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Vicksburg is a historic American city, located on a high bluff on the east bank of the Mississippi River across from Louisiana.

Vicksburg
City of Vicksburg
Old Warren County Courthouse ("Old Courthouse Museum")
Old Warren County Courthouse ("Old Courthouse Museum")
Nickname(s): 
"Gibraltar of the Confederacy"[1]
Location of Vicksburg in Warren County
Location of Vicksburg in Warren County
Vicksburg is located in Mississippi
Vicksburg
Vicksburg
Location in Mississippi in the United States
Vicksburg is located in the United States
Vicksburg
Vicksburg
Vicksburg (the United States)
Coordinates: 32°20′10″N 90°52′31″W / 32.33611°N 90.87528°W / 32.33611; -90.87528Coordinates: 32°20′10″N 90°52′31″W / 32.33611°N 90.87528°W / 32.33611; -90.87528
Country United States
State Mississippi
CountyWarren
IncorporatedFebruary 15, 1839
Government
 • MayorGeorge Flaggs Jr.
Area
 • City35.06 sq mi (90.81 km2)
 • Land32.98 sq mi (85.42 km2)
 • Water2.08 sq mi (5.39 km2)
Elevation
240 ft (82 m)
Population
 • City23,856
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
22,136
 • Density681.88/sq mi (263.27/km2)
 • Metro
57,433 (US: 162th)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
39180-39183
Area code(s)601 and 769
FIPS code28-76720
GNIS feature ID0679216
WebsiteCity of Vicksburg
Vicksburg City Hall by famed architect J. Riely Gordon
U.S. Post Office (former) and Courthouse in Vicksburg

Originally built by French colonists in 1719, the outpost withstood an attack from the native Natchez people. It was incorporated as Vicksburg in 1825 after Methodist missionary Newitt Vick. In the American Civil War, it was a key Confederate river-port, and its surrender to Ulysses S. Grant in July 1863 marked the turning-point of the war. Vicksburg then had a troubled history of racial conflict, well into the 20th century. The city is home to three large installations of the US Army Corps of Engineers, which has often been involved in local flood control.

Vicksburg is the county seat of Warren County, Mississippi, with a population of 26,407 at the 2000 census.

StatusEdit

Vicksburg is the only city in, and county seat of, Warren County, Mississippi, United States. It is located 234 miles (377 km) northwest of New Orleans at the confluence of the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers, and 40 miles (64 km) due west of Jackson, the state capital. It is located on the east bank of the Mississippi River across from Louisiana.

The city has increased in population since 1900, when 14,834 people lived here. The population was 26,407 at the 2000 census. In 2010, it was designated as the principal city of a Micropolitan Statistical Area with a total population of 49,644, which includes all of Warren County.

HistoryEdit

 
The entire Choctaw Nation's historic territory compared to the U.S. state of Mississippi

The area that is now Vicksburg was long occupied by the Natchez Native Americans as part of their historical territory along the Mississippi. The Natchez spoke a language isolate not related to the Muskogean languages of the other major tribes in the area. Before the Natchez, other indigenous cultures had occupied this strategic area for thousands of years.

The first Europeans who settled the area were French colonists who built Fort Saint Pierre in 1719 on the high bluffs overlooking the Yazoo River at present-day Redwood. They conducted fur trading with the Natchez and others, and started plantations. On 29 November 1729, the Natchez attacked the fort and plantations in and around the present-day city of Natchez. They killed several hundred settlers, including the Jesuit missionary Father Paul Du Poisson. As was the custom, they took a number of women and children as captives, adopting them into their families.

The Natchez War was a disaster for French Louisiana, and the colonial population of the Natchez District never recovered. Aided by the Choctaw, traditional enemies of the Natchez, though, the French defeated and scattered the Natchez and their allies, the Yazoo.

