|ぇ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL E||U+3047|
|え||HIRAGANA LETTER E||U+3048|
|ぉ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL O||U+3049|
|お||HIRAGANA LETTER O||U+304A|
|か||HIRAGANA LETTER KA||U+304B|
|が||HIRAGANA LETTER GA||U+304C|
|き||HIRAGANA LETTER KI||U+304D|
|ぎ||HIRAGANA LETTER GI||U+304E|
|け||HIRAGANA LETTER KE||U+3051|
|げ||HIRAGANA LETTER GE||U+3052|
|こ||HIRAGANA LETTER KO||U+3053|
|ご||HIRAGANA LETTER GO||U+3054|
|さ||HIRAGANA LETTER SA||U+3055|
|ざ||HIRAGANA LETTER ZA||U+3056|
|し||HIRAGANA LETTER SI||U+3057|
|じ||HIRAGANA LETTER ZI||U+3058|
|す||HIRAGANA LETTER SU||U+3059|
|ず||HIRAGANA LETTER ZU||U+305A|
|せ||HIRAGANA LETTER SE||U+305B|
|ぜ||HIRAGANA LETTER ZE||U+305C|
|そ||HIRAGANA LETTER SO||U+305D|
|ぞ||HIRAGANA LETTER ZO||U+305E|
|た||HIRAGANA LETTER TA||U+305F|
|だ||HIRAGANA LETTER DA||U+3060|
|ち||HIRAGANA LETTER TI||U+3061|
|ぢ||HIRAGANA LETTER DI||U+3062|
|っ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL TU||U+3063|
|つ||HIRAGANA LETTER TU||U+3064|
|づ||HIRAGANA LETTER DU||U+3065|
|て||HIRAGANA LETTER TE||U+3066|
|で||HIRAGANA LETTER DE||U+3067|
|と||HIRAGANA LETTER TO||U+3068|
|ど||HIRAGANA LETTER DO||U+3069|
|な||HIRAGANA LETTER NA||U+306A|
|に||HIRAGANA LETTER NI||U+306B|
|ぬ||HIRAGANA LETTER NU||U+306C|
|ね||HIRAGANA LETTER NE||U+306D|
|の||HIRAGANA LETTER NO||U+306E|
|は||HIRAGANA LETTER HA||U+306F|
|ば||HIRAGANA LETTER BA||U+3070|
|ぱ||HIRAGANA LETTER PA||U+3071|
|ひ||HIRAGANA LETTER HI||U+3072|
|び||HIRAGANA LETTER BI||U+3073|
|ぴ||HIRAGANA LETTER PI||U+3074|
|ふ||HIRAGANA LETTER HU||U+3075|
|ぶ||HIRAGANA LETTER BU||U+3076|
|ぷ||HIRAGANA LETTER PU||U+3077|
|へ||HIRAGANA LETTER HE||U+3078|
|べ||HIRAGANA LETTER BE||U+3079|
|ぺ||HIRAGANA LETTER PE||U+307A|
|ほ||HIRAGANA LETTER HO||U+307B|
|ぼ||HIRAGANA LETTER BO||U+307C|
|ぽ||HIRAGANA LETTER PO||U+307D|
|ま||HIRAGANA LETTER MA||U+307E|
|み||HIRAGANA LETTER MI||U+307F|
|む||HIRAGANA LETTER MU||U+3080|
|め||HIRAGANA LETTER ME||U+3081|
|も||HIRAGANA LETTER MO||U+3082|
|ゃ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YA||U+3083|
|や||HIRAGANA LETTER YA||U+3084|
|ゅ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YU||U+3085|
|ゆ||HIRAGANA LETTER YU||U+3086|
|ょ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YO||U+3087|
|よ||HIRAGANA LETTER YO||U+3088|
|ら||HIRAGANA LETTER RA||U+3089|
|り||HIRAGANA LETTER RI||U+308A|
|る||HIRAGANA LETTER RU||U+308B|
|れ||HIRAGANA LETTER RE||U+308C|
|ろ||HIRAGANA LETTER RO||U+308D|
|ゎ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL WA||U+308E|
|わ||HIRAGANA LETTER WA||U+308F|
|ゐ||HIRAGANA LETTER WI||U+3090|
|ゑ||HIRAGANA LETTER WE||U+3091|
|を||HIRAGANA LETTER WO||U+3092|
|ん||HIRAGANA LETTER N||U+3093|
|ゔ||HIRAGANA LETTER VU||U+3094|
|ゕ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KA||U+3095|
|ゖ||HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KE||U+3096|
|゛||KATAKANA-HIRAGANA VOICED SOUND MARK||U+309B|
|゜||KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK||U+309C|
|ゝ||HIRAGANA ITERATION MARK||U+309D|
|ゞ||HIRAGANA VOICED ITERATION MARK||U+309E|
|ゟ||HIRAGANA DIGRAPH YORI||U+309F|
|゠||KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN||U+30A0|
|ァ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL A||U+30A1|
|ア||KATAKANA LETTER A||U+30A2|
|ィ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL I||U+30A3|
|イ||KATAKANA LETTER I||U+30A4|
|カ||KATAKANA LETTER KA||U+30AB|
