Mahseer (Hindi: महाशीर or महासीर; Urdu: مہاشیر) is the common name used for the genera Tor, Neolissochilus, and Naziritor in the family Cyprinidae (carps). The name is, however, more often restricted to members of the genus Tor. The range of these fish is from Malaysia, Indonesia, and across southern Asia including the Indian Peninsula and Pakistan. They are commercially important game fish, as well as highly esteemed food fish. Mahseer fetch high market price, and are potential candidate species for aquaculture. Several of the larger species have suffered severe declines, and are now considered threatened due to pollution, habitat loss, and overfishing.
Mirza & Javed, 1985
See text for species.
The taxonomy of the mahseers is confusing due to the morphological variations they exhibit. In developing strategies for aquaculture and propagation assisted rehabilitation of mahseer species, resolution of taxonomic ambiguities is needed.
Mahseers inhabit both rivers and lakes, ascending to rapid streams with rocky bottoms for breeding. Like other types of carps, they are omnivorous, eating not only algae, crustaceans, insects, frogs, and other fish, but also fruits that fall from trees overhead.
The first species from this group were scientifically described by Francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1822, and first mentioned as an angling challenge by the Oriental Sporting Magazine in 1833, soon becoming a favorite quarry of British anglers living in India. The golden mahseer is the largest member of the group and one of the largest cyprinids; it has been known to reach 2.75 m (9 ft 0 in) in length and 54 kg (119 lb) in weight, although specimens of this size are rarely seen nowadays. In addition to being caught for sport, mahseer are also part of commercial fishing and ornamental or aquarium fish.
The Hindi name of mahāsir, mahāser, or mahāsaulā is used for a number of fishes of the group. Several sources of the common name mahseer have been suggested: It has been said to be derived from Sanskrit, while others claim it is derived from Indo-Persian, mahi- fish and sher- tiger or "tiger among fish" in Persian. Alternatively, mahā-śalka, meaning large-scaled, is suggested, as the scales are so large that Francis Buchanan mentions that playing cards were made from them at Dacca. Another theory by Henry Sullivan Thomas suggests mahā-āsya: great mouth. The name mahasher is commonly used in Urdu, Punjabi, and Kashmiri languages in Pakistan for this fish and is said to be made up of two local words: maha = big and sher = lion, as it ascends in the hilly rivers and streams of Himalaya courageously. It is also found in Nepal, where it is called sahar. (British anglers in India called them the Indian salmon.)
Sen and Jayaram restrict the term mahseer to members of the genus Tor. However, the few species of genus Neolissochilus and single species of genus Naziritor are also called as mahseer due to their big size scales and some similarities.
The genus Tor includes:
- Tor ater, Roberts, 1999
- Tor barakae, Arunkumar & Basudha, 2003, Barakae mahseer
- Tor douronensis, Valenciennes, 1842, Semah mahseer or river carp
- Tor hemispinus, Chen & Chu, 1985
- Tor kulkarnii, Menon, 1992, dwarf mahseer, uncertain as only one specimen found till now
- Tor khudree, Sykes, 1839, black mahseer, Deccan mahseer
- Tor laterivittatus, Zhou & Cui, 1996
- Tor macrolepis, Heckel, 1838, uncertain species
- Tor malabaricus, Jerdon, 1849, Malabar mahseer
- Tor mussullah, Sykes, 1839, humpback mahseer
- Tor polylepis, Zhou & Cui, 1996
- Tor progeneius, McClelland, 1839, Jungha mahseer
- Tor putitora, Hamilton, 1822, Himalayan mahseer or golden mahseer
- Tor qiaojiensis, Wu, 1977
- Tor remadevii, Madhusoodana Kurup & Radhakrishnan, 2011
- Tor sinensis, Wu, 1977, Chinese mahseer
- Tor soro, Valenciennes, 1842
- Tor tambra, Valenciennes, 1842
- Tor tambroides, Bleeker, 1854, Malayan mahsheer
- Tor tor, Hamilton, 1822, red-finned mahseer, short-gilled mahseer, or deep-bodied mahseer
- Tor yingjiangensis, Chen & Yang, 2004
- Tor yunnanensis, (Wang, Zhuang & Gao, 1982)
The genus Neolissochilus includes:
- Neolissochilus baoshanensis, (Chen & Yang, 1999)
- Neolissochilus benasi, (Pellegrin & Chevey, 1936)
- Neolissochilus blythii, (Day, 1870)
- Neolissochilus compressus, (Day, 1870)
- Neolissochilus dukai, (Day, 1878)
- Neolissochilus hendersoni, (Herre, 1940)
- Neolissochilus heterostomus, (Chen & Yang, 1999)
- Neolissochilus hexagonolepsis, (McClelland, 1839), chocolate mahseer
- Neolissochilus hexastichus, (McClelland, 1839), brown mahseer
- Neolissochilus longipinnis, (Weber & de Beaufort, 1916)
- Neolissochilus namlenensis, (Nguyen & Doan, 1969)
- Neolissochilus nigrovittatus, (Boulenger, 1893)
- Neolissochilus paucisquamatus, (Smith, 1945)
- Neolissochilus soroides, (Duncker, 1904)
- Neolissochilus spinulosus, (McClelland, 1845)
- Neolissochilus stevensonii, (Day, 1870)
- Neolissochilus stracheyi, (Day, 1871)
- Neolissochilus subterraneus, Vidthayanon & Kottelat, 2003
- Neolissochilus sumatranus, (Weber & de Beaufort, 1916)
- Neolissochilus theinemanni, (Ahl, 1933)
- Neolissochilus tweediei, (Herre & Myers, 1937)
- Neolissochilus vittatus, (Smith, 1945)
The genus Naziritor includes:
- Naziritor zhobensis, Mirza, 1967, Balochi mahseer
Mahseer was an important symbol in the heraldry of certain Muslim-ruled former princely states of the Subcontinent such as Baoni, Bhopal, Kurwai and Rampur. Dost Mohammad Khan's son Yar Mohammad received from Nizam-ul-Mulk the insignia of the Maha Muratib (the dignity of the Fish). The insignia became part of the Bhopal State's coat of arms.
