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Jaunpur
City
Shahi bridge, Jaunpur
Jaunpur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Jaunpur
Jaunpur
Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E / 25.73; 82.68Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E / 25.73; 82.68
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Jaunpur
Founded 1359
Founded by Feroz Shah Tughlaq
Named for Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan
Government
 • Jaunpur (Lok Sabha constituency) Krishna Pratap (BJP) District Magistrate-Praveen Kumar Rai (Jan 2018-Present)
Area
 • Total 4,038 km2 (1,559 sq mi)
Elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Population (2017)
 • Total 3,85,201(includes outer growth)
 • Rank 38 in UP
 • Density 1,113/km2 (2,880/sq mi)
Language
 • Official Hindi
 • Other Bhojpuri, Awadhi Jaunpuri, English, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Vehicle registration UP-62
Sex ratio 1024 females per 1000 males /
Website http://jaunpur.nic.in

Jaunpur (Hindustani pronunciation: [dʒɔːnpʊr] (About this sound listen) is a town and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 228 km southeast of state capital Lucknow.

Jaunpur is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located.

A greenfield international airport is being constructed in Mariahu tehsil of Jaunpur to ease out the traffic at Babatpur Airport in Varanasi.[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
View at Juanpore, on the River Gomti (1847)[1]

Jaunpur historically known as Sheeraz-e-Hind having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan.[2][3] In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, an eunuch, who is notorious for having been the lover of Feroz Shah Tughlaq's daughter, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.

 
Silver coin of 32 rattis issued by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur.
 
It depicts the elephant Citranand attacking another, called Udiya, during the Mughal campaign against the rebel forces of Khan Zaman and Bahadur Khan in 1567.

The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, who ruled as Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Raja Ganesha.[4]

During the reign of Husain Shah (1456–76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Khan Lodi. It is a dominant trend in modern historiography of the period that this defeat was a cause of a large number of eunuchs in the military ranks. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.

The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. The Sharqi dynasty was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus, perhaps stemming from the fact that the Sharqis themselves were originally indigenous converts to Islam, as opposed to descendants of Persians or Afghans. Jaunpur's independence came to an end in 1480, when the city was conquered by Sikander Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. The Sharqi kings attempted for several years to retake the city, but ultimately failed.

Although many of the Sharqi monuments were destroyed when the Lodis took the city, several important mosques remain, most notably the Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid (now known as the Bari (big mosque) Masjid) and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The old bridge over the Gomti River in Jaunpur dates from 1564, the era of the MughalEmperor Akbar. The Jaunpur Qila, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, also remains in good form.

Jaunpur district was annexed into British India based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, and thus was subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection. During the Revolt of 1857 the Sikh troops in Jaunpur joined the Indian rebels. The district was eventually reconquered for the British by Gurkha troops from Nepal. Jaunpur then became a district administrative center.

Present stateEdit

Jaunpur is the district headquarters. The district has 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies.

DemographicsEdit

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Jaunpur had population of 180,362 of which male and female were 93,718 and 86,644 respectively. The literacy rate was 82.83. With a sex ratio of 1024 female per 1000 male. The district has a population density of 1,113 people per km2.[5]

ReligionEdit

Religion demographics[6]
Hindu
88.03%
Islam
11.94%
Christianity
0.11%
Sikhism
0.03%
Others*
0.51%
*Others include Buddhism, Jainism, other religions and no particular religion

Rivers of JaunpurEdit

Gomti, Sai, Varuna, Pili, and Basuhi are the five rivers which make its land fertile.[7]

TransportationEdit

RailEdit

Jaunpur is well-connected with all major cities of India thanks to Indian Railways. It has four major railway stations: Jaunpur City Railway Station(JOP) and Jaunpur Junction (JNU), Shahganj Junction (SHG), Janghai Junction, Kerakat railway station (KCT). Zafarabad (ZBD) also a railway station where's many train routes are diverted i.e. Allahababd, Varanasi, Lucknow Via Sultanpur, Lucknow via Shahgan, Ghazipur via Jaunpur junction.

RoadEdit

Jaunpur is well-connected to Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Allahabad and other cities like Azamgarh, Mirzapur, Janghai, Sultanpur, Kerakat, Ghazipur etc. Mariahu NH-56, SH-36 are the roadways connecting all major cities to Jaunpur.