The Choctaw Nation took over the area by right of conquest and inhabited it for several decades. Under pressure from the US government, the Choctaw agreed to cede nearly 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of land to the US under the terms of the Treaty of Fort Adams in 1801. The treaty was the first of a series that eventually led to the removal of most of the Choctaw to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River in 1830. Some Choctaw remained in Mississippi, citing article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek; they became citizens of the state and the United States. They struggled to maintain their culture against the pressure of the binary slave society, which classified people as only white or black.

In 1790, the Spanish founded a military outpost on the site, which they called Fort Nogales (nogales meaning "walnut trees"). When the Americans took possession in 1798 following the American Revolutionary War and a treaty with Spain, they changed the name to Walnut Hills. The small village was incorporated in 1825 as Vicksburg, named after Newitt Vick, a Methodist minister who had established a Protestant mission on the site.[5]

 
Drawing that depicts the hanging of five gamblers in Vicksburg in 1835 among other aspects of the society of the time, from Illustrations of the American Anti-slavery Almanac for 1840

In 1835, during the Murrell Excitement, a mob from Vicksburg attempted to expel the gamblers from the city, because the citizens were tired of the rougher element treating the city residents with nothing but contempt. They captured and hanged five gamblers who had shot and killed a local doctor.[6] Historian Joshua D. Rothman calls this event "the deadliest outbreak of extralegal violence in the slave states between the Southampton Insurrection and the Civil War."[7]

 
View of Vicksburg in 1855

During the American Civil War, the city finally surrendered during the Siege of Vicksburg, after which the Union Army gained control of the entire Mississippi River. The 47-day siege was intended to starve the city into submission. Its location atop a high bluff overlooking the Mississippi River proved otherwise impregnable to assault by federal troops. The surrender of Vicksburg by Confederate General John C. Pemberton on July 4, 1863, together with the defeat of General Robert E. Lee at Gettysburg the day before, has historically marked the turning point of the Civil War in the Union's favor.

From the surrender of Vicksburg until the end of the war in 1865, the area was under Union military occupation.[8]

 
Floating drydock in Vicksburg, circa 1905

Because of the city's location on the Mississippi River, it built extensive trade from the prodigious steamboat traffic in the 19th century. It shipped out cotton coming to it from surrounding counties and was a major trading city.

In 1876, a Mississippi River flood cut off the large meander flowing past Vicksburg, leaving limited access to the new channel. The city's economy suffered greatly. Between 1881 and 1894, the Anchor Line, a prominent steamboat company on the Mississippi River from 1859 to 1898, operated a steamboat called the City of Vicksburg.

Political and racial unrest after the Civil WarEdit

Celebrations of the 4th of July, the day of surrender, were irregular until 1947. The Vicksburg Evening Post of July 4, 1883, called July 4 "the day we don't celebrate",[9] and another Vicksburg newspaper, the Daily Commercial Appeal, in 1888 hoped that a political victory would bring an enthusiastic celebration the following year.[10] In 1902, the 4th of July saw only "a parade of colored draymen".[11] In 1947, the Jackson Clarion-Ledger stated that the city of Vicksburg did not celebrate the 4th of July again until 1945, and then it was celebrated as Confederate Carnival Day.[12] A recent scholar disagrees, stating that large Fourth of July celebrations were being held by 1907, and informal celebrations before that.[13][14] A large parade was held in 1890.[15]

In the first few years after the Civil War, white Confederate veterans developed the Ku Klux Klan, beginning in Tennessee; it had chapters throughout the South and attacked freedmen and their supporters. It was suppressed about 1870. By the mid-1870s, new white paramilitary groups had arisen in the Deep South, including the Red Shirts in Mississippi, as whites struggled to regain political and social power over the black majority. Elections were marked by violence and fraud as white Democrats worked to suppress black Republican voting.

