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Confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers to produce the Ganges at Devprayag, India
The same confluence viewed from upstream at a different time; note the swirl of sediment from the Alaknanda.

In geography, a confluence (also: conflux) occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel.[1] A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main stem); or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name (such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio); or where two separated channels of a river (forming a river island) rejoin at the downstream end.

Contents

Scientific study of confluencesEdit

Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion, bars, and scour pools.[2] The water flows and their consequences are often studied with mathematical models.[3] Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms (i.e., ecology) as well; "the general pattern [downstream of confluences] of increasing stream flow and decreasing slopes drives a corresponding shift in habitat characteristics."[4]

Another science relevant to the study of confluences is chemistry, because sometimes the mixing of the waters of two streams triggers a chemical reaction, particularly in a polluted stream. The United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water; these reactions happen very rapidly and influence the subsequent transport of metals downstream of the mixing zone."[5]

A natural phenomenon at confluences that is obvious even to casual observers is a difference in color between the two streams; see images in this article for several examples. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals, sediments and biologic content -- usually algae." Lynch also notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they finally blend completely.[6]

Confluences and humankindEdit

 
The fountain at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, at the apex of the confluence of the Allegheny (top) and the Monongahela

Since rivers often serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below.

A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, and Khartoum, arose at confluences; further examples appear in the list. Within a city, a confluence often forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz, Lyon, and Winnipeg. Cities also often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Philadelphia or Mannheim. Often a confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.

One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were often sacred, especially sources and confluences.[7] Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites.[8] In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers often is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing.[9] In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred.[10]

Notable confluencesEdit

 
The White Nile and Blue Nile merge at Khartoum; satellite view

AfricaEdit

AsiaEdit

 
The Nam Khan flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos
 
The confluence of the Jialing and the Yangtze in Chongqing. The Yangtze flows left to right across the bottom of the image.
  • The Jialing flows into the Yangtze at Chongqing in China. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built 1998.[14] Visitors to the square behold a vast panorama of ships, bridges, skyscrapers, and people.[15]
  • In the Far East, the Amur forms the international boundary between China and Russia. The Ussuri, which also demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and Khabarovsk in Russia. The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built; it features an enormous sculpture representing the Chinese character for "East".[16] The Amur-Ussuri border region was the location of the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969; the borderline near the confluence was settled peacefully by treaty in 2008.[17]

AustraliaEdit

 
The Seine becomes a single channel at the west end of the Île de la Cité in Paris. The Pont Neuf can be seen.

EuropeEdit

Seine

  • The Seine divides in the historical center of Paris, flowing around two river islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. At the downstream confluence, where the river becomes a single channel again, the Île de la Cité is crossed by the famous Pont Neuf, adjacent to an equestrian statue of King Henri IV and the historically more recent Vert Galant park. The site has repeatedly been portrayed by artists including Monet,[18] Renoir,[19] and Pissarro.[20]
  • Further upstream, the Marne empties into the Seine at Charenton-le-Pont, just southeast of the Paris city limits. The site is dominated by the Huatian Chinagora, a four-star hotel under Chinese management. See Gallery for image.
 
The Mosel flows into the Rhine at Koblenz.

Rhine

  • The Rhine carries much river traffic, and major inland ports are found at its confluence with the Ruhr at Duisburg (see Gallery below), and with the Neckar at Mannheim; see Mannheim Harbour.
  • The Main flows into the Rhine just south of Mainz (see Gallery for image).
  • The Mosel flows into the Rhine further north at Koblenz. The name "Koblenz" itself has its origin in the Latin name "Confluentes". In German, this confluence is known as the "Deutsches Eck" ("German corner") and is the site of an imposing monument to German unification featuring an equestrian statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I.
  • Upstream in Switzerland, a small town also named Koblenz (for the same reason) is where the Aare joins the Rhine.

Danube basin

 
The triple confluence in Passau; from left to right, the Inn, the Danube, and the Ilz.
  • Passau, Germany, sometimes called the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), is the site of a triple confluence, described thus in a guidebook: "from the north the little Ilz sluices brackish water down from the peat-rich Bavarian Forest, meeting the cloudy brown of the Danube as it flows from the west and the pale snow-melt jade of the Inn from the south [i.e., the Alps] to create a murky tricolour."[21]
  • The Thaya flows into the Morava in a rural location near Hohenau an der March in Austria, forming the tripoint of Austria, Czechia, and Slovakia.
  • The Morava flows into the Danube at Devín, on the border between Slovakia and Austria (see Gallery below for image).
  • The Sava flows into the Danube at Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
  • In karst topography, which arises in soluble rock, rivers sometimes flow underground and form subterranean confluences, as at Planina Cave in Slovenia, where the Pivka and Rak merge to form the Unica.[22]

Other

North AmericaEdit

 
The confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela at Pittsburgh, forming the Ohio
 
The Ohio flows into the Mississippi at Cairo.
 
