Hussein Kamel of Egypt

Sultan Hussein Kamel (Arabic: السلطان حسين كامل; 21 November 1853 – 9 October 1917) was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt. He was the first person to hold the title of Sultan of Egypt since the killing of Sultan Tuman II by the Ottomans in 1517 following their conquest of Egypt.

Hussein Kamel
Ch. Chusseau-Flaviens - George Eastman House - Egypt-Prince Hussein Pacha (Khedive ) (pd).jpg
Sultan of Egypt and the Sudan
Reign19 December 1914 – 9 October 1917
PredecessorAbbas Helmy II (as Khedive of Egypt)
SuccessorFuad I
Prime MinisterHussein Roshdy Pasha
Born(1853-11-21)21 November 1853
Cairo, Egypt Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Died9 October 1917(1917-10-09) (aged 63)
Cairo, Sultanate of Egypt
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1873, divorced)
(m. 1887)
IssuePrince Kamal el Dine Hussein
Princess Kazima Hussein
Princess Kamila Hussein
Prince Ahmed Kazim Hussein
Princess Kadria Hussein
Princess Samiha Hussein
Princess Badia Hussein
HouseAlawiyya
FatherIsma'il I
MotherNur Felek Qadin

LifeEdit

Hussein Kamel was the second son of Khedive Ismail Pasha, who ruled Egypt from 1863 to 1879. He was declared Sultan of Egypt on 19 December 1914, after the occupying British forces had deposed his nephew, Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, on 5 November 1914. Though presented as the re-establishment of the pre-Ottoman Egyptian sultanate, the newly created Sultanate of Egypt was to be a British protectorate, with effective political and military power vested in British officials. This brought to an end the de jure Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt, which had been largely nominal since Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in 1805.

 
Tomb of Sultan Hussein Kamel at the Al-Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo

Upon Hussein Kamel's death, his only son, Prince Kamal el Dine Hussein, declined the succession, and Hussein Kamel's brother Ahmed Fuad ascended the throne as Fuad I. At the beginning of Naguib Mahfouz's novel Palace Walk, Ahmad Abd al-Jawwad says "What a fine man Prince Kamal al-Din Husayn is! Do you know what he did? He refused to ascend the throne of his late father so long as the British are in charge."[1]

Stereoscope photographs of the coronation procession and burial procession of Sultan Hussein are available on the Rare Books and Special Collections Digital Library of the American University in Cairo.

HonoursEdit

 
Silver coin: 20 qirsh of Sultanate of Egypt minted during the reign of Hussein Kamel - 1916 struck at Bombay Mint [2]
Domestic[citation needed]
Foreign[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Naguib Mahfouz, Palace Walk (Anchor Books, 1991), p. 12
  2. ^ محب, رزق الله (2016-08-28). "المقتنى العربي تحتفل بمرور قرن على الإصدارات المعدنية للسلطان حسين كامل - The Arab Collector Issue 04". The Arab Collector (in English and Arabic). Retrieved 2023-02-23.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link) CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Ritter-Orden: Kaiserlich-österreichischer Franz Joseph-orden", Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, 1913, p. 174, retrieved 9 February 2021
  4. ^ "Kungl. Svenska Riddareordnarna", Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1915, p. 674, retrieved 10 February 2021 – via runeberg.org
  5. ^ "No. 29021". The London Gazette. 29 December 1914. p. 11132.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Hussein Kamel of Egypt at Wikimedia Commons

Stereoscopes of Hussein Kamel's coronation and burial processions

Hussein Kamel of Egypt
Born: 21 November 1853 Died: 9 October 1917
Regnal titles
Preceded byas Khedive of Egypt and Sudan Sultan of Egypt and the Sudan
19 December 1914 - 9 October 1917
Succeeded by
Recreated
Title last held by
Tuman Bay II
Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Public Works
26 August 1872 - 7 September 1875
Succeeded by
Preceded by Speaker of the Legislative Council
30 January 1909 - 3 March 1910
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Ottoman Suzerain Head of state of Egypt
19 December 1914 - 9 October 1917
Succeeded by