A triple border, tripoint,[citation needed] trijunction,[1] triple point, or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are 175 international tripoints as of 2020.[2] Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. On dry land, the exact tripoints may be indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments.

A disputed tripoint between Syria, Israel, and Jordan

Usually, the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China with 16 international tripoints and Russia with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of international tripoints. Other countries, like Brazil, India, and Algeria, have several international tripoints. Argentina has four international tripoints. South Africa, Pakistan and Nigeria have three international tripoints while Bangladesh and Mexico have only one. Within Europe, landlocked Austria has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Island countries, such as Japan and Australia, have no international tripoints (some, like Bahrain and Singapore, have tripoints in the territorial waters), and the same goes for countries with their only neighbour country, such as Portugal or Lesotho. Landlocked countries also have international tripoints. Likewise, the United States with two neighbouring countries has no international tripoints; however, it has a number of state tripoints as well as one point where four states meet. Indonesia has no international tripoints, just like Australia, Japan and the United States. Canada, as well, which has a maritime border with two other countries, has no international tripoints; however, it has five tripoints on land where the boundaries of provinces and territories meet, and one quadripoint where four provinces and territories meet. Japan has multiple prefectural tripoints; it also has prefectural quadripoints. In addition to the United States, Canada and Indonesia, Australia also has tripoints where the boundaries of states meet.

Border junctions (or "multiple points" or "multipoints" as they are also sometimes called) are most commonly threefold. There are also a number of quadripoints, and a handful of fivefold points, as well as unique examples of sixfold, sevenfold, and eightfold points (see quadripoint § Multipoints of greater numerical complexity). The territorial claims of six countries converge at the South Pole in a point of elevenfold complexity, though this is an example of points subject to dispute.

Examples edit

Vaalserberg: Tripoint (Germany / Netherlands / Belgium)

International tripoints include:

Some historic tripoints:

International agreements edit

Marker at Tarvagan Dakh Mongolia Russia China tripoint in 2020, from the Mongolian side

While the exact line of an international border is normally fixed by a bilateral treaty, the position of the tripoints may need to be settled by a trilateral agreement. For example, China, Russia, and Mongolia have set the position of the two relevant tripoints (the junction points of the China–Russia border, the Mongolia–Russia border, and the China–Mongolia border) by the trilateral agreement signed in Ulaanbaatar on January 27, 1994. The agreement specified that a marker was to be erected at the eastern tripoint, called Tarvagan Dakh (Tarbagan Dakha), but that no marker would be erected at the western tripoint (which was defined as the peak of the mountain Tavan-Bogdo-Ula (Kuitunshan, Tavan Bogd Uul).[5]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Charney, Jonathan I.; Colson, David A.; Smith, Robert W. (2005). International Maritime Boundaries. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 3298. ISBN 978-90-04-14461-3.
  2. ^ "JISCMail - INT-BOUNDARIES Archives". www.jiscmail.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  3. ^ Treaty on boundaries between Spain and Portugal from the mouth of the Minho River to the junction of the river Cay a with the Guadiana. Signed at Lisbon on 29 September 1864 Archived 19 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Mapa Topogràfic de Catalunya". Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. Retrieved May 22, 2010..
  5. ^ Соглашением между Правительством Российской Федерации, Правительством Китайской Народной Республики и Правительством Монголии об определении точек стыков государственных границ трех государств (Заключено в г. Улан-Баторе 27 января 1994 года) Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine (The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction of the national borders of the three states)

External links edit