|ガ||KATAKANA LETTER GA||U+30AC|
|キ||KATAKANA LETTER KI||U+30AD|
|ギ||KATAKANA LETTER GI||U+30AE|
|ク||KATAKANA LETTER KU||U+30AF|
|グ||KATAKANA LETTER GU||U+30B0|
|ケ||KATAKANA LETTER KE||U+30B1|
|ゲ||KATAKANA LETTER GE||U+30B2|
|コ||KATAKANA LETTER KO||U+30B3|
|ゴ||KATAKANA LETTER GO||U+30B4|
|サ||KATAKANA LETTER SA||U+30B5|
|ザ||KATAKANA LETTER ZA||U+30B6|
|シ||KATAKANA LETTER SI||U+30B7|
|ジ||KATAKANA LETTER ZI||U+30B8|
|ス||KATAKANA LETTER SU||U+30B9|
|ズ||KATAKANA LETTER ZU||U+30BA|
|セ||KATAKANA LETTER SE||U+30BB|
|ゼ||KATAKANA LETTER ZE||U+30BC|
|ソ||KATAKANA LETTER SO||U+30BD|
|ゾ||KATAKANA LETTER ZO||U+30BE|
|タ||KATAKANA LETTER TA||U+30BF|
|ダ||KATAKANA LETTER DA||U+30C0|
|チ||KATAKANA LETTER TI||U+30C1|
|ヂ||KATAKANA LETTER DI||U+30C2|
|ニ||KATAKANA LETTER NI||U+30CB|
|ヌ||KATAKANA LETTER NU||U+30CC|
|ネ||KATAKANA LETTER NE||U+30CD|
|ノ||KATAKANA LETTER NO||U+30CE|
|ハ||KATAKANA LETTER HA||U+30CF|
|バ||KATAKANA LETTER BA||U+30D0|
|パ||KATAKANA LETTER PA||U+30D1|
|ヒ||KATAKANA LETTER HI||U+30D2|
|ビ||KATAKANA LETTER BI||U+30D3|
|ピ||KATAKANA LETTER PI||U+30D4|
|フ||KATAKANA LETTER HU||U+30D5|
|ブ||KATAKANA LETTER BU||U+30D6|
|プ||KATAKANA LETTER PU||U+30D7|
|ヘ||KATAKANA LETTER HE||U+30D8|
|ベ||KATAKANA LETTER BE||U+30D9|
|ペ||KATAKANA LETTER PE||U+30DA|
|ホ||KATAKANA LETTER HO||U+30DB|
|ボ||KATAKANA LETTER BO||U+30DC|
|ポ||KATAKANA LETTER PO||U+30DD|
|マ||KATAKANA LETTER MA||U+30DE|
|ム||KATAKANA LETTER MU||U+30E0|
|メ||KATAKANA LETTER ME||U+30E1|
|モ||KATAKANA LETTER MO||U+30E2|
|ャ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YA||U+30E3|
|ヤ||KATAKANA LETTER YA||U+30E4|
|ュ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YU||U+30E5|
|ユ||KATAKANA LETTER YU||U+30E6|
|ョ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YO||U+30E7|
|ヨ||KATAKANA LETTER YO||U+30E8|
|ラ||KATAKANA LETTER RA||U+30E9|
|リ||KATAKANA LETTER RI||U+30EA|
|ル||KATAKANA LETTER RU||U+30EB|
|レ||KATAKANA LETTER RE||U+30EC|
|ロ||KATAKANA LETTER RO||U+30ED|
|ヮ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL WA||U+30EE|
|ワ||KATAKANA LETTER WA||U+30EF|
|ヰ||KATAKANA LETTER WI||U+30F0|
|ヱ||KATAKANA LETTER WE||U+30F1|
|ヲ||KATAKANA LETTER WO||U+30F2|
|ン||KATAKANA LETTER N||U+30F3|
|ヴ||KATAKANA LETTER VU||U+30F4|
|ヵ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KA||U+30F5|
|ヶ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KE||U+30F6|
|ヷ||KATAKANA LETTER VA||U+30F7|
|ヸ||KATAKANA LETTER VI||U+30F8|
|ヹ||KATAKANA LETTER VE||U+30F9|
|ヺ||KATAKANA LETTER VO||U+30FA|
|ヾ||KATAKANA VOICED ITERATION MARK||U+30FE|
|く||HIRAGANA LETTER KU||U+304F|
|ぐ||HIRAGANA LETTER GU||U+3050|
|ゥ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL U||U+30A5|
|ウ||KATAKANA LETTER U||U+30A6|
|ェ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL E||U+30A7|
|エ||KATAKANA LETTER E||U+30A8|
|ォ||KATAKANA LETTER SMALL O||U+30A9|
|オ||KATAKANA LETTER O||U+30AA|
There are a number of methods of rendering Japanese in Roman letters. The Hepburn method of romanization, designed for English speakers, is a de facto standard widely used inside and outside Japan. The Kunrei-shiki system has a better correspondence with Japanese phonology, which makes it easier for native speakers to learn. It is officially endorsed by the Ministry of Education and often used by non-native speakers who are learning Japanese as a second language. Other systems of romanization include Nihon-shiki, JSL, and Wāpuro rōmaji.
