Karankawa language

Karankawa is the extinct, unclassified language of the Texas coast, where the Karankawa people migrated between the mainland and the barrier islands. It was not closely related to other known languages in the area, many of which are also poorly attested, and may have been a language isolate. A couple hundred words are preserved, collected in 1698, 1720, and 1828; in the 1880s, three lists were collected from non-Karankawa who knew some words.

Karankawa
Keles
Native toUnited States
RegionTexas coast, from Galveston Island to Corpus Christi
EthnicityKarankawa people
Extinct1858
unclassified
Language codes
ISO 639-3zkk
zkk
Glottologkara1289[1]
Karankawa lang.png
Pre-contact distribution of the Karankawa language, lacking the historical inclusion of the Houston-Galveston area

Karankawa has sometimes been included with neighboring languages in a Coahuiltecan family, but that is now thought to be spurious.

PhonologyEdit

Consonant sounds
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
nor. lab.
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Nasal m n
Affricate ts
Fricative s ʃ x h
Approximant w l j
Vowel sounds
Front Central Back
Close i iː u uː
Mid e eː ə o oː
Open a aː

[2]

VocabularyEdit

Though only a few hundred words of the Karankawa language are preserved, the following are selected words recorded by Albert Gatschet, a late Victorian anthropologist and linguist, referenced from the last fluent speakers of the language.[3]

  • Nāt’sa "one", counted on the right pinky
  • Haikia "two" or "second", counted on the right ring finger
  • Kaxayi "three", counted on the right middle finger
  • Hayo hak(ě)n "four", or "fourth", counted on the right index finger
  • Do-aḍ "Four", or "fourth", literally "deer", counted on the right index finger
  • Nāt’sa Behema, "five" or "fifth", literally "First Father", counted on the right thumb
  • Hayo Haikia, "Six" or "Sixth", literally "Three two", counted on the left pinky
  • Haikia Nāt’sa, "Seven" or "Seventh", literally "Second one", counted on left ring finger
  • Haikia Behema, "Eight" or "Eighth", literally "Second father", counted on left middle finger
  • Haikia Do-aḍ, "Nine" or "Ninth", literally "Second deer", counted on the left index finger
  • (Do-aḍ) Habe "Ten" or "Tenth", literally "Ten(th deer)", counted on the left thumb
  • Kaup(ě)n "Speak"
  • Yamawe "Man"
  • Glo-essen/Glos(ě)n "Boy"
  • Kaninma "Woman" or "Mother"
  • Ka'da "Girl"
  • Glle-i "Water"
  • Ahayika "Friend"
  • Dōwal ""Sun"
  • Kiss "Dog"
  • Peka "White"
  • Pal/Ma "Black"
  • Aknamus "Eat"
  • Tcha "See"
  • Ye "Go" or "Walk"

Swanton (1940)Edit

The following vocabulary list of Karankawa is from John Swanton (1940).[4]

