South Sudan People's Defence Forces

The South Sudan People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War, led by John Garang. After Garang's death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the SPLA's new Commander-in-Chief. As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.

South Sudan People's Defence Forces
Flag of the SPLA (2011 to present).svg
Flag of the South Sudan People's Defence Forces
Founded1983 as Sudan People's Liberation Army; renamed 2018
Service branchesGround Force
Air Force and Air Defence
Riverine/Navy[1]
HeadquartersBilpham, Central Equatoria Wunyiek, Northern Bahr el Ghazal
Mapel, Western Bahr el Ghazal
Leadership
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Salva Kiir Mayardit
Minister of DefenseAngelina Teny
Chief of General StaffGeneral Johnson Juma Okot (since 11 May 2020)[2]
Manpower
Military age18
Active personnel210,000, with paramilitary forces of an estimated 19,100
Reserve personnel76,000
Expenditures
Budget10,240,750,031 SSP ($78,615,712) [2016/17]
Percent of GDP0.86% (2015 est.)
Industry
Domestic suppliersMilitary Industry Corporation
Foreign suppliers Israel
 Ethiopia

 United States of America
 Kenya
 Uganda
 Tanzania
 United Kingdom

 India
 China
 Russia
 Nigeria
 Egypt
 Canada
 Australia
 South Africa
 Ghana
 Japan
 South Korea
 Ukraine
Related articles
HistoryMilitary history of South Sudan

Following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the last remaining large and well-equipped militia, the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF), under General Paulino Matiep, signed an agreement with Kiir known as the Juba Declaration, which amalgamated the two forces under the SPLA banner.

Following South Sudan's independence in 2011, Kiir became President and the SPLA became the new republic's regular army. In May 2017 there was a restructure and the SPLA took on the name of South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF), with another change in September 2018 to South Sudan People's Defence Forces. As of 2018, the army was estimated to have 185,000 soldiers as well as an unknown number of personnel in the small South Sudan Air Force. As of 2019, the SSPDF comprised the Ground Force, Air Force, Air Defence Forces and Presidential Guard.

HistoryEdit

1983: InceptionEdit

In May 1983 a number of mutinies broke out in the barracks of the Sudanese army in the southern regions, most notably in Bor,[3] and also at Ayod, Pochalla, Wangkai, and Pibor. The mutinies were organised and executed by then Major Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Major William Nyuon Bany, and these actions led to the creation of the SPLA.[4][5]

The Sudan People's Liberation Army was founded on 16 May 1983 (later a public holiday known as SPLA Day)[6] under the leadership of Commander-in-Chief John Garang de Mabior.[7][8] Bol was appointed second ranking Commander, and Bany third.[5] By June 1983, the majority of mutineers had moved to Ethiopia or were on their way. The Ethiopian government's decision to support the emerging SPLA was a means of exacting revenge upon the Sudanese government for its support of Eritrean rebels.[9]

SPLA struggled for a united and secular Sudanese state.[10] Garang said the struggle of the South Sudanese was the same as that of marginalised groups in the north, such as the Nuba and Fur peoples.[11] Until 1985, SPLA directed its public denouncements of the Sudanese government specifically at Sudanese President, Jaafar Nimeiry. During the years that followed, SPLA propaganda denounced the Khartoum government as a family affair that played on sectarian tensions.[11] SPLA denounced the introduction of sharia law in September 1983.[12]

War in the 1980sEdit

 
Official flag of the Sudan People's Liberation Army until 2011

In the village of Bilpam, the first full-fledged SPLA battalion graduated in 1984. The name 'Bilpam' carried great symbolic importance for SPLA for years to come, as the epicentre of the uprising. After Bilpam, other SPLA training camps were established at Dimma, Bonga and Panyido.[9]

In the mid-1980s the SPLA armed struggle blocked development projects of the Sudanese government, such as the Jonglei Canal and the Bentiu Oil Fields.[13]

SPLA launched its first advance in Equatoria in 1985-1986. During this campaign, SPLA were confronted by a number of pro-government militias. The conduct of SPLA forces was chaotic, with many atrocities against the civilian population. The SPLA drove out around 35,000 Ugandan refugees (who had settled in Equatoria since the early 1980s) back into Uganda.[14]