In August 1874, a black sheriff, Peter Crosby, was elected in Vicksburg. Letters by a white planter, Batchelor, detail the preparations of whites for what he described as a "race war," including acquisition of the newest guns, Winchester 16 mm. On December 7, 1874, white men disrupted a black Republican meeting celebrating Crosby's victory and held him in custody before running him out of town.[16] He advised blacks from rural areas to return home; along the way, some were attacked by armed whites. During the next several days, armed white mobs swept through black areas, killing other men at home or out in the fields. Sources differ as to total fatalities, with 29–50 blacks and 2 whites reported dead at the time. Twenty-first-century historian Emilye Crosby estimates that 300 blacks were killed in the city and the surrounding area of Claiborne County, Mississippi.[17] The Red Shirts were active in Vicksburg and other Mississippi areas, and black pleas to the federal government for protection were not met.

At the request of Republican Governor Adelbert Ames, who had left the state during the violence, President Ulysses S. Grant sent federal troops to Vicksburg in January 1875. In addition, a congressional committee investigated what was called the "Vicksburg Riot" at the time (and reported as the "Vicksburg Massacre" by northern newspapers.) They took testimony from both black and white residents, as reported by the New York Times, but no one was ever prosecuted for the deaths. The Red Shirts and other white insurgents suppressed Republican voting by both whites and blacks; smaller-scale riots were staged in the state up to the 1875 elections, at which time white Democrats regained control of a majority of seats in the state legislature.

Under new constitutions, amendments and laws passed between 1890 in Mississippi and 1908 in the remaining southern states, white Democrats disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites by creating barriers to voter registration, such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses. They passed laws imposing Jim Crow and racial segregation of public facilities.

On March 12, 1894, the popular soft drink Coca-Cola was bottled for the first time in Vicksburg by Joseph A. Biedenharn, a local confectioner. Today, surviving 19th-century Biedenharn soda bottles are prized by collectors of Coca-Cola memorabilia. The original candy store has been renovated and is used as the Biedenharn Coca-Cola Museum.

20th century to presentEdit

 
The historic 1894 Mississippi River Commission Building

The near exclusion of most blacks from the political system lasted for decades until after Congressional passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Lynchings of blacks and other forms of white racial terrorism against them continued to occur in Vicksburg after the start of the 20th century. In May 1903, for instance, two black men charged with murdering a planter were taken from jail by a mob of 200 farmers and lynched before they went to trial.[18] In May 1919, as many as a thousand white men broke down three sets of steel doors to abduct, hang, burn and shoot a black prisoner, Lloyd Clay, who was falsely accused of raping a white woman.[19][20] From 1877 to 1950 in Warren County, 14 African Americans were lynched by whites, most in the decades near the turn of the century.[21]

The United States Army Corps of Engineers diverted the Yazoo River in 1903 into the old, shallowing channel to revive the waterfront of Vicksburg. The port city was able to receive steamboats again, but much freight and passenger traffic had moved to railroads, which had become more competitive.

Railroad access to the west across the river continued to be by transfer steamers and ferry barges until a combination railroad-highway bridge was built in 1929. After 1973, Interstate 20 bridged the river. Freight rail traffic still crosses by the old bridge. North-south transportation links are by the Mississippi River and U.S. Highway 61. Vicksburg has the only crossing over the Mississippi River between Greenville and Natchez, and the only interstate highway crossing of the river between Baton Rouge and Memphis.

During the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, in which hundreds of thousands of acres were inundated, Vicksburg served as the primary gathering point for refugees. Relief parties put up temporary housing, as the flood submerged a large percentage of the Mississippi Delta.

Because of the overwhelming damage from the flood, the US Army Corps of Engineers established the Waterways Experiment Station as the primary hydraulics laboratory, to develop protection of important croplands and cities. Now known as the Engineer Research and Development Center, it applies military engineering, information technology, environmental engineering, hydraulic engineering, and geotechnical engineering to problems of flood control and river navigation.

In December 1953, a severe tornado swept across Vicksburg, causing 38 deaths and destroying nearly 1,000 buildings.

A 1910 panorama

During World War II, cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas, routinely flew to Vicksburg on training flights. The town served as a stand-in for the British for Cologne, Germany, which is the same distance from London, England as Vicksburg is from Terrell.[22]

Particularly after World War II, in which many blacks served, returning veterans began to be active in the civil rights movement, wanting to have full citizenship after fighting in the war. In Mississippi, activists in the Vicksburg Movement became prominent during the 1960s.

