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Etawah is a city on the banks of Yamuna River in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Etawah District. The city was an important center for the Revolt of 1857 (Allan Octavian Hume, the founder of Indian National Congress was district collector then). Also is the place of sangam or confluence between Yamuna and Chambal. It is also the site of the remains of the Great Hedge of India. The noted Hindi writer Gulabrai was a native of Etawah.

Etawah
इटावा
Ishtikapuri
city
Etawah Wildlife Safari Gate; University of Medical Sciences; Etawah Exhibition; Sumer Singh Fort; Baba the Mall
Etawah Wildlife Safari Gate; University of Medical Sciences; Etawah Exhibition; Sumer Singh Fort; Baba the Mall
Etawah is located in Uttar Pradesh
Etawah
Etawah
Coordinates: 26°46′N 79°02′E / 26.77°N 79.03°E / 26.77; 79.03Coordinates: 26°46′N 79°02′E / 26.77°N 79.03°E / 26.77; 79.03
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Etawah
Government
 • MLA (Etawah constituency) Sarita Bhadauria (Bharatiya Janata Party)
Elevation 197 m (646 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 256,838 [1]
 • Rank 180th
 • Density 684/km2 (1,770/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Etawian
Languages
 • Official Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 2060xx
Telephone code 05688
Vehicle registration UP75
Coastline 0 kilometres (0 mi)
Sex ratio 896/1000 /
Literacy 81.75%
Website www.etawah.nic.in

Contents

DemographicsEdit

As per 2011 census, Etawah city had a population of 257,838 - an increase of 22% from 211,460 in 2001 census. (The entire Etawah district had a population of 1,581,810 in 2011.) The literacy rate was 82.89 per cent. Hinduism is majority religion in Etawah city with 74.64% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Etawah with approximately 23.61% following it. In Etawah city, Christianity is followed by 0.19%, Jainism by 1.05%, Sikhism by 0.24% and Buddhism by 0.24%. Around 0.01% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.19% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[2]

HistoryEdit

Ancient eraEdit

 
An engraving of ruins at Etawah, in the first half of the 19th century AD.

This region is believed to have existed even in the Bronze Age.The earliest Aryans who lived here were the Panchalas.They are said to have had close connections with Kurus.

Tradition holds the history of the town started with its foundation by a successor of King Bharat. The region also finds mention in the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics.

The Guptas, Kanvas, Kanishka, Naga kings ruled over this area. In the fourth century A.D., it was part of united India under the Guptas.

During the ninth and tenth centuries, this region was governed by Gurjara Pratihara rulers. The conquest of Kannauj by Nagabhata II handed Pratiharas control over this region. During the reign of Gurjara Pratihara monarch Mihir Bhoj, the region is mentioned as prosperous, safe from thieves and rich in natural resources.[3]

In 1244, Ghiyas ud din Balban attacked the region.[4]

Revolt of 1857Edit

During the First War of Independence in 1857, major disturbances occurred in Etawah and the district was occupied by the freedom fighters from June to December. British rule was not completely restored till the end of 1858.

Modern history and economyEdit

Etawah has experienced modernization and development under British Raj and in the post-independence period.

The district is partly watered by branches of the Ganges canal.

It is traversed by the main line of the Indian railway (northern zone) from Delhi to Howrah (Calcutta).

Cotton, oilseeds, ghee and other agricultural produce are grown and exported. Special breed of goat Jamunapaari and special breed of buffalo Bhadawari are raised and exported.

The region has a 652 MW natural gas-based power generation plant. However it lacks manufacturing industries.

Etawah was known for its handloom products; most of them are converted into powerlooms thanks to the advent of better technology. 'Etawah' is derived from the burner of bricks (where bricks are made); it has thousands of brick centre between its boundaries.

Religions in Etawah
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
74.64 %
Muslims
  
23.61%
Jains
  
1.05%
Not Stated
  
0.19%
Others†
  
0.50%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.24%), Christians (0.07%), Buddhists (0.10%).

Notable peopleEdit

TransportEdit

AirEdit

City is served by Saifai Domestic Airport, which is around 15 km from city center.The airport has only unscheduled chartered flights. Nearest International Airport is Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport located at a distance of around 220 km.

RailEdit

Mainpuri-Etawah Branch Railway Line
Towards Farrukhabad on Kasganj-Kanpur route
Mainpuri
Towards Shikohabad on Tundla-Etawah-Kanpur route
Keerath Pur
Karhal
Vaidhpura
Etawah

Etawah railway station lies on Kanpur-Delhi section of Howrah-Delhi main line. Shatabdi Express and many other superfast trains have a scheduled halt in Etawah.

Also CNB Shatabdi halts at etawah.

Now it is connected to Bhind district of Madhya Pradesh by train. The distance between bhind and etawah is 35.6 km.

RoadEdit

Etawah is well-connected by roads with the rest of Uttar Pradesh state. National Highway 19 passes through Etawah, connecting it to important cities like Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mughalsarai, Dhanbad and Kolkata. There are three big cities namely Gwalior, Agra and Kanpur, are nearby to Etawah with well connected roads.

Within the city, auto-rickshaw and cycle rickshaw are the major form of transport. Bus services run at high frequencies.

EducationEdit

UniversityEdit

Schools and collegesEdit

Places of interestEdit

Lion SafariEdit

The uniqueness of this safari lies in the fact that while at other such places the animals remain caged and the tourists move freely in the area. Similarly in Etawah Lion Safari, people will move in caged paths while the lions and other animals are seen moving freely in the jungle. The Lion Safari, which is mainly being developed to provide alternate home to Asiatic lions, which are now limited only to Gir Forests in Gujarat will also feature a Lion Breeding Centre.

National Chambal SanctuaryEdit

Spread over the Agra and Etawah districts, and a total of 290 different species of migratory and resident birds have been identified in the region so far. Winter is the best time to visit the sanctuary. A boat ride in its tranquil waters during this time is an exhilarating experience with spectacular sightings of the big reptiles basking along the 180 km sparkling sand stretches in the morning sun. but the main draw of the santuray are the flamingoes that arrive here in November and stay till May. The Rudy Shelduck also arrives a little earlier in September & stays here till May. The Indian Skimmers have huge colonies in the sanctuary and breed prolifically here.

Sarsai NawarEdit

Sarsai Nawar is a Small wetland, en route to Saman Wildlife Sanctuary, in Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh. It comprises two small lakes that attract Sarus Cranes, White Ibis and other water birds in large numbers. It has a large population of the threatened species of Sarus Cranes, the world's tallest flying birds. Ten Sarus Crane pairs breed here regularly, which is more than twice the number of breeding pairs in the bird sanctuary of Bharatpur in Rajasthan. In winters, almost more than 40,000 migratory birds from northern arcvisit Sarsai Nawar wetland.

Agra-Etawah Cycle HighwayEdit

Uttar Pradesh now has Asia's first cycle highway. A first-of-its-kind project, the 207-km-long cycle highway runs between Etawah and Agra and was declared open on Saturday, 27 November 2016. The track begins from the lion safari in Etawah. On its way to Agra are tourist destinations like Naugava ka Quila, Raja Bhoj ki Haveli, and Bateshwarnath Temple. It ends at the eastern gate of the Taj Mahal in Agra

(Sarsai Nawar)

ReferencesEdit

  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External linksEdit