SPLA had a complicated relationship with Anyanya II. Anyanya II forces blocked the expansion of SPLA between 1984 and 1987, as Anyanya II attacked SPLA recruits heading for Ethiopia. Anyanya II also attacked civilians believed to be SPLA supporters.[15] The conflict between Anyanya II and SPLA had a political dimension, as Anyanya II sought to build an independent South Sudanese state.[16] SPLA tried to win over the leaders of Anyanya II.[17] The Anyanya II commander Gordon Kong Chuol aligned with SPLA in late 1987. Other sectors of Anyanya II followed his example over the ensuing years, marginalizing the remainder of Anyanya II (allied with the Sudanese government).[17][18]

Another force that confronted SPLA were the Murahaleen militias in northern Bahr el-Ghazal. Warfare between SPLA and Muraleheen began in 1987. By 1988 SPLA controlled most of the northern Bahr el-Ghazal.[14] Unlike the Anyanya II, the Murahaleen had no political ambitions.[16]

In March 1986, the SPLA kidnapped a Norwegian aid worker of the Christian NGO Kirkens Nødhjelp (Norwegian Church Aid).[19] Moorcroft writes that by this time, 'training, weapons, and discipline improved as the guerillas scored more and more victories. In November 1987 the guerillas captured the small town of Kurmak near the Ethiopian border. It was 450 miles from the capital, but the nearby dam provided most of Khartoum's electricity.' The government showed itself very nervous about containing the SPLA advance.[20]

Political openingsEdit

SPLA boycotted the 1986 elections. In half of the constituencies of southern Sudan elections could not be held due to the SPLA boycott.[11][21] In September 1989, the RCC invited different sectors to a 'National Dialogue Conference'. The SPLA refused to attend.[22]

On November 15, 1988, SPLA entered into an alliance with the DUP. The two parties had agreed on the lifting of the state of emergency and abolition of sharia law. The press release was made public through an announcement on Radio SPLA. After DUP rejoined the government, a ceasefire with SPLA was achieved.[11][23] After the elections, negotiations between SPLA and Sadiq al-Mahdi started, but were aborted after SPLA shot down a civilian airplane, killing 60 people.[11]

With the NIF coup d'état in 1989, all peace talks ended.[24] SPLA launched a major offensive between 1989 and the fall of the Ethiopian Derg government in 1991. It captured various towns, such as Bor, Waat, Maridi, Mundri, Yambio, Kaya, Kajo-Kaji, Nimule, Kapoeta, Torit, Akobo and Nasir. By the middle of 1991, SPLA controlled most parts of southern Sudan with the exception of the major garrison towns (Juba, Yei, Malakal and Wau)[17] Between January 21 and 29, 1990, SPLA shelled Juba. SPLA forces also moved into the Nuba Mountains and the southern parts of the Blue Nile State. In comparison with its 1985–1986 offensive in Equatoria, the conduct of SPLA was now more orderly.[14]

1991: Setback and splitEdit

 
High-ranking SPLA officers at the South Sudan independence celebrations, 2011

But the downfall of the Derg government in Ethiopia in May 1991 caused a major setback. The Ethiopian government had provided the SPLA with military supplies, training facilities and a safe haven for bases for 18 years. Soon after the change of government in Ethiopia, SPLA accompanied hundreds of thousands of refugees back into Sudan.[17]

A split in SPLA had simmered since late 1990, as Lam Akol and Riek Machar began to question Garang's leadership.[25] Akol began secretly contacting SPLA officers to join his side, especially among the Nuer and Shilluk peoples.[26] The situation deteriorated after the fall of the Derg.[25] As the Derg regime crumbled, Akol published a document titled Why Garang Must Go Now.[26] The split was made public on August 28, 1991, in what became known as the Nasir Declaration. The dissidents called for democratization of SPLA, a stop to human rights abuses, and an independent South Sudan (in contrast to the SPLA line of creating a united and secular Sudan). Kong Coul joined the rebellion. The 'SPLA-Nasir' was joined by the SPLA forces in Ayod, Waat, Adok, Abwong, Ler and Akobo.[10] A period of chaos reigned inside SPLA, as it was not clear which units sided with Garang and which with SPLA-Nasir.[27]

