Ottawa River

The Ottawa River (French: Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: Kitchissippi) is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It is named in honour of the Algonquin word 'to trade', as it was the major trade route of Eastern Canada at the time. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces. It is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River and the longest river in Quebec.

Ottawa River
Rivière des Outaouais  (French)
Kitchissippi  (Algonquin)
Ottawa-River.JPG
The Ottawa River in autumn
Ottawarivermap.png
Location
CountryCanada
ProvincesQuebec, Ontario
Physical characteristics
SourceLac des Outaouais
 • locationLac-Moselle, La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau RCM, Outaouais, Quebec, Canada
 • coordinates47°38′38″N 75°38′35″W / 47.64389°N 75.64306°W / 47.64389; -75.64306
MouthSt. Lawrence River
 • location
Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
 • coordinates
45°27′N 74°05′W / 45.450°N 74.083°W / 45.450; -74.083Coordinates: 45°27′N 74°05′W / 45.450°N 74.083°W / 45.450; -74.083
Length1,271 km (790 mi)[1]
Basin size146,300 km2 (56,500 sq mi)[1]
Discharge 
 • locationCarillon dam
 • average1,950 m3/s (69,000 cu ft/s)[1]
 • minimum749 m3/s (26,500 cu ft/s)
 • maximum5,351 m3/s (189,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
ProgressionSaint Lawrence RiverGulf of Saint Lawrence
River systemSaint Lawrence River drainage basin

GeographyEdit

 
In this false-colour satellite image, the Ottawa River flows southeast, joining the St. Lawrence River which flows northeast. Heavily forested areas appear differing shades of orange/red, while farmland is tan shades.

The river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, and flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario. The river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places.

From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers.

The Ottawa River drains into the Lake of Two Mountains and the St. Lawrence River at Montreal. The river is 1,271 kilometres (790 mi) long; it drains an area of 146,300 square kilometres (56,500 sq mi), 65 percent in Quebec and the rest in Ontario, with a mean discharge of 1,950 cubic metres per second (69,000 cu ft/s).[1]

The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second (68,500 cu ft/s), with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second (26,500 to 189,000 cu ft/s). Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 467 cubic metres per second (16,500 cu ft/s) in 2010 and a high of 9,094 cubic metres per second (321,200 cu ft/s) in 2017.[2]

The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age.[3] Generally, the coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate. The deciduous forests, dominated by birch, maple, beech, oak and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil, generally around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park.[4][5] These primeval forests were occasionally affected by natural fire, mostly started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species.[6] The vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers.[7] Later generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests.[8] Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion.[9] Consequently, nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, and hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.[10]

The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include (going downstream from Pembroke), the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands[11] and Greens Creek.[12][13] The Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its relatively pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, and the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level.[14] High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps,[15] while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats.[16] There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp, mostly silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis, Sparganium and Typha.[17] Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, and mostly south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, and no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Mer Bleue and Alfred Bog.[12]

Major tributaries include:

 
Ottawa River (view from the Peace Tower of Parliament Centre Block)
 
Ottawa River (view from the Peace Tower of Parliament Centre Block)

Communities along the Ottawa River include (in down-stream order):

IslandsEdit

OntarioEdit

QuebecEdit

GeologyEdit

 
Ottawa River Stromatolite Bed, near the Champlain Bridge (Ottawa), with the Ottawa skyline in the background[238]

The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, which is a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits.[239]

As the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, which, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water.[240] The resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region. Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains, often dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay.[239] Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, and peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is very much a product of these past glacial events.[5]

Large deposits of a material commonly known as Leda clay also formed. These deposits become highly unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result. The former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had previously been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location.