Contemporary VicksburgEdit

 
The Vicksburg Post is now located in a new building in a small shopping center off Interstate 20.

In 2001, a group of Vicksburg residents visited the Paducah, Kentucky, mural project, looking for ideas for their own community development.[23] In 2002, the Vicksburg Riverfront murals program was begun by Louisiana mural artist Robert Dafford and his team on the floodwall located on the waterfront in downtown.[24] Subjects for the murals were drawn from the history of Vicksburg and the surrounding area. They include President Theodore Roosevelt's bear hunt, the Sultana, the Sprague, the Siege of Vicksburg, the Kings Crossing site, Willie Dixon, the Flood of 1927, the 1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak, Rosa A. Temple High School (known for integration activism) and the Vicksburg National Military Park.[25] The project was finished in 2009 with the completion of the Jitney Jungle/Glass Kitchen mural.[24]

In the fall of 2010, a new 55-foot mural was painted on a section of wall on Grove Hill across the street from the original project by former Dafford muralists Benny Graeff and Herb Roe. The mural's subject is the annual "Run thru History" held in the Vicksburg National Military Park.[26][27]

On December 6–7, 2014, a symposium was held on the 140th anniversary of the 1874 riots. A variety of scholars gave papers and an open panel discussion was held on the second day at the Vicksburg National Military Park, in collaboration with the Jacqueline House African American Museum.[28]

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.3 sq mi (91 km2), of which 32.9 sq mi (85 km2) are land and 2.4 sq mi (6.2 km2) (6.78%) are covered by water.

Vicksburg is located at the confluence of the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. Much of the city is on top of a high bluff on the east bank of the Mississippi River.

EconomyEdit

In 2017, Emma Green of The Atlantic stated, "The Army Corps of Engineers sustains the town economically".[29]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
18503,678
18604,59124.8%
187012,443171.0%
188011,814−5.1%
189013,37313.2%
190014,83410.9%
191020,81440.3%
192018,072−13.2%
193022,94327.0%
194024,4606.6%
195027,94814.3%
196029,1434.3%
197025,478−12.6%
198025,434−0.2%
199020,908−17.8%
200026,40726.3%
201023,856−9.7%
Est. 201822,136[4]−7.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[30]
2013 Estimate[31]

As of the census of 2000, 26,407 people, 10,364 households, and 6,612 families resided in the city, with a metropolitan population of 49,644. The population density was 803.1 people per square mile (310.1/km²). The 11,654 housing units averaged 354.4 per square mile (136.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.43% African American, 37.80% White, 0.15% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.43% from other races]], and 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.04% of the population.

Of the 10,364 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.9% were married couples living together, 24.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were not families. About 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the city, the population was distributed as 28.4% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,466, and for a family was $34,380. Males had a median income of $29,420 versus $20,728 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,174. About 19.3% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and cultureEdit

Annual cultural eventsEdit

Every summer, Vicksburg plays host to the Miss Mississippi Pageant and Parade. Also every summer, the Vicksburg Homecoming Benevolent Club hosts a homecoming weekend/reunion that provides scholarships to graduating high-school seniors. Former residents from across the country return for the event.

Every spring and summer, Vicksburg Theatre Guild hosts Gold in the Hills, which holds the Guinness World Record for longest-running show.

Museums and other points of interestEdit

Vicksburg is home to the McRaven House, said to be "one of the most haunted houses in Mississippi".[32]

The 1902 City Hall is a Beaux-Arts Classical Revival design by the notable architect J. Riely Gordon, of San Antonio and later New York City. Gordon was responsible for 72 courthouses in his career (including Copiah County in Hazlehurst and for Wilkinson County in Woodville), for the Territorial (soon-was the State) Capitol of Arizona, as well as for Carnegie libraries, many mansions, and other buildings.[33][34]

GovernmentEdit

The city government consists of a mayor who is elected at-large and two aldermembers. The current mayor is George Flaggs Jr., who defeated former mayor Paul Winfield in the June 2013 election. The two aldermembers are elected from single-member districts, known as wards.