The Rideau Falls in Ottawa, where the Rideau River tumbles into Ottawa River at its mouth.

Mississippi basin

Atlantic watersheds

Pacific watersheds

 
The confluence of the Rio Negro (black) and the Rio Solimões (turbid) near Manaus, Brazil.

South AmericaEdit

Confluences not of two riversEdit

 
Confluence of canals
This simplified diagram shows how a section of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans also serves as the channel for the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal. At the bottom, a portion of the Intracoastal is also shown to be "confluent" with the Mississippi River.

Occasionally "confluence" is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals[23] or a canal and a lake.[24] A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there.

The term confluence also applies to the merger of the flow of two glaciers.[25] For sample image, see Gallery below.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Conflux - Definition of conflux by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com. 
  2. ^ A widely cited work is James L. Best (1986) The morphology of river channel confluences. Progress in Physical Geography 10:157-174. For work citing Best, see [1].
  3. ^ A recent contribution with review of earlier work is Laurent Schindfessel, Stéphan Creëlle and Tom De Mulder (2015) "Flow patterns in an open channel confluence with increasingly dominant tributary inflow," Water 7: 4724-4751; available on line.
  4. ^ Quoted from Beechie et al. (2012), who cite earlier work. Tim Beechie, John S. Richardson, Angela M. Gurnell, and Junjiro Negishi (2012) "Watershed processes, human impacts, and process-based restoration." In Philip Roni and Tim Beechie (eds.) (2012) Stream and Watershed Restoration: A Guide to Restoring Riverine Processes and Habitats, John Wiley & Sons. Excerpts available on line at Google Books.
  5. ^ U.S. Geological Survey, "How do contaminants mix at the confluence of two streams?", on line at [2].
  6. ^ David Lynch (2014) "The Confluence of Rivers"; Earth Science Picture of the Day, at [3].
  7. ^ Rogers, Adam (2011) Late Roman Towns in Britain: Rethinking Change and Decline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 42. Excerpts available on line at Google Books.
  8. ^ Gasparini, Evel (n.d.) "Slavic religion", in Encyclopedia Brittanica, on line edition: [4]
  9. ^ Source: Letizia (2017), who writes, "as rivers are considered holy entities, at the meeting of two streams the 'sacredness' of the first river add to that of the second one. The confluence seems to have a sort of 'additive fame' ... because it gives pilgrims the chance to bathe in two rivers at the same time."
  10. ^ Ann Rodgers, "So how did the Point get on a Mayan calendar?", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 2008. On line at [5].
  11. ^ See reporting in the New York Times ([6]) and The Atlantic ([7]).
  12. ^ The incorporation of invisible rivers into confluences elsewhere in the subcontinent is documented by Letizia (2017).
  13. ^ See New Straits Times, August 28, 2017, 'Najib launches River of Life, Blue Pool projects", at [8].
  14. ^ http://www.topchinatravel.com/china-attractions/chaotianmen-square.htm
  15. ^ See pictorial coverage at Google Maps: [9]
  16. ^ See Bruno Maçães, "Signs and Symbols on the Sino-Russian Border", published in The Diplomat. On line at [10].
  17. ^ See [11].
  18. ^ See [12] for image.
  19. ^ See [13].
  20. ^ See [14].
  21. ^ See Andrea Schulte-Peevers, Kerry Christiani, Marc Di Duca, Catherine Le Nevez, Tom Masters, Ryan Ver Berkmoes, and Benedict Walker (2016) Lonely Planet Germany, Lonely Planet Publishing. Excepts posted on line at Google Books: [15]
  22. ^ Kogovšek, Janja; Petrič, Metka; Zupan Hajna, Nadja; Pipan, Tanja. "Planinska jama" [Planina Cave]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja; Golež, Gregor; Podjed, Dan; Kladnik, Drago; Erhartič, Bojan; Pavlin, Primož; Ines, Jerele. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem [Encyclopedia of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  23. ^ The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refers to the confluence of the Assawoman Canal with the Bethany Loop Canal in Delaware. See: "CENAP-OP-R-Quarterly Report, 2004-05-12". Philadelphia Engineer District. Retrieved 2006-03-11. 
  24. ^ Engineers in New Orleans refer to the confluence of the 17th Street Canal and Lake Pontchartrain. See: "Interim Closure Structure at 17th St. Canal". Task Force Guardian. Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-03-11. 
  25. ^ Vladimir Kotlyakov and Anna Komarova (2006) Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German. Elsevier. Passage cited may be accessed on Google Books.
  26. ^ See [16],

ReferencesEdit

  • Letizia, Chiara (2017) "The Sacred Confluence, between Nature and Culture," in Marie Lecomte-Tilouine (ed.) Nature, Culture and Religion at the Crossroads of Asia. Routledge. Extracts available on line at Google Books.

External linksEdit

  • [17] A collection of full-size, vivid photographs of confluences, most of them mentioned in the list above.