As the land gradually rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River. Owing to the ongoing uplift of the land, the eastward flow became blocked around 4000 years ago. Thereafter Lake Nipissing drained westward, through the French River which later became a link in the historic canoe route to the West.[241]

HistoryEdit

As it does to this day, the river played a vital role in life of the Algonquin people, who lived throughout its watershed at contact. The river is called Kichisìpi, meaning "Great River" in Anicinàbemowin, the Algonquin language. The Algonquin define themselves in terms of their position on the river, referring to themselves as the Omàmiwinini, 'down-river people'. Although a majority of the Algonquin First Nation lives in Quebec, the entire Ottawa Valley is Algonquin traditional territory. Present settlement is a result of adaptations made as a result of settler pressures.[242]

 
A railway bridge over the Ottawa River in Mattawa, Ontario.

Some early European explorers, possibly considering the Ottawa River to be more significant than the Upper St. Lawrence River, applied the name River Canada to the Ottawa River and the St. Lawrence River below the confluence at Montreal. As the extent of the Great Lakes became clear and the river began to be regarded as a tributary, it was variously known as the Grand River, "Great River" or Grand River of the Algonquins before the present name was settled upon. This name change resulted from the Ottawa peoples' control of the river circa 1685. However, only one band of Ottawa, the Kinouncherpirini or Keinouch, ever inhabited the Ottawa Valley.

In 1615, Samuel de Champlain and Étienne Brûlé, assisted by Algonquin guides, were the first Europeans to travel up the Ottawa River and follow the water route west along the Mattawa and French Rivers to the Great Lakes. See Canadian Canoe Routes (early). For the following two centuries, this route was used by French fur traders, voyageurs and coureurs des bois to Canada's interior. The river posed serious hazards to these travellers. The section near Deux Rivières used to have spectacular and wild rapids, namely the Rapide de la Veillée, the Trou, the Rapide des Deux Rivières, and the Rapide de la Roche Capitaine. In 1800, explorer Daniel Harmon reported 14 crosses marking the deaths of voyageurs who had drowned in the dangerous waters along this section of the Ottawa.[243]

The main trading posts along the river were: Lachine, Fort Coulonge, Lac des Allumettes, Mattawa House, where west-bound canoes left the river and Fort Témiscamingue. From Lake Timiskaming a portage led north to the Abitibi River and James Bay.

In the early 19th century, the Ottawa River and its tributaries were used to gain access to large virgin forests of white pine. A booming trade in timber developed, and large rafts of logs were floated down the river. A scattering of small subsistence farming communities developed along the shores of the river to provide manpower for the lumber camps in winter. In 1832, following the War of 1812, the Ottawa River gained strategic importance when the Carillon Canal was completed. Together with the Rideau Canal, the Carillon Canal was constructed to provide an alternate military supply route to Kingston and Lake Ontario, bypassing the route along the Saint Lawrence River.[244]

 
1907 Canadian major internal and cross border shipping routes, including the proposed Georgian Bay Ship Canal.

In 1907, the Department of Public Works published a map proposing a shipping lane through the Georgian Bay Ship Canal route, which would connect Georgian Bay to the Ottawa River through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.

Power generationEdit

A pulp and paper mill (at Témiscaming) and several hydroelectric dams have been constructed on the river. In 1950, the dam at Rapides-des-Joachims, was built, forming Holden Lake behind it and thereby submerging the rapids and portages at Deux Rivières.[243] These hydro dams have had negative effects upon shoreline and wetland ecosystems,[245] and are thought to also be responsible for the near extermination of American eels, which were once an abundant species in the river, but which are now uncommon.[246] As an economic route, its importance was eclipsed by railroad and highways in the 20th century. It is no longer used for log driving, however, it is still extensively used for recreational boating. Some 20,000 pleasure boaters visit the Carillon Canal annually.[244]

Today, Outaouais Herald Emeritus at the Canadian Heraldic Authority is named after the river.