The city is home to three large US Army Corps of Engineers installations: the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), which also houses the ERDC's Waterways Experiment Station; the Mississippi Valley Division headquarters; and the Vicksburg District headquarters.

The 412th Engineer Command of the US Army Reserve and the 168th Engineer Brigade of the Mississippi Army National Guard are also located in Vicksburg.

The United States Coast Guard's 8th District/Lower Mississippi River sector has an Aids To Navigation unit located in Vicksburg, operating the buoy tending vessel USCGC Kickapoo.[35]

EducationEdit

 
Mississippi River at Vicksburg

The City of Vicksburg is served by the Vicksburg-Warren School District.

High schoolsEdit

Junior high schoolsEdit

  • Vicksburg Junior High School
  • Warren Central Junior High School
  • Academy of Innovation

Elementary schoolsEdit

  • Beechwood Elementary School
  • Bovina Elementary School
  • Bowmar Avenue Magnet School
  • Dana Road Elementary School
  • Redwood Elementary School
  • Sherman Avenue Elementary School
  • South Park Elementary School
  • Warrenton Elementary School
  • Vicksburg Intermediate School
  • Warren Central Intermediate School

Private schoolsEdit

  • Porters Chapel Academy
  • Vicksburg Catholic School- St. Francis Xavier Elementary & *Saint Aloysius Catholic High School
  • Vicksburg Christian Academy
  • Vicksburg Buddhist Fellowship
  • Vicksburg Community School (K-12)

Former schoolsEdit

  • Hall's Ferry Road Elementary School
  • Culkin Elementary School
  • Jett Elementary School
  • Cedars Elementary School
  • Vicksburg Middle School
  • All Saints' Episcopal School was a local boarding school located on Confederate Avenue, which closed in 2006 after 98 years in operation. The historic campus is currently used by Americorps as a regional training center.
  • St. Mary's Catholic School served the African-American community.
  • McIntyre Elementary School served the African-American community.
  • Magnolia Avenue School serviced the African-American community and was renamed Bowman High School to honor a former principal.
  • Rosa A. Temple High School served the African-American community.
  • King's Elementary School served the African-American community.
  • Carr Central High School.
  • J.H. Culkin Academy (grades 1-12 until 1965, thereafter Culkin Elementary School).
  • H.V. Cooper High School. First graduating class 1959.
  • Jefferson Davis School.
  • Oak Ridge School.
  • Eliza Fox School (a.k.a. Grove Street School).
  • All Saints' College. An Episcopal college for white women. Opened in 1908 and closed in 1962.

MediaEdit

NewspaperEdit

The Vicksburg Post, formerly the Vicksburg Evening Post, is a family-owned daily paper. It operates in facilities in a shopping center off I-20.

RadioEdit

AM Station

Channel Callsign Format Owner
1420 WQBC News/Talk
1490 WVBG News/Talk

FM Station

Channel Callsign Format Owner
89.3 WATU Religious
92.7 KSBU Urban Adult Contemporary
97.5 KTJZ Urban Oldies
101.3 WBBV Country
102.3 WDON[disambiguation needed] Variety
104.5 KLSM Hot Adult Contemporary
105.5 WVBG Classic Hits