Variant writing systemsEdit
- Genkō yōshi (graph paper for writing Japanese)
- Iteration mark (Japanese duplication marks)
- Japanese typographic symbols (non-kana, non-kanji symbols)
- Japanese Braille
- Japanese language and computers
- Japanese manual syllabary
- Chinese writing system
- Okinawan writing system
- Kaidā glyphs (Yonaguni)
- Ainu language § Writing
- Siddhaṃ script (Indic alphabet used for Buddhist scriptures)
- ^ Serge P. Shohov (2004). Advances in Psychology Research. Nova Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-59033-958-9.
- ^ Kazuko Nakajima (2002). Learning Japanese in the Network Society. University of Calgary Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-1-55238-070-3.
- ^ "Japanese Kanji List". www.saiga-jp.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- ^ "How many Kanji characters are there?". japanese.stackexchange.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- ^ "How To Play (and comprehend!) Japanese Games". GBAtemp.net -> The Independent Video Game Community. Retrieved 2016-03-05.
- ^ Joseph F. Kess; Tadao Miyamoto (1 January 1999). The Japanese Mental Lexicon: Psycholinguistics Studies of Kana and Kanji Processing. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 90-272-2189-8.
- ^ Chikamatsu, Nobuko; Yokoyama, Shoichi; Nozaki, Hironari; Long, Eric; Fukuda, Sachio (2000). "A Japanese logographic character frequency list for cognitive science research". Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 32 (3): 482–500. doi:10.3758/BF03200819. PMID 11029823. S2CID 21633023.
- ^ a b Miyake (2003:8).
- ^ Shunpei Mizuno, ed. (2002). 韓国人の日本偽史―日本人はビックリ! (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-09-402716-7.
- ^ Shunpei Mizuno, ed. (2007). 韓vs日「偽史ワールド」 (in Japanese). Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-09-387703-9.
- ^ Twine, 1991
- ^ Seeley, 1990
- ^ Hashi (25 January 2012). "Hentaigana: How Japanese Went from Illegible to Legible in 100 Years". Tofugu. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- ^ Unger, 1996
- ^ Gottlieb, 1996
- ^ "Japanese symbol".
- Gottlieb, Nanette (1996). Kanji Politics: Language Policy and Japanese Script. Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7103-0512-5.
- Habein, Yaeko Sato (1984). The History of the Japanese Written Language. University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-347-0.
- Miyake, Marc Hideo (2003). Old Japanese: A Phonetic Reconstruction. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-30575-6.
- Seeley, Christopher (1984). "The Japanese Script since 1900". Visible Language. XVIII. 3: 267–302.
- Seeley, Christopher (1991). A History of Writing in Japan. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-2217-X.
- Twine, Nanette (1991). Language and the Modern State: The Reform of Written Japanese. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00990-1.
- Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading Between the Lines. OUP. ISBN 0-19-510166-9.
- The Modern Japanese Writing System: an excerpt from Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan, by J. Marshall Unger.
- The 20th Century Japanese Writing System: Reform and Change by Christopher Seeley
- Japanese Hiragana Conversion API by NTT Resonant
- Japanese Morphological Analysis API by NTT Resonant