Confluence(Redirected from Confluence (geography))
In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. Also known as a conflux, it refers either to the point where a tributary joins a larger river, (main stem), or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name, such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania creating the Ohio River.
River confluences often reveal differences in color between the two streams, arising from the sediments they carry. Such color differences, which persist for some distance downstream, can be seen in several of the images for this article.
Since rivers often serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as Lyon, Khartoum, and St. Louis, arose at confluences; further examples appear in the list.
- At Lokoja, Nigeria, the Benue River flows into the Niger.
- The Sudanese capital of Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile. This merging point is the beginning of the Nile.
- 82 km north of Basra in Iraq, at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates forming the Shatt al-Arab.
- The River Swat empties into the River Kabul near Attock, in Pakistan.
- At Devprayag in India, the Ganges River originates at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda.
- The Sangam, near Allahabad, India, where the Yamuna flows into the Ganges.
- Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is where the Gombak River (previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means "muddy river") flows into the Klang River.
- The Nam Khan River flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos.
- The two largest rivers in Australia, the Murray and its tributary the Darling, converge at Wentworth, New South Wales
- The Franklin flows into the Gordon in south-western Tasmania.
- The Main River flows into the Rhine just south of Mainz, in Germany.
- The Mosel flows into the Rhine further north at Koblenz. The name "Koblenz" itself has its origin in the Latin name "Confluentes".
- Passau known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of the Bavarian Forest to the North.
- The Thaya flows into the Morava in a rural location near Hohenau an der March in Austria, forming the tripoint of Austria, Czechia, and Slovakia.
- The Morava flows into the Danube at Devín, on the border between Slovakia and Austria.
- Osijek, Croatia, is on the right bank of the river Drava 25 km upstream of its confluence with the Danube.
- The Sava flows into the Danube at Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
- The confluence of the rivers Pivka and Rak is one of the largest subterranean confluences in Europe.
- The Marne empties into the Seine at Charenton-le-Pont, just southeast of Paris.
- Lyon, France lies where the Saône flows into the Rhone.
- Triangle of Three Emperors, former tripoint in Europe. The empires that abutted (in the decades before World War I) were the Austrian, German, and Russian.
- Rovaniemi, the capital of Finnish Lapland and one of the largest towns above the Arctic Circle, is at the confluence of rivers Ounasjoki and Kemijoki.
- Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine is located (and named after) on the confluence of the Saksahan and Inhulets River.
- The Oka flows into the Volga at Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
- St. Louis, Missouri, is built just south of where the Missouri River flows into the Mississippi River. Slightly further upstream, the Illinois River flows into the Mississippi.
- The Madison, Jefferson and Gallatin Rivers in Three Forks, Montana form the confluence of the Missouri River.
- At Keokuk, Iowa, the Des Moines River flows into the Mississippi. This forms the political tripoint between the U.S. states of Iowa, Missouri, and Illinois.
- At Cairo, Illinois, the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi, forming the tripoint between the states of Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky.
- The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- At Columbus, Ohio, the Olentangy flows into the Scioto.
- At Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Schuylkill River flows into the Delaware River.
- At Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, the Shenandoah River flows into the Potomac River, at the tripoint of the U.S. states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland.
- The Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located where the Ottawa River flows into the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada.
- Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River, and the Assiniboine River. The area is referred to as The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over 6000 years.
- The Green River flows into the Colorado River at the heart of Canyonlands National Park in Utah's Canyon Country.
- The Snake River flows into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities of Washington.
- At Portland, Oregon, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia.
- Lytton, British Columbia, Canada, is located at the confluence of the muddy Fraser River and the clearer Thompson River.
- Manaus, Brazil is on the Rio Negro near its confluence with the Amazon (see Meeting of Waters). It is the chief port and a hub for the region's extensive river system.
- The Iguazú flows into the Paraná at the "Triple Frontier" (Spanish: La Triple Frontera, Portuguese: Tríplice Fronteira), the tripoint for Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil.
Confluences not of two riversEdit
Occasionally "confluence" is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals or a canal and a lake. A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Confluences.|
-  A collection of full-size, vivid photographs of confluences, most of them mentioned in the list above.
- "Conflux - Definition of conflux by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com.
- Kogovšek, Janja; Petrič, Metka; Zupan Hajna, Nadja; Pipan, Tanja. "Planinska jama" [Planina Cave]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja; Golež, Gregor; Podjed, Dan; Kladnik, Drago; Erhartič, Bojan; Pavlin, Primož; Ines, Jerele. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem [Encyclopedia of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Slovenia] (in Slovenian). Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refers to the confluence of the Assawoman Canal with the Bethany Loop Canal in Delaware. See: "CENAP-OP-R-Quarterly Report, 2004-05-12". Philadelphia Engineer District. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- Engineers in New Orleans refer to the confluence of the 17th Street Canal and Lake Pontchartrain. See: "Interim Closure Structure at 17th St. Canal". Task Force Guardian. Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-03-11.