Hydroelectric installationsEdit

Hydroelectric installations on the Upper Ottawa (in downstream order):

Installation Type Generating cap. Year built Name of reservoir Operator
Bourque Dam Dam n/a 1949 Dozois Reservoir Hydro-Québec
Rapide-7 Generating station 48 MW 1941 / 1949 Decelles Lake Hydro-Québec
Rapide-2 Run of river g.s. 48 MW 1954 n/a Hydro-Québec
Rapides-des-Quinze Run of river g.s. 95 MW 1923 n/a Hydro-Québec
Rapides-des-Îles Run of river g.s. 147 MW 1966 n/a Hydro-Québec
Première-Chute Run of river g.s. 130 MW 1968 n/a Hydro-Québec

Lower Ottawa (in downstream order):

Installation Type Generating cap. Year built Name of reservoir Operator
Otto Holden Run of river g.s. 243 MW 1952 n/a Ontario Power Generation
Des Joachims Run of river g.s. 429 MW 1950 Holden Lake Ontario Power Generation
Bryson Run of river g.s. 61 MW 1925 n/a Hydro-Québec
Chenaux Run of river g.s. 144 MW 1950 n/a Ontario Power Generation
Chute-des-Chats (Chats Falls) Run of river g.s. 185 MW 1931 Lac des Chats Hydro-Québec and OPG *
Hull-2 Run of river g.s. 27 MW 1920 n/a Hydro-Québec
Carillon Run of river g.s. 752 MW 1962 n/a Hydro-Québec

* Ontario Power Generation operates generators 2, 3, 4, and 5 with a capacity of 96 MW; and Hydro-Québec operates generators 6, 7, 8, and 9 with a capacity of 89 MW.

Ottawa River overlooking Parliament hill to the left and the Canadian Museum of History to the right

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Facts about Canada: Rivers". Natural Resources Canada/Atlas of Canada. Archived from the original on 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  2. ^ "Monthly and Annual Mean Water Levels in Metres From 1950, Ottawa River at Carillon". Ottawa River Regulation Planning Board. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  3. ^ Anderson, T.W. 1989. Vegetation changes over 12000 years. Geos (3) 39-47.
  4. ^ Braun, E.L. 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia, PA.
  5. ^ a b Keddy, P.A. 2008. Earth, Water, Fire. An Ecological Profile of Lanark County. General Store Publishing House, Renfrew, Ontario. (revised from first edition 1999).
  6. ^ Catling, P. and V. Brownell. 1999. Pages 392-405 in the book Anderson, R.C., J.S. Fralish and J.M. Baskin. 1999. Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  7. ^ Hughson, J.W. and C.C. J. Bond. 1965. Hurling Down the Pine. The Historical Society of the Gatineau, Old Chelsea, Quebec. First edition 1964, Revised second edition 1965.
  8. ^ Keddy, C.J. 1993. Forest History of Eastern Ontario. Prepared for the Eastern Ontario Model Forest Group, Kemptville
  9. ^ Howe, C.D. 1915. The effect of repeated forest fires upon the reproduction of commercial species in Peterborough County, Ontario. Pages 116-211 in Forest Protection in Canada, 1913 1914, Commission of Conservation of Canada, William Briggs, Toronto.
  10. ^ Henry, M. and P. Quinby. 2009. Ontario Old Growth Forests. Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Markham, Ontario
  11. ^ Darbyshire, S.J. 1981. Upper Duck and Lower Duck Islands. Trail and Landscape 15:133-139.
  12. ^ a b Brunton, D.F. 1992. Life Science Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest in Site District 6-12. A Review and Assessment of Significant Natural Areas. Report prepared for Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Kemptville, Ontario.
  13. ^ Ecosystem Diversity Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. ottawariverkeeper.ca. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  14. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2010. Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  15. ^ Toner, M, and P. Keddy. 1997. River hydrology and riparian wetlands: a predictive model for ecological assembly. Ecological Applications 7: 236-246
  16. ^ Brunton, D.F. and B.M. Di Labio. Diversity and ecological characteristics of emergent beach flora along the Ottawa River in the Ottawa-Hull region, Quebec and Ontario. Naturaliste canadien 116: 179-191.
  17. ^ Day, R., P.A. Keddy, J. McNeill and T. Carleton. 1988. Fertility and disturbance gradients: a summary model for riverine marsh vegetation. Ecology 69:1044-1054
  18. ^ "Alexandra Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  19. ^ "Aylmer Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  20. ^ "Basil Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  21. ^ "Bate Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  22. ^ "Beacon Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  23. ^ "Beckett Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  24. ^ "Bell Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  25. ^ "Big Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  26. ^ "Big Elbow Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  27. ^ "Bruyère Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  28. ^ "Burnt Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  29. ^ "Butternut Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  30. ^ "Carl Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  31. ^ "Cedar Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  32. ^ "Chapman Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  33. ^ "Chartrand Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  34. ^ "Chenaux Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  35. ^ "Christie Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  36. ^ "Clarence Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  37. ^ "Coreille Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  38. ^ "Corinne Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  39. ^ "Cornelius Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  40. ^ "Cotnam Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  41. ^ "Crab Islands". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  42. ^ "Cunningham Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  43. ^ "Cushing Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  44. ^ "Daisy Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  45. ^ "Davis Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  46. ^ "Deep River Islet". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  47. ^ "Demers Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  48. ^ "Dow Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  49. ^ "Dunlop Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  50. ^ "Dupras Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  51. ^ "Dutch Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  52. ^ "Ellis Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  53. ^ "Evelyn Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  54. ^ "Farr Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  55. ^ "Fish Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  56. ^ "Fraser Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  57. ^ "Fury Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  58. ^ "Gibraltar Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  59. ^ "Green Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  60. ^ "Gutzman Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  61. ^ "Hamilton Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  62. ^ "Haycock Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  63. ^ "Morris Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  64. ^ "Hazel Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  65. ^ "Hen Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  66. ^ "Hog Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  67. ^ "Houston Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  68. ^ "Ile Chénier". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  69. ^ "Ile du Chenail". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  70. ^ "Ile Ste-Rosalie". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  71. ^ "Irving Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  72. ^ "Jamieson Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  73. ^ "John Joe Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  74. ^ "Kate Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  75. ^ "Kedey's Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  76. ^ "King Edward Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  77. ^ "Latour Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  78. ^ "Lemieux Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  79. ^ "Lillian Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  80. ^ "Lorne Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  81. ^ "Louise Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  82. ^ "Lower Duck Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  83. ^ "Mackie Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  84. ^ "Man Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  85. ^ "Meadow Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  86. ^ "Merrill Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  87. ^ "Metcalf Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  88. ^ "Miller Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  89. ^ "Morris Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  90. ^ "Oak Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  91. ^ "O'Meara Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  92. ^ "Parker Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  93. ^ "Pearl Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  94. ^ "Pink Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  95. ^ "Poker Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  96. ^ "Princess Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  97. ^ "Ramsey Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  98. ^ "Randolph Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  99. ^ "Rempnouix Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  100. ^ "Riopelle Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  101. ^ "Rocher Capitaine Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  102. ^ "Ruby Islet". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  103. ^ "Sack's Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  104. ^ "Sandbar Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  105. ^ "Santa Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  106. ^ "Sawlog Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  107. ^ "Shoal Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  108. ^ "Short Turn Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  109. ^ "Steamer Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  110. ^ "Snake Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  111. ^ "Sullivan Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  112. ^ "Upper Duck Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  113. ^ "Victoria Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  114. ^ "Wabewawa Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  115. ^ "Willson Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  116. ^ "Windsor Island". