Tucanoan languages

Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Tukano Languages.png
East Tukano (nuclear green), Central Tukano (turquoise green) and West Tukano (dark green). Dots indicate current locations of the various languages. Shaded areas indicate their extents before the 20th century.


There are two dozen Tucanoan languages:[2]

Western Tucanoan
  • ?Cueretú (Kueretú) †
  • Napo
    • Orejón (also known as M'áíhɨ̃ki, Maijiki, Coto, Koto, Payoguaje, Payaguá, Payowahe, Payawá)
    • Correguaje–Secoya
      • Correguaje (Koreguaje, Korewahe, also known as Caquetá)
      • Siona–Secoya (Upper Napo)
        • ?Macaguaje (AKA Kakawahe, Piohé) †
        • Siona (Siona, Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni, Tetete)
        • Secoya (Piohé, Secoya, Siona-Secoya)
        • ?Tama
Eastern Tucanoan
  • South
    • Tanimuca (also known as Retuarã)
    • ?Yauna (Jaúna, Yahuna, Yaúna) †
  • West
    • Barasana–Macuna
      • Macuna (also known as Buhagana, Wahana, Makuna-Erulia, Makuna)
      • Barasana (Southern Barasano, also known as Paneroa, Eduria, Edulia, Comematsa, Janera, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano)
    • Cubeo–Desano
  • East
    • Central
      • Tucano (Tukana, also known as Dasea)
      • Waimaha–Tatuyo
    • North
      • Kotiria–Piratapuyo
        • Guanano (Wanana, Wanano, also known as Kotedia, Kotiria, Wanana-Pirá)
        • Piratapuyo (also known as Waikina, Uiquina)
      • Pisamira–Yuruti

Plus unclassified Miriti.†

Most languages are, or were, spoken in Colombia.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tucanoan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Chacon, Thiago (2014). "A Revised Proposal of Proto-Tukanoan Consonants and Tukanoan Family Classification". International Journal of American Linguistics. 80 (3): 275–322. doi:10.1086/676393.


  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

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