Notable peopleEdit

Cultural referencesEdit

Places of interestEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Profile for Vicksburg, Mississippi, MS". Epodunk.com. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  2. ^ "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jan 6, 2019.
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
  4. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  5. ^ Picturesque Vicksburg and the Delta. Warren County-Vicksburg Public Library, Vicksburg, Mississippi: Vicksburg Foundation for Historic Preservation. 1895 [1895]. p. 11.
  6. ^ "THE VICKSBURG FLATBOAT WAR OF 1838 AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SUBMERGED LANDS LAW IN MISSISSIPPI". Masglp.olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  7. ^ Rothman, Joshua D. (1 November 2012). Flush Times and Fever Dreams: A Story of Capitalism and Slavery in the Age of Jackson. University of Georgia Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-8203-3326-7.
  8. ^ Cotton, Gordon; Mason, Ralph (1991). With Malice Toward Some : The Military Occupation of Vicksburg, 1864 - 1865. Vicksburg and Warren County Historical Society.
  9. ^ "Local Items". Vicksburg Evening Post. July 4, 1883. p. 4.
  10. ^ "The Fourth of July". Daily Commercial Herald (Vicksburg, Mississippi). July 4, 1888. p. 2. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |newspaper= (help)
  11. ^ "10 Years Ago in Vicksburg". Vicksburg Evening Post. July 6, 1912. p. 6.
  12. ^ "Vicksburg plans big things for Confederate carnival". Clarion-Ledger (Jackson, Mississippi). June 8, 1947. p. 19. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |newspaper= (help)
  13. ^ Waldrep, Christopher (2005). Vicksburg's Long Shadow: The Civil War Legacy Of Race And Remembrance. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 247. ISBN 978-0742548688.
  14. ^ Historian Michael G. Ballard, in his Vicksburg campaign history, pp. 420-21, claims that this story has little foundation in fact. Although it is unknown whether city officials sanctioned the day as a local holiday, Southern observances of July 4 were for many years characterized more by family picnics than by formal city or county activities.
  15. ^ "20 Years Ago in Vicksburg". Vicksburg Evening Post. July 5, 1910. p. 3.
  16. ^ A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration by Steven Hahn, Harvard University Press, 2005
  17. ^ Emilye Crosby, Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle in Claiborne County, Mississippi, Univ of North Carolina Press, 2006, p. 3
  18. ^ "Lynched for Murder…". New York Times. May 4, 1903.
  19. ^ "Mob uses Rope, to Lynch Negro". Atlanta Constitution. 15 May 1919.
  20. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 51. ISBN 9780805089066.
  21. ^ "Lynching in America, 3rd edition, 2017; SUPPLEMENT: Lynchings by County, p. 7" (PDF). Eji.org. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  22. ^ AT6 Monument
  23. ^ "It Took A Community To Raise A Mural!", Vicksburg Riverfront Murals
  24. ^ a b "Celebrating Vicksburg: A Great American Community", Vicksburg Riverfront Murals
  25. ^ "Vicksburg Riverfront  Murals". Riverfrontmurals.com. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  26. ^ "081110". Issuu.com. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  27. ^ "101310". Issuu.com. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  28. ^ "140th Anniversary Vicksburg Riots Symposium", Press release, 6 November 2014, National Park Service, accessed 15 June 2015
  29. ^ Green, Emma (2017-05-01). "How Two Mississippi College Students Fell in Love and Decided to Join a Terrorist Group". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
  30. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
  31. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
  32. ^ "Hauntings". Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  33. ^ "James Riely Gordon: An Inventory of his Drawings and Papers, ca. 1890-1937". Lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  34. ^ "Two New Books For Your Architectural Library « Preservation in Mississippi". Misspreservation.com. 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2014-06-13.
  35. ^ "Sector Lower Mississippi River Organization". Uscg.mil. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  36. ^ a b "Blue Ribbon Schools Program: Schools Recognized 1982–1983 Through 1999–2002" (PDF). Ed.gov. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  37. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.
  38. ^ "Scott Rogers, "Family imprint seen in Monroe a century after arrival", April 21, 2013". Monroe News-Star. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  39. ^ "William Denis Brown, III". Monroe News-Star, March 9, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2013. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  40. ^ Coy, Steve (27 March 2012). "How I Started MFJ and Its Very Early Days". Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  41. ^ "Brad Leggett". DatabaseFootball.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  42. ^ "Nevada Governor Vail Montgomery Pittman". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  43. ^ "John Thomson Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  44. ^ Green, Emma (2017-05-01). "How Two Mississippi College Students Fell in Love and Decided to Join a Terrorist Group". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-09-15.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit