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Jaunpur (Hindustani pronunciation: [dʒɔːnpʊr] (About this soundlisten) is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 228 km southeast of state capital Lucknow.

Jaunpur
Shahi bridge, Jaunpur
Jaunpur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Jaunpur
Jaunpur
Jaunpur is located in India
Jaunpur
Jaunpur
Jaunpur is located in Asia
Jaunpur
Jaunpur
Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E / 25.73; 82.68Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E / 25.73; 82.68
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictJaunpur
Founded1359
Founded byFeroz Shah Tughlaq
Named forMuhammad bin Tughluq, Urf Jauna khan
Government
 • Jaunpur (Lok Sabha constituency)Shyam Singh Yadav (BSP)
Elevation
82 m (269 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total180,362
 • Density1,113/km2 (2,880/sq mi)
Language
 • OfficialHindi[1]
 • Additional officialUrdu[1]
 • OtherEnglish
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationUP-62
Sex ratio1024 females per 1000 males /
Websitehttp://jaunpur.nic.in

Jaunpur is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
View at Juanpore, on the River Gomti (1847)[2]

Jaunpur historically known as Sheeraz-e-Hind having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan.[3][4] In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, a eunuch, who is notorious for having been the lover of Feroz Shah Tughlaq's daughter, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.2

 
coin of 32 rattis issued by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur.
 
It depicts the elephant Citranand attacking another, called Udiya, during the Mughal campaign against the rebel forces of Khan Zaman and Bahadur Khan in 1567.

The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, who ruled as Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Raja Ganesha.[5]

During the reign of Husain Shah (1456–76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Khan Lodi. It is a dominant trend in modern historiography of the period that this defeat was a cause of a large number of eunuchs in the military ranks. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.

The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. The Sharqi dynasty was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus, perhaps stemming from the fact that the Sharqis themselves were originally indigenous converts to Islam, as opposed to descendants of Persians or Afghans. Jaunpur's independence came to an end in 1480, when the city was conquered by Sikander Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. The Sharqi kings attempted for several years to retake the city, but ultimately failed.

Although many of the Sharqi monuments were destroyed when the Lodis took the city, several important mosques remain, most notably the Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid (now known as the Bari (big mosque) Masjid) and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The old bridge over the Gomti River in Jaunpur dates from 1564, the era of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. The Jaunpur Qila, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, also remains in good form.

Jaunpur district was annexed into British India based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, and thus was subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection. During the Revolt of 1857 the Sikh troops in Jaunpur joined the Indian rebels. The district was eventually reconquered for the British by Gurkha troops from Nepal. Jaunpur then became a district administrative center.

Present stateEdit

Jaunpur is the district headquarters. The district has 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies.

DemographicsEdit

Religion demographics[6]
Religion Percent
Hindu
63.48%
Islam
33.28%
Others*
3.24%
*Others include Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Sikhism, other religions and no particular religion

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Jaunpur city had population of 180,362 of which male and female were 93,718 and 86,644 respectively. The literacy rate was 82.83. With a sex ratio of 1024 female per 1000 male. The district has a population density of 1,113 people per km2.[7]

RiversEdit

Gomti, Sai, Varuna, Pili, and Basuhi are the five rivers which make its land fertile.[8]

TransportationEdit

RailEdit

Jaunpur is well-connected with all major cities of India thanks to Indian Railways. It has four major railway stations: Jaunpur City Railway Station(JOP) and Jaunpur Junction (JNU), Shahganj Junction (SHG), Janghai Junction, Kerakat railway station (KCT). Zafarabad (ZBD) also a railway station where's many train routes are diverted i.e. Allahababd, Varanasi, Lucknow Via Sultanpur, Lucknow via Shahganj, Ghazipur via Jaunpur junction.

RoadEdit

Jaunpur is well-connected to Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Allahabad and other cities like Azamgarh, Mirzapur, Janghai, Sultanpur, Kerakat, Ghazipur etc. Mariahu NH-56, SH-36 are the roadways connecting all major cities to Jaunpur.

RulersEdit

Sharqi Dynasty

  • Data Deen Gaur
  • Malik Sarwar Khwaja-yi Jahan (1394–1399)
  • Malik Qaranful Mubarrak Shah (1399–1401)
  • Ibrahim Shams-ud-Din (1401–1440)
  • Mahmud Shah (1440–1458)
  • Mohammed Shah Bhikan Khan (1458)
  • Husain Shah (1458–1483)

EducationEdit

UniversityEdit

Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, formerly Purvanchal University, is in Jaunpur. It was established in 1987 as a residential-cum-affiliating university and is named after Vir Bahadur Singh, former chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.

InstitutesEdit

  • Kutir Post Graduate College, established in 1971.[9]
  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, 21 km south from the district headquarters on Lumbini - Duddhi Road in Katghara Village near Mariahu Tehsil.

IndustriesEdit

GSG, GS Green Enterpriese Katehari- Leduka Jaunpur was established in March 2017 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 10 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India. Hawkins Cookers Limited company has one of the three manufacturing plants in India at Jaunpur to manufacture pressure cookers and cookware.[citation needed]

SIDA (Satharia Industrial Development Authority)Edit

Satharia Industrial Development Authority was established in November 1989 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 508 acres of land, under a growth center scheme of Govt. of India.

Virtually all kind of industrial, commercial and social infrastructural facilities, such as Medical, Educational, Residential, Roads, Transportation, drainage, Telecommunication, dedicated industrial power 33/11 KV supply, post office, bank, water supply, community center, shopping center, field hostel etc., have been fully established and are operative.[10]

Local productsEdit

Under One District, One Product (ODOP) Scheme 2018 of the UP Govt., perfume and carpet industry have been selected for Jaunpur district.[11]

Local MediaEdit

Mostly all major English, Hindi and Urdu dailies including Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Dainik Jagran, Amarujala, Hindustan, Rashtreey Sahara, Inquilab, Hausla News available in Jaunpur. Hindi and Urdu dailies also have their bureaus in the city. Almost all major Hindi TV news channel have stringers in the city.a Hindi newspaper Tarunmitra is also published from Jaunpur.

LandmarksEdit

 
Shahi Bridge
Jaunpur Jama Masjid

There are a number of tourist attractions in Jaunpur including monuments, and holy places.

MonumentsEdit

Religious SitesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  2. ^ "View at Juanpore, on the River Ganges". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. IV: 60. June 1847. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  3. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka: The Coins of the Indian Sultanates, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001.
  4. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  5. ^ Goron and Goenka, p. 343.
  6. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/150-jaunpur.html
  7. ^ "Jaunpur City : Census 2011 data".
  8. ^ Cf. "Jaunpur" article in 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, p.282.
  9. ^ "Kutir Post Graduate College". Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  10. ^ "About SIDA".
  11. ^ "Perfume industry of Jaunpur bottomed out, will rise again: Rita Bahuguna". United News of India. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2019.

External linksEdit

  "Jaunpur" . Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.