Garang issued a statement through the SPLA radio communications system, denouncing the coup. Nine out of eleven (excluding himself) SPLA/M PMHC members sided with Garang.[8] The mainstream SPLA led by Garang was based in Torit.[7] The two SPLA factions fought each other, including attacks on civilians on their opponents' turf.[28]

Battles of 1992Edit

As of 1992 the Sudanese government launched a major offensive against SPLA, which was weakened by the split with SPLA-Nasir. SPLA lost control of Torit (where SPLA was headquartered), Bor, Yirol, Pibor, Pochalla and Kapoeta.[29][30]

SPLA made two attacks on Juba in June–July 1992. SPLA nearly captured the town. After the attacks, the Sudanese government forces committed harsh reprisals against the civilian population. Summary executions of suspected SPLA collaborators were carried out.[31] On September 27, 1992 the deputy commander-in-chief of SPLA, William Nyuon, defected and took a section of fighters with him.[32] SPLA recaptured Bor on November 29, 1991.[33]

Mid-1990sEdit

As of the mid-1990s, the majority of the population of Southern Sudan lived in areas under the control of either the mainstream SPLA or SPLA-Nasir.[34]

2005 Comprehensive Peace AgreementEdit

In 2004, a year before the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Coalition to Stop Child Soldiers, estimated that there were between 2,500 and 5,000 children serving in the SPLA.[35]

 
Salva Kiir Mayardit, Commander-in-Chief of SPLA

Following the signing of the CPA, a SPLA reorganisation process began. This process was actively supported by funding from the United States. In 2005, Garang restructured the top leadership of SPLA, with a Chief of General Staff, Lt. Gen. Oyay Deng Ajak, and four Deputy Chiefs of General Staff: Maj. Gen. Salva Mathok Gengdit (Administration), Maj. Gen. Bior Ajang Aswad (Operations), Maj. Gen. James Hoth Mai (Logistics) and Maj. Gen. Obuto Mamur Mete (Political and Moral Orientation).[36]

 
SPLA officer as part of Joint Integrated Units during the CPA era

The initial organisation of the SPLA, based on divisions, was assembled in mid-2005 but not actually put into practice in the field until 2006. It was based on six divisions (in Upper Nile State; 2nd Division: Equatorias; 3rd Division: Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrap states; 4th Division Unity State; the 5th Division in Lakes State, the 6th Division, SPLA personnel in the Joint Integrated Units) and four independent brigades.[37] The four independent brigades grouped SPLA forces in Southern Blue Nile, Bor (Jonglei), the Nuba Mountains (South Kordofan) and Raja (Western Bahr el Ghazal).

Probably more important than the reorganisation was the Juba Declaration, signed by Salva and General Paulino Matiep on 8 January 2006. Matiep commanded the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF), the largest and best-equipped militia (about 50,000 men) that remained beyond SPLA control. Paulino was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff, the second highest position,[38] his subordinate generals became part of the SPLA without any reduction in rank, and about 50,000 SSDF were added to the SPLA payroll.[39] The number of generals in the SPLA also rose as Salva promoted hundreds of existing SPLA officers to match the arriving ex-SSDF generals. By 2011 and independence, the SPLA had 745 generals. At about the same time, the legislature voted to double infantrymen's base pay from the equivalent of $75 a month (the rate under Khartoum's control) to $150.[citation needed] The unification of the two largest armed groups in the region seriously weakened Khartoum’s control of South Sudan.[38]

In 2007–08 the independent brigades in Blue Nile, Bor, and the Nuba Mountains became the 10th, 8th, and 9th divisions, respectively.[40] The 9th and 10th Divisions thus fell north of the 1-1-56 Independence dividing line between North and South Sudan. The last independent brigade, in Raja, became part of the 5th Division.