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  117. ^ "L'Île". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  118. ^ "Île Allen". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  119. ^ "Île aux Allumettes". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  120. ^ "Île Armstrong". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  121. ^ "Île Avelle". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  122. ^ "Bald Rock". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  123. ^ "Île Béique". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  124. ^ "Îles Benny". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  125. ^ "Île Bernard". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  126. ^ "Île Bernardin". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  127. ^ "Île Berry". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  128. ^ "Île à Bertrand". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  129. ^ "Île Boom". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  130. ^ "Île Bray". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  131. ^ "Île Brisseau". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  132. ^ "Île Brunet". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  133. ^ "Île Bryson". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  134. ^ "Île Cadieux". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  135. ^ "Île Cobb". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  136. ^ "Île de Carillon". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  137. ^ "Île du Centre". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  138. ^ "Île du Chef". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  139. ^ "Île du Chenal Blind". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  140. ^ "Île du Chicot". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  141. ^ "Îles à Cole". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  142. ^ "Île du Collège". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  143. ^ "Île de la Compagnie". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  144. ^ "Île à Cowley". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  145. ^ "Île à Crépault". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  146. ^ "Île D'Arcy". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  147. ^ "Île Davidson". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  148. ^ "Île Dog". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  149. ^ "Île Dubé". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  150. ^ "Île à Everill". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  151. ^ "Île Fer à Cheval". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  152. ^ "Île du Finlandais". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  153. ^ "Îles Finlay". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  154. ^ "Île Fitzpatrick". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  155. ^ "Île au Foin". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  156. ^ "Île Fox". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  157. ^ "Île Fox". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  158. ^ "Île French". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  159. ^ "Île Frigon". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  160. ^ "Île Gagnon". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  161. ^ "Rocher à Gillis". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  162. ^ "Rochers aux Goélands". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  163. ^ "Île Graham". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  164. ^ "Île du Grand Calumet". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  165. ^ "Île Green". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  166. ^ "Île Greene". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  167. ^ "Île à Griffin". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  168. ^ "Île Harbec". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  169. ^ "Île Hemlock". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  170. ^ "Île Henry". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  171. ^ "Île Hiam". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  172. ^ "Île Jacey". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  173. ^ "Île John-Park". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  174. ^ "Île Jones". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  175. ^ "Îles Jumelles". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  176. ^ "Île Kettle". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  177. ^ "Île Lafleur". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  178. ^ "Île Lafontaine". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  179. ^ "Île Lasalle". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  180. ^ "Île à Lawn". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  181. ^ "Île Leblanc". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  182. ^ "Île Lemoine". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  183. ^ "Île Leroux". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  184. ^ "Île Lighthouse". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  185. ^ "Île Lighthouse". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  186. ^ "Île Limerick". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  187. ^ "Petite île Limerick". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  188. ^ "Île Lorelei". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  189. ^ "Île Mann". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  190. ^ "Île Marcotte". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  191. ^ "Île à Marion". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  192. ^ "Île Mohr". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  193. ^ "Île Morrison". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  194. ^ "Île Mulligan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  195. ^ "Île O'Connor". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  196. ^ "Île Oscar-Béchamp". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  197. ^ "Île Oster". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  198. ^ "Île Paquin". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  199. ^ "Île à Payne". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
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  201. ^ "Île Philemon". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  202. ^ "Île Pigs". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  203. ^ "Île aux Pins". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  204. ^ "Île des Quinze". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  205. ^ "Île Rainville". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  206. ^ "Île des Rapides". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  207. ^ "Île du Refuge". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  208. ^ "Île Reid". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  209. ^ "Île Reid". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  210. ^ "Île Rita". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  211. ^ "Île à Ritté". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  212. ^ "Île du Rocher Fendu". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  213. ^ "Île à Rouleau". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  214. ^ "Île à Roussin". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  215. ^ "Île de Sable". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  216. ^ "Petite île Sèche". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  217. ^ "La Semelle". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  218. ^ "Île Smith". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  219. ^ "Île Snake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  220. ^ "Île des Soeurs". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  221. ^ "Île Soulier". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  222. ^ "Île Squelette". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  223. ^ "Île Submergée". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  224. ^ "Île Sunset". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  225. ^ "Île Todd". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  226. ^ "Île à Tom". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  227. ^ "Île à Tom-Simon". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  228. ^ "Île aux Tourtes". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  229. ^ "Île Verte". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  230. ^ "Île Victoria". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  231. ^ "Île Wickens". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  232. ^ "Île Winneway". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  233. ^ "Île Woods". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  234. ^ "Île Wight". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  235. ^ "Île Young (Pontiac)". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  236. ^ "Île Young (Gatineau)". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  237. ^ "Île Yvette-Naubert". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
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