The Mahseer fish as an emblem of the highest honour in royalty is allegedly from Persian origin and was adopted by the courts of Oudh and the Paigah nobles of Hyderabad State, being later passed down to other states of the area. It also represents the National Fish of Pakistan (unofficial).
Current problems in Himachal PradeshEdit
In Himachal Pradesh, golden mahseer is depleting at a fast rate from the state even though it was categorised as an endangered species by the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources as early as 1992.
The factors leading to this situation are mainly distortion of rivers due to the construction of river valley projects, multipurpose dams, shrinking habitat, poaching, and exploitation.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). Species of Tor in FishBase. April 2008 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). Species of Neolissochilus in FishBase. April 2008 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). Species of Naziritor in FishBase. April 2008 version.
- Sen TK, Jayaram KC, 1982. The Mahseer Fish of India – a Review. Rec. Zoological Survey of India. Misc. Publ. Occasional Paper 39, 38p.
- Menon AGK, 1992. Taxonomy of mahseer fishes of the genus Tor Gray with description of a new species from the Deccan. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 89 (2):210–228
- Roberts TR (1999). "Fishes of the cyprinid genus Tor in the Nam Theun watershed, Mekong Basin of Laos, with description of a new species" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 47 (1): 225–236.
- Jha, B.R. & Rayamajhi, A. (2010). "Tor putitora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Ogale, S.N. 2002 Mahseer breeding and conservation and possibilities of commercial culture. The Indian experience. In T. Petr and D.B. Swar (eds.) Cold Water Fisheries in the Trans-Himalayan Countries. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 431.
- Mohindra, V.; Khare, Praveen; Lal, K. K.; Punia, P.; Singh, R. K.; Barman, A. S. & Lakra, W. S. (2007). "Molecular discrimination of five Mahseer species from Indian peninsula using RAPD analysis". Acta Zoologica Sinica. 53 (4): 725–732.
- Cordington, K. De. B. 1939. Notes on Indian Mahseer. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 46: 336–334
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Tor putitora" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
- Yule, Henry, Sir. Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Tor in FishBase. November 2012 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Neolissochilus in FishBase. November 2012 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Naziritor in FishBase. November 2012 version.
- William Hough (1845). A brief history of the Bhopal principality in Central India. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. pp. 1–4. OCLC 16902742.
- Saad Bin Jung, Subhan and I: My Adventures with the Angling Legend of India. Roli Books, New Delhi 2012
- Nautiyal, Prakash, ed. 1994. Mahseer: The Game Fish. Natural History, Status and Conservation Practices in India and Nepal. Rachna.
- Silas, E. G., Gopalakrishnan, A., John, L., and Shaji, C. P.. 2005. Genetic identity of Tor malabaricus (Jerdon) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) as revealed by RAPD markers. Indian journal of fish. 52(2): 125–140.
- Rainboth, W. J. 1985. Neolissochilus, a new group of South Asia Cyprinid fishes. Beaufortia. 35(3): 25–35.
- Mirza, M. R., and Javed, M. N. 1985. A note on Mahseer of Pakistan with the description of Naziritor, a new subgenus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 17: 225–227.
- Arunkumar; & Ch. Basudha. 2003. Tor barakae, a new species of mahseer fish (Cyprinidae: Cyprininae) from Manipur, India. Aquacult. 4(2): 271–276.
- Ambak, M.A., Ashraf, A.H. and Budin, S. 2007. Conservation of the Malaysian Mahseer in Nenggiri Basin through Community Action. In: Mahseer, The Biology, Culture and Conservation. Malaysian Fisheries Society Occasional Publication No.14, Kuala Lumpur 2007:217–228
- National Agricultural Technology Project, 2004. Germplasm inventory, evaluation and gene banking of freshwater fishes. World Bank funded Project MM, No: 27/28/98/NATP/MM-III, 18-32p. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow India.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mahseer.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Mahaseer.|