Ministry of DefenceEdit

In 2007, the SPLM/A established a Ministry of Defence. Gen. Dominic Dim Deng, an SPLA veteran, was chosen as the first Minister for SPLA Affairs and the first political officer of the SPLA. Dim died in a plane crash in 2008 alongside his wife, Josephine Apieu Jenaro Aken, and other SPLA officers. He is buried alongside his wife at the SPLA headquarters in Bilpham, Juba.[36]

Deputy Chief of Staff (Logistics) James Hoth Mai replaced Oyay Deng Ajak as Chief of General Staff in May 2009.[41]

In 2010 U.S. diplomats reported that Samora "made a point to discuss how the SPLA needed to be reorganized. He stated that the SPLA was top heavy, carrying nearly 550 general officers and providing more than 200 security guards for each minister."[42]

The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement stipulated that the SPLA in northern Sudan were to move south of the 1956 North-South boundary during the interim period, excepting those part of the Joint Integrated Units, composed of equal numbers from the SPLA and the Sudanese Armed Forces.[43] Officially, this move did take place, in 2008, with the 10th Division relocating its headquarters to Guffa, five kilometers south of the Blue Nile-Upper Nile border, and most of its troops to al-Fuj, Yafta and Marinja on the southern side.[44] But more than 1,600 fighters remained north of the line. In early June 2011, following the lack of progress on popular consultations in Southern Kordofan & Blue Nile, the SAF attempted to forcefully disarm Nuba SPLA soldiers, and fighting began in Southern Kordofan.[45] After the fighting began, former SPLA 9th and 10th Division fighters proclaimed themselves the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLA-N), under Malik Agar as Chairman and Commander-in-Chief.[46]

The Government of Southern Sudan named the SPLA General Headquarters outside Juba 'Bilpam'.[9] The headquarters staff was expanded after 2008 to match the ten-division structure. This expansion coincided with the completion of the GHQ facility at Bilpam, built by DynCorp with funds from the U.S. State Department’s Africa Peacekeeping Program (AFRICAP).[47]

Work on a national security strategy began in late 2012.[48]

Southern Civil WarEdit

On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in Juba between different factions of the armed forces in what the South Sudanese government described as a coup d'état. President Kiir announced that the attempt had been put down the next day, but fighting resumed December 16. Military spokesman Colonel Philip Aguer said that some military installations had been attacked by armed soldiers but that "the army is in full control of Juba." He added that an investigation was under way.[49]

Eventually the Sudan People's Liberation Movement split into two main factions, divided on the issue over leadership of the ruling party:

  • The Sudan People's Liberation Movement (In Government) was led by President Kiir; it was the ruling faction that signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005. Kiir served as president of the Transitional Autonomous Region of South Sudan from its formation in 2005 after Garang's death until the country's independence in 2011. The SPLM-IO faction formally withdrew from the SPLM ruling faction in 2013.
  • The Sudan People's Liberation Movement (In Opposition) was formed in 2013 and is led by former South Sudan Vice President Riek Machar. The group is the major opponent to the SPLM-IG faction in the Southern Sudanese civil war.

The coordination of the April–July 2015 attack by the SPLA-IG in Unity State—involving multiple divisions across multiple sectors—indicates a high level of operational planning from Juba.[50] The ferocity with which people were chased into the swamps to be killed was aimed at annihilating the SPLM/A-in-Opposition's support, and led to systematic destruction of villages and towns.

The Tiger Faction New Forces (also called Tiger Faction or 'The Tigers')[51] split from the SPLA in late October 2015. A Shilluk militia, it aimed to reverse the division of South Sudan into 28 (later 32) states in order to restore the territory of the Shilluk Kingdom to its 1956 borders.[51] Led by Yoanis Okiech, the TFNF started an insurgency against the SPLM government.[52] In 2016, however, it also came into conflict with the SPLM-IO rebels, leading to Okiech's death and the group's destruction in January 2017.

Over the course of the war, the SPLA has become dominated by Dinka, in particular Dinka from greater Bahr el-Ghazal. The Panel of Experts wrote in 2016, "While other tribes are represented in SPLA, they are increasingly marginalized, rendering the multi-tribal structure of the army largely a façade that obscures the central role that Dinka now play in virtually all major theatres of the conflict". (S/2016/963, 8)

2017–2018: SSDF to SSPDFEdit

On May 16, 2017, Kiir announced a restructure of the army and change of name to the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF).[53]

A cessation of hostilities agreement was reached in December 2017, but never really took effect.[citation needed] In August 2017, Kiir announced that the new name for the army would be the South Sudan People's Defence Forces (SSPDF) "by the need to represent the will of the people". He said that there was a need to reorganise and professionalise the army.[54] According to Professor Joel Isabirye, the change of name would shift the discourse from the era of liberation, which had now concluded, to one of national defence, which is ongoing – with the focus on defending the country against external aggression. The insertion of "People’s" into the name "could be to avoid being dragged back into history when during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) a militia called South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF) emerged and aligned with the Government of Sudan".[55]

The negotiations stalled over disagreement among the parties about power sharing, future security arrangements and whether Riak Machar could return from exile to political life in South Sudan. In early May 2018, a two-day meeting of the Parties to the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) started in Addis Ababa. The parties were to take stock of the progress so far of the R-ARCSS, the pending tasks, and debate the way forward.[citation needed]

The army was officially renamed South Sudan People's Defence Forces in September 2018 by a Republican order read on the state-owned TV channel SSBC.[56] The renaming occurred ten days before implementation of new security arrangements, which include the reunification of the national army. President Kiir was also Commander-in-Chief of the army.[57]

As of 2018, the army was estimated to have 185,000 soldiers as well as an unknown number of personnel in the small South Sudan Air Force.[58]

According to the CIA World Factbook as of June 2020, "under the September 2018 peace agreement, all armed groups in South Sudan were to assemble at designated sites where fighters could be either disarmed and demobilized, or integrated into unified military and police forces; the unified forces were then to be retrained and deployed prior to the formation of a national unity government; all fighters were ordered to these sites in July 2019, but as of April 2020 this process had not been completed".[59]

2019Edit

As of 2019, the SSPDF comprised the Ground Force, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, and Presidential Guard.[59]

In October 2019, more than 40 members of South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF) undertook two-day training organised by the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) in Kuajok, Gogrial.[60] UNMISS has been in the country since 2011, aiming to consolidate peace and achieve security to allow economic growth and political stability. They were deploying more than 19,000 personnel in the country as of September 2019.[59]

Structure and equipmentEdit

The SPLA was commanded by the Chief of General Staff] (COGS). Deputy Chief of Staff (Logistics) James Hoth Mai replaced Oyay Deng Ajak as Chief of General Staff in May 2009.[41] James Hoth Mai was superseded by Paul Malong Awan as COGS in 2014.

After the restructure as SSDF, Malong was superseded by James Ajongo Mawut (May 2017–April 2018), with the position now referred to as "chief of defence force(s)". On 28 April 2018, Chief of General Staff James Ajongo Mawut died in Cairo from a short illness.[61] He was replaced by General Gabriel Jok Riak on 4 May 2018.[62]

On 11 May 2020 President Kiir removed Riak and appointed General Johnson Juma Okot as Chief of Defence Forces, who had been serving as deputy chief.[2][63]

 
SSPDF Divisions in cantonment in August 2020

SPLA structure and equipmentEdit

The COGS oversaw five directorates, each led by a Deputy Chief of General Staff (DCOGS):[when?]

  • Administration
  • Operations
  • Logistics
  • Political and Moral Orientation
  • Training and Research

The SPLA had nine divisions and a small air force, all of which reported to the DCOGS, Operations:

According to a 2015 security agreement with the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-in-Opposition, military forces currently stationed in Juba, Bor and Malakal are to be moved to bases at least 25 kilometers outside of each respective city. The Presidential Guard at Giada Barracks and SPLA's General Headquarters in Bilpam are authorized exceptions to the agreement.[79]

EquipmentEdit

 
A T-72 in SPLA service

As of 2013 the SPLA's land forces operated the following heavy equipment:

As of 2013 the South Sudan Air Force operated the following aircraft:

Defence expenditureEdit

According to the 2013 edition of the International Institute for Strategic Studies' report The Military Balance, South Sudan's defence budgets since 2011 have been as follows:

Year South Sudanese pounds US dollar equivalent
2011 1.6bn 533m
2012 2.42bn 537m
2013 2.52bn