gloss Karankawa
about to tcápn
acorn kalac
adze kusila
affectionate mutá
after a while messús
all the time mucawáta
alligator hókso
also ténno
always mucawáta
and ténno
angry, to be very napé-nai naxerúaxa pára
arm (forearm) se-cotan
arm (upper) se-imahaha
arrow demo
ashes ahona
at present messús
ax kialn
babe kwā́n
bad tcúta
ball for musket kecila-demuks
barrel búdel
basin koje ön
beads kujahin
beans kudec
bear ǒ's
beef didot, tíkĕmai
behold, to tcá
belly a-luk
big kunin
bird kúdn
bird, a common tekotsen
biscuit kuejam
bison didot
black ma, pál
blue tsō'l
board kuaham
boat awán, elucun
bow, a gái, kruin
bowl kok
boy kolohs, níktam
bread kwiáṃ
bread, fresh kokam
break, to táhama
breast kanín
brush tesselénia
bucket of tin koláme
build (a fire), to kosáta
building bá-ak, kaham
bull didot
by and by messús
cabin bá-ak, kaham
calf koco
calico kádla
calumet kadiol
camp bá-ak, kaham
can
cannon etjam
canoe awā́n, elucun, uahahim
capture, to haítn
cask kaa-konam
cat gáta
catch, to haítn
cattle didot
cherish, to ka
chicken kúdn, wólya
chief hálba
child kwā́n
chin em-imian hanéna
cigarette káhe, swénas
circular lá-akum
cloth kwíss
clothing a-lams
cold delin
come! éwē
come, to gás
come here! éwē gás, wána
come quick! éwē
converse, to kaúpn
cord bacina
com kwiáṃ
cow, a nen, didot
cowhorn teke-dolan
crane kĕdō'd, koln
curlew kwojol
dangerous tcúta
dart kusila
day bákta
dead mál
dear mutá
deer dóatn, tekomandotsen
deerskin kesul
desire, to
disk-shaped lá-akum
do, to kosáta
dog kec
don’t cry! ăhămmic
dress kádla, kwíss
drink, to kouaen
duck kue, medá-u
dugout awā́n
eagle balsehe
eat, to aknámas
egg dáhome
eight haíkia
exhausted kwá-al
eye em-ikus
eyebrows im-lahue
fabric kwíss
fall, to amóak
far off nyá wól
farewell! atcáta
father béhema
feathers hamdolok
female nen
fine plá
finger étsma
fire húmhe, kwátci, kwoilesem
fire-pot koko
fire-sticks akta demaje
fish áṃ, kiles
fish-hook kusila
five nā́tsa
flagon kedika
flour ámhătn
fly, a kamej
foot eham, kékeya
four hayo
French, the kalbasska
friend aháyika
get away! ăhắmmic
gimlet klani
girl kā́da
give, to báwûs
glass kusila
glassware kujahin
globiform lá-akum
go, to gás, yé
go away! wána
going to tcápn
gone budáma
good kuìst-baha, plá
good bye! atcáta
goose lá-ak
gown kádla, kwíss
grass awátcxol
great yá-an
grindstone hama
grow, to kwā́n
gun kisulp
gunpowder kalmel
hair ekia aikui
hand étsma
handsome hamála
harpoon kusila
hasten, to kóta, xankéye
hat kalama
hatchet matcíta
hate, to matákia
he tál
head en-okea
healthy klabán
heart láhama
hen kúdn, wólya
hog tapcewá
horn of cow teke-dolan
horse kanueüm, kuwáyi
house bá-ak, kaham
hungry ámel
hurry, to kóta, xankéye
hurt, to kassítcuwakn
hush ăhắmmic
hut bá-ak, kaham
I náyi
injure, to kassítcuwakn
it tál
jug kahan
jump, to éṃ
kettle kukujol
kill, to ahúk
kitten gáta
knee en-klas
knife bekekomb, kusila, silekáyi
know, to kúmna, kwáss
large yá-an
lark kutsen
laugh, to kaíta
leg em-anpok
let us go! wána
lie down, to wú-ak
little kwā́n, níktam
lodge bá-ak, kaham
long wól
long ago upāt
love, to ka
maize kwiáṃ
make, to káhawan, kosáta
man ahaks, tecoyu, úci, yámawe
manufacture, to káhawan
marry, to mawída
mast kesul
mat didaham
me náyi
metal kusila
milk tesnakwáya
mine náyi
molasses téskaus
moon a-uil
mosquito gắ
mother kanín
mouth emi-akwoi
much wól
music yŏ'ta
musket-ball kecila-demuks
my náyi
neck em-sebek
needle aguíya, besehena
nice plá
nine haíkia
no! kóṃ
nose em-ai aluak
not kóṃ
now acáhak
oak-apple ēkskitula
obnoxious tcúta
octopus áṃ
one nā́tsa
oyster dắ
paddle em-luajem
pail kok
pain, to cause kassítcuwakn
pan, frying- koláme
paper imetes akuam
past budáma
peas kudec
pelican ōkman
perform, to kosáta
pickax kialn
pig kalbasska, madóna
pimento kesesmai
pin besehena
pinnacle kesesmai
pipe kadiol
pistol ka ai kuan
plaice ampaj
plate made of tin kesila-konan
plenty of wól
plover sebe
potato yám
pound, to kássig
powerful wól
prairie chicken kúdn, wólya
presently acáhak
pretty hamála
produce, to káhawan
push, to dán
quick, to come xankéye
rain wí-asn
read, to gwá
red tamóyika
return, to gás
round lá-akum
run, to xankéye, tólos
saber teheye
sail a-lams
salt dem, ketac
sand kohon
satisfaction, expression of baa
say, to kaúpn
scat! ăhămmic
see, to tcá
serpent aúd
seven haíkia, nā́tsa
sew, to teksilea
sexual organs, male em-ibak
she tál
ship awā́n, elucun
shirt gusgáma
shoe kameplan
shoot, to ódn
shoulder em-sehota
sick a-eas, kwátco
side to side, to pass from lon
sit, to háka
sit down! háka
six haíkia, háyo
skin of deer kesul
skip, to éṃ
sleep, to ĭṃ, neianana
small kwā́n
smoke ánawan
snake aúd
soon messús
Spaniards kahamkeami
speak, to gaxiamétĕt, kaúpn
stag tekomandotsen
stand, to yétso
stomach a-luk
strike, to gá-an
strong wól
suck, to énno
sugar téskaus
sun klos, dóowal
sweet téskaus
swim, to nótawa
talk, to kaúpn
tall yá-an
tar kuja
tattooings bacenana
tear, to táhama
teat kanín
tell, to kaúpn
ten hábe
textile kwíss
that tál
there nyá
thigh em-edal
thine áwa
this tál
thou áwa
three kaxáyi
thy áwa
tired kwá-al
tobacco a-kanan, káhe, dé
tongue a-lean
Tonkawa Indian Tcankáya
too ténno
tooth dolonakin, é
tooth-brush tesselénia
touch, to tcaútawal
tree akwiní
turtle, a large green haítnlokn
two haíkia
understand, to kúmna
useful plá
vermilion kadüm
vessel awā́n, elucun
walk, to shak, yé
wall kesul
want, to
water klai, komkom
water-hen uapa
weep, to owíya
well klabán
where? mudá
whiskey labá-i
whistle, to áksōl
white péka
wicked tcúta
wide yá-an
will tcápn
wind bá, eta
wine klebö
wish, to
wolf kec
woman, a acade
wood kesul
work, to takína
yes ihié-ă
yesterday tuwámka
yonder nyá
you áwa
young of an animal kwā́n
youngster níktam

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Karankawa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Grant, Anthony P. (1994). Karankawa linguistic Materials. University of Kansas: Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics.
  3. ^ Gatschet, Albert S. (1891). The Karankawa Indians: The Coast People of Texas. 1. Peabody Museum, Harvard University.
  4. ^ Swanton, John. 1940. Linguistic material from the tribes of southern Texas and northern Mexico.