RulersEdit

Sharqi Dynasty

  • Data Deen Gaur
  • Malik Sarwar Khwaja-yi Jahan (1394–1399)
  • Malik Qaranful Mubarrak Shah (1399–1401)
  • Ibrahim Shams-ud-Din (1401–1440)
  • Mahmud Shah (1440–1458)
  • Mohammed Shah Bhikan Khan (1458)
  • Husain Shah (1458–1483)

EducationEdit

UniversityEdit

Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, formerly Purvanchal University, is in Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh. It is one of the educational hubs of eastern Uttar Pradesh, established in 1987 as a residential-cum-affiliating university. It is named after Vir Bahadur Singh, former chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.

InstitutesEdit

Tilak Dhari College founded in 1914 is one of the premier institutions of not only Uttar Pradesh but also in India. Jaunpur district has more than 50 Graduate and post graduate institutes and more than 200 undergraduate colleges and more than 300 colleges up to high school. There is also a Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya situated 21 km south from the district headquarters on Lumbini - Duddhi Road in Katghara Village near Mariahu Tehsil .

SchoolsEdit

It has many C.B.S.E. affiliated and 1 I.C.S.E. affiliated schools along with schools recognized by U.P. board. top state board government college- Tilak Dhari Singh Inter college, Jaunpur.

Top C.B.S.E. Board schools- Dr. Rizvi Learners Academy Prasad International School St. Patrick's Sr. Sec. School Umanath Singh Hr. Sec.School: Only real convent school affliated to CBSE in Jaunpur.

R.N.Tagore Sr. Secondary School Sukkhipur,JAUNPUR

Maa Durga Ji Sr. Sec. Vidyalaya,

St. Joseph,

Blossoms, etc.

I.C.S.E. board school-

St. Jepher's School, Purani Bazar, Jaunpur

Savitri Convent High School

Scholar's Dale Academy ,Jamuhai (Aanapur) Jaunpur.

It has only 1 I.C.S.E. affiliated school known as St. John's School in siddiquepur.

IndustriesEdit

GSG, GS Green Enterpriese Katehari- Leduka Jaunpur was established in March 2017 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 10 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India.

SIDA (Satharia Industrial Development Authority)Edit

Satharia Industrial Development Authority was established in November 1989 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 508 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India.

Virtually all kind of industrial, commercial and social infrastructural facilities, such as Medical, Educational, Residential, Roads, Transportation, drainage, Telecommunication, dedicated industrial power 33/11 KV supply, post office, bank, water supply, community center, shopping center, field hostel etc., have been fully established and are operative.[8]

Pepsico India Pvt. Ltd.Edit

Pepsico Inc. is an American multinational food and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products.

Hawkins Cooker LimitedEdit

Hawkins Cookers Limited is a company in India which manufactures pressure cookers and cookware based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The company has three manufacturing plants at Wagle estate Thane, Hoshiarpur and Jaunpur.[9]

Local MediaEdit

Mostly all major English, Hindi and Urdu dailies including Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Dainik Jagran, Amarujala, Hindustan, Rashtree Sahara, Inquilab, Hausla News available in Jaunpur. Hindi and Urdu dailies also have their bureaus in the city. Almost all big Hindi TV news channel have stringers in the city. Hindi newspaper Tarunmitra is also published from Jaunpur.

LandmarksEdit

There are a number of tourist attractions in Jaunpur including monuments, and holy places.

MonumentsEdit

Religious SitesEdit

 
Jaunpur Atala Masjid.
 
Jaunpur Jama Masjid

Local productsEdit

Under One District, One Product (ODOP) Scheme 2018 of the UP Govt., Perfume and Carpet industry have been selected for Jaunpur district.[2]

  • Famous Imarti, a sweet like Jalebi made from Urad. Usually, places have monuments and famous addresses as their landmarks. But Jaunpur is different. Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh has a sweet house in its list of most famous places, called the Beniram Sweet House. Whether you have a sweet tooth or not, you must dig into the Imartis you get at this place. They are a heavenly experience. It is sinfully delicious.
  • Jaunpuri Mooli,[10] a white radish that grow up to four feet long
  • Perfumes, or itra (in Urdu)
  • Madhopatti, a famous village in Jaunpur district that has produced many civil servants (IAS/PCS officers) in India [3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "View at Juanpore, on the River Ganges". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. IV: 60. June 1847. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  2. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka: The Coins of the Indian Sultanates, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001.
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  4. ^ Goron and Goenka, p. 343.
  5. ^ "Jaunpur City : Census 2011 data". 
  6. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/150-jaunpur.html
  7. ^ Cf. "Jaunpur" article in 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, p.282.
  8. ^ "About SIDA". 
  9. ^ Hawkins Cookers Limited
  10. ^ "Jaunpur's raddish". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 

External linksEdit

  "Jaunpur". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.