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "SPLA renamed South Sudan Defense Force in a major army shake up". Eye Radio Network. 2017-05-16. Archived from the original on 2018-06-17. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  2. ^ a b "Kiir sacks army chief Gabriel Jok". Radio Tamazuj. Archived from the original on 2020-05-20. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  3. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 16
  4. ^ Buay, Gordon (24 Jan 2011). "Who Is CDR. William Nyuon Bany Machar?". Gurtong Trust. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b Teresa (21 June 2019). "Brief Biography and Facts About Major(Cdr). Late William Nyuon Bany Machar". City Scrollz. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  6. ^ Shaw, Toby (1 January 2020). "SPLA Day in South Sudan in 2021". Office Holidays. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  7. ^ a b Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. xiv
  8. ^ a b Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 210
  9. ^ a b c Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. pp. 252-253
  10. ^ a b Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 90
  11. ^ a b c d e Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 18-19
  12. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 23
  13. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 65
  14. ^ a b c Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. pp. 153-155
  15. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 1
  16. ^ a b Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 27
  17. ^ a b c d Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 21, 23
  18. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 101
  19. ^ Norsk Bistandshistorie (Norwegian aid history), Randi Rønning Balsvik, 2016. p. 115 https://www.idunn.no/ht/2017/02/randi_roenning_balsvik_norsk_bistandshistorie Archived 2018-04-19 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Moorcroft, 'Omar al-Bashir and Africa's Longest War,' 2015, 72.
  21. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-08-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 22
  22. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster : an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 25
  23. ^ Africa Watch Committee. Denying the Honor of Living: Sudan, a Human Rights Disaster: an Africa Watch Report Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. New York, N.Y.: Africa Watch Committee, 1990. p. 53
  24. ^ Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 128
  25. ^ a b Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 25
  26. ^ a b Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 208
  27. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 91
  28. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan Archived 2014-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 3
  29. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 35
  30. ^ Karl R. DeRouen and Uk Heo. Civil wars of the world: major conflicts since World War II. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 748.
  31. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. pp. 56-58
  32. ^ Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2011. p. 220
  33. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 99
  34. ^ Rone, Jemera. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994. p. 12
  35. ^ "SPLA to demobilize all child soldiers by end of the year - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  36. ^ a b Rands, Richard (2010). In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond (PDF). Small Arms Survey HSBA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  37. ^ Rands, Richard (2010). In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond (PDF). Small Arms Survey HSBA. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  38. ^ a b Paterno, Steve (24 August 2012). "Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  39. ^ Young, John (2012). The Fate of Sudan: The Origins and Consequences of a Flawed Peace Process. Zed Books. pp. 121–2. in Alex de Waal, The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa, Polity 2015 96.
  40. ^ Rands, Richard (2010). In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond (PDF). Small Arms Survey HSBA. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  41. ^ a b "Kiir appoints new army Chief of Staff, relieves deputies". Sudan Tribune. June 1, 2009. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  42. ^ 10ADDISABABA176
  43. ^ CPA Annexure I, Part 1, Article 7.1.2
  44. ^ International Crisis Group, Sudan’s Spreading Conflict (II): War in Blue Nile Crisis Group Africa Report N°204, 18 June 2013, p.14
  45. ^ "p.3" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  46. ^ ibid ODI p.7
  47. ^ Rands 2010, 11
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j IISS 2013, p. 532.
  49. ^ "Heavy gunfire rocks South Sudan capital". Al Jazeera. 16 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  50. ^ Interim Report of the Panel of Experts, S/2015/656, 21 August 2015, Annex V, p.37
  51. ^ a b "Tiger faction of ethnic Shilluk kingdom dismisses integration into SPLM-IO". Sudan Tribune. 11 March 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  52. ^ "The Conflict in Upper Nile State". Small Arms Survey. 8 March 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
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ReferencesEdit

  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2018). "The Military Balance 2018". The Military Balance : Annual Estimates of the Nature and Size of the Military Forces of the Principal Powers. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222.
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2013). "The Military Balance 2013". The Military Balance : Annual Estimates of the Nature and Size of the Military Forces of the Principal Powers. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222.
  • Rands, Richard (2010). In Need of Review: SPLA Transformation in 2006–10 and Beyond (PDF). Small Arms Survey HSBA.

Further readingEdit

  • Sikainga, Ahmad Alawad, and Daly, M. W., Civil war in the Sudan, London ; New York : British Academic Press : Distributed by St. Martinʾs Press in the United States of America and Canada, 1993. (See Douglas and Prunier article on origins of SPLA)
  • Further reading: African Rights, 1997. Food and Power in Sudan: A Critique of Humanitarianism, London: African Rights. Militarism and brutality of the early SPLA.

External linksEdit

  Media related to SPLA at Wikimedia Commons