A District Magistrate, is an officer who is in-charge of a district, the basic unit of administration, in India. They are also known as District Collector or Deputy Commissioner in several Indian states. In general parlance, they are referred to by the abbreviation DM or DC. India has approximately 741 districts.
Warren Hastings introduced the office of the District Collector in the Judicial Plan of 1772 mkb. By the Judicial Plan of 1774 the office of the District Collector was temporarily renamed Diwan. Sir George Campbell, lieutenant-governor of Bengal from 1871-1874, intended "to render the heads of districts no longer the drudges of many departments and masters of none, but in fact the general controlling authority over all departments in each district."
The office of a collector during the British Raj held multiple responsibilities – as collector, he was the head of the revenue organization, charged with registration, alteration, and partition of holdings; the settlement of disputes; the management of indebted estates; loans to agriculturists, and famine relief. As district magistrate, he exercised general supervision over the inferior courts and in particular, directed the police work. The office was meant to achieve the "peculiar purpose" of collecting revenue and of keeping the peace. The superintendent of police (SP), inspector general of jails, the surgeon general, the divisional forest officer (DFO) and the Executive Engineer PWD (EE) had to inform the collector of every activity in their departments.
Until the later part of the nineteenth century, no native was eligible to become a district collector. But with the introduction of open competitive examinations for the Indian Civil Service, the office was opened to natives. Romesh Chandra Dutt, Sripad Babaji Thakur, Anandaram Baruah, Krishna Govinda Gupta and Brajendranath De were the first five Indian ICS officers to become Collectors.
The district continued to be the unit of administration after India gained independence in 1947. The role of the district collector remained largely unchanged, except for the separation of most judicial powers to judicial officers of the district. Later, with the promulgation of the National Extension Services and Community Development Programme by the Nehru government in 1952, the district collector was entrusted with the additional responsibility of implementing the Government of India's development programs in the district.
The different names of the office are a legacy of the varying administration systems in British India. While the powers exercised by the officer were mostly the same throughout the country, the preferred name often reflected his primary role in the particular province. In the Bengal Presidency, the post was called District Magistrate and Collector whereas in the Bombay Presidency and Central Provinces, it was known simply as the District Collector even though he was also the District Magistrate. In the Madras Presidency, it was often known simply as Collector.
Law and order was an important subject in the United Provinces and the post continues to be known as the District Magistrate in present day Uttar Pradesh. In non-regulation provinces like Punjab, Burma, Assam and Oudh, a simpler form of administration prevailed with many elements of the Criminal Procedure Code suspended and the DM functioning as the District and Sessions Judge as well. Here the post was known as Deputy Commissioner, due to these provinces having a Chief Commissioner who took the place of the usual Governor and High Court and exercised both executive and judicial functions.
Post Independence, the Constitution of India separated the Executive from the Judiciary leading to the abolition of the criminal law jurisdiction of the DM. The Code of Criminal Procedure (India), 1973 institutionalized this. Meghalaya was the last state to implement the same in 2020. Nevertheless, the different names have continued even though the role and powers of the DM are almost the same throughout India.
They are posted by the state government, from among the pool of Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officers, who either are on Level 11, Level 12 or Level 13 of the Pay Matrix, in the state. The members of the IAS are either directly recruited by the Union Public Service Commission, promoted from State Civil Service (SCS) or nominated from Non-State Civil Service (Non-SCS). The direct recruits are posted as collectors after five to six years of service, whereas the promoted members from state civil services generally occupy this post after promotion to the IAS, which generally happens after two decades of service. A district magistrate and collector is transferred to and from the post by the state government. The office bearer is generally of the rank of under secretary/deputy secretary or director in Government of India.
Functions and responsibilitiesEdit
The responsibilities assigned to a district magistrate vary from state to state, but generally, district collectors are entrusted with a wide range of duties in the jurisdiction of the district, generally involving the following:
As District Magistrate:
- Conducts criminal court of executive magistrate.
- Maintenance of law and order.
- Co ordinates of the police .
- Supervision of subordinate executive magistracy and conduct magisterial inquiries.
- Hearing cases under the preventive section of the Criminal Procedure Code.
- Supervision of jails and certification of execution of capital sentences.
- Inspection of police stations, prisons and juvenile homes in the district.
- Authorising parole orders to inmates.
- Granting arms and ammunition licence under Arms Act.
- Prepares panel of names for appointment of public prosecutors and additional public prosecutors with consultation with session judge in district.
- Disaster management during natural calamities such as floods, famines or epidemics.
- Crisis management during riots or external aggression.
- Child Labour/bonded labour related matters.
As District Collector
- Conducts revenue court.
- Arbitrator of land acquisition, its assessment and collection of land revenue.
- Collection of income tax dues, excise duties, irrigation dues and its arrears.
- Registration of Property documents, sale deeds, power of attorneys, defacement, share certificates etc.
- Issue various kinds of statutory certificates including SC/ST, OBC & EWC, Domicile, Nationality, Marriage, etc.
- Relief and rehabilitation.
- Custodian of evacuee and migrant property
- Inspection of various district offices, sub divisions and tehsils.
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- "CONSTITUTIONAL SETUP". Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Administration". Muzaffarnagar District. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "GENERAL ADMINISTRATION". Ghaziabad District. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "About Deputy Commissioner & District Magistrate's Office". Dakshin Kannada District. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Power & Functions of Deputy Commissioner". Office of Regional Commissioner, Belagum. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Administration". Agra District website. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
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- Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th Edition). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. ISBN 9788125019886.
- Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd Edition). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. ISBN 978-9339204785.
- Arora, Ramesh K. (2011). Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues. New Delhi: New Age International. ISBN 978-8122434460.