Fort Snelling

Fort Snelling is a former military fortification and National Historic Landmark in the U.S. state of Minnesota on the bluffs overlooking the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers. It is on the Dakota homeland of Bdóte with a history spanning thousands of years.[3] The military site was initially named Fort Saint Anthony, but it was renamed Fort Snelling once its construction was completed in 1825.

Fort Snelling
Fort Snelling's round tower
Fort Snelling is located in Minnesota
Fort Snelling
LocationFort Snelling Unorganized Territory, Minnesota, U.S.
Nearest cityBordering south Minneapolis and across the Mississippi River from St. Paul and the Minnesota River from Mendota Heights.
Coordinates44°53′34″N 93°10′50″W / 44.89278°N 93.18056°W / 44.89278; -93.18056Coordinates: 44°53′34″N 93°10′50″W / 44.89278°N 93.18056°W / 44.89278; -93.18056
ArchitectColonel Josiah Snelling
WebsiteHistoric Fort Snelling
NRHP reference No.66000401
Significant dates
Added to NRHP15 October 1966[1]
Designated NHL19 December 1960[2]

The former United States Army fortification that was designated a military reservation.[4] That designation placed fort lands outside territorial administration or jurisdiction. Over time the location was part of the Louisiana Purchase and was included in the Missouri Territory. When Missouri became a state in 1812 the land not included became an unorganized territory which included Minnesota west of the Mississippi. When the Wisconsin Territory was formed Minnesota and Fort Snelling were included in the new territory. When Wisconsin gained statehood in 1848 the Minnesota Territory was formed. By an Act of Congress the military reservation was reduced in size on 26 August 1852. It was again reduced on 4 January 1871.

The fort is in the Fort Snelling unorganized territory that is bordered by Hennepin, Ramsey, and Dakota Counties. The Minnesota Historical Society administers Historic Fort Snelling structure. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources administers Fort Snelling State Park at the bottom of the bluff. Fort Snelling once encompassed the park's land. It has been cited as a "National Treasure" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.[5] The historic fort is in the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, a National Park Service unit.



Bdóte ('where two rivers meet') is considered the "center of the earth" to the Mdewakanton Dakota. The confluence was a place of importance, where Native Americans would sign more treaties once Fort Snelling was built: the St. Peter's Treaty 1837 and the St.Peter's Treaty 1851 also known as the Treaty of Mendota.

Frontier postEdit

Fort Snelling by Colonel Seth Eastman
Camp New Hope 1819

In 1805, on behalf of the United States, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike made the Pike's Purchase (Treaty of St Peters 1805) with the Dakota people for 100,000 acres (400 km²) of land in the area:

Article One - "That the Sioux nation grants unto the United States for the purpose of establishment of military posts, nine miles square at the mouth of river St. Croix, also from below the confluence of the Mississippi and St. Peters, up the Mississippi to Include the falls of St. Anthony, extending nine miles on each side of the river..."[6]

As late as 1856 there were questions about the validity of the 1805 treaty. There were seven Dakota leaders present, but only two signed the document and there is no record it ever went before a US president. Pike wrote in his journal he thought the U.S. should pay $200,000 while Congress approved $2,000. Pike Island below the fort is named for Lt. Pike. It was where Pike and the Dakota made their agreement.[7] Significant Anglo-European settlement began in the late-1810s. Following the War of 1812, the United States Department of War built a chain of forts and installed Indian agents from Lake Michigan to the Missouri River in South Dakota. These forts were intended to extend the United States presence into the northwest territories following the Treaty of Ghent and the demarcation of the 49th parallel. The treaty restricted British-Canadian traders from operating in the US and the forts were intended to enforce that as well as keep Indian lands free of white settlement until permitted by treaty. The forts were seen as the embodiment of federal authority representing law, order, for the protection of pioneers and traders.[citation needed] The Fort Snelling garrison also attempted to keep the peace among the Dakota and other tribes .[8] Also built on army land was the St. Peter's Indian Agency at Mendota.[9] The Anglo-Europeans called the Minnesota River the St. Peter and the Indian Agency would a part of Fort Snelling from 1820 to 1853.

Lieutenant Colonel Henry Leavenworth commanded the expedition of 5th Infantry that built the initial outpost in 1819. That cantonment was called "New Hope" and was on the river flats along the Minnesota River. Col. Leavenworth lost 40 men to scurvy that winter and moved his encampment to Camp Coldwater because he felt the riverside location contributed to the outbreak.[10] The new camp was near a spring closer to the fortification he was constructing. That spring would be the source of drinking water to the fort throughout the 19th century. The spring held a spiritual significance to the native Sioux. The post surgeon began recording meteorological observations at the fort in January 1820. The U.S. Army Surgeon General had made the recording of four weather readings every day a duty of the surgeon at every Army post.[11] Fort Snelling has one of the longest near-continuous weather records in the country.[12] In 1820 Colonel Josiah Snelling took command of the outpost and the fort's construction. Upon completion in 1824, he christened his work "Fort St. Anthony" for the waterfalls just upriver. That did not last long as it was changed by General Winfield Scott to Fort Snelling in recognition of the fort's architect commander.

From construction in 1820 to closure in 1858, four army units would garrison the fort, the 1st,[13] 5th,[14] 6th,[15] 10th Regiments.[16] plus a company from the 1st Dragoons. In 1827 the 5th Infantry would be replaced by the 1st Infantry for ten years with the 5th returning in 1837.[10] The 5th would garrison the fort until the 1st relieved them again in 1840. In 1848 the 6th Infantry became the garrison.[10] The garrison would change again in November 1855. The 10th commanded by Col. C.F. Smith assumed duty. Smith would go on to become a major general.

Colonel Snelling was afflicted with chronic dysentery, and bouts of the illness made him susceptible to anger. Recalled to Washington, he left Fort Snelling in September 1827. Colonel Snelling died in summer 1828 from complications due to dysentery and a "brain fever".

In 1827 the first post office in Minnesota started at Fort Snelling with most mail forwarded from Prairie du Chien.[17]

Colonel Zachary Taylor assumed command in 1828. He observed that the "buffalo are entirely gone and bear and deer are scarcely seen." He also wrote that the "Indians subsist principally on fish, water fowl and wild rice".[18] While posted to Fort Snelling Col. Taylor had eight adult slaves die as well as several minors.[18]

Along with the construction of the fort an Indian Agency was constructed on the military Reservation opposite the fort at Mendota. It was administered by Major Lawrence Taliaferro . He also served as the Territorial Justice of Peace until 1838 when the Governor of Iowa named Henry Sibley his replacement.[19] The Agency was used to hold court and those incarcerated were sent to Fort Snelling's round tower. The town of St. Paul also sent its criminals to the tower until it built its first jail in 1851.[20] Both Fort Snelling and Fort Ripley were used to intern criminals until the territory developed the public civil infrastructure needed.[20] Major Taliaferro owned 21 slaves one of whom was Harriet Robinson.[21] She would marry Dread Scott with Major Taliaferro officiating at Mendota. The Major transferred his ownership of Harriet to the officer owning Scott.

John Marsh, arrived at the fort during the early-1820s. There, he set up the first school in the Northwest Territory, for the children of the officers. He developed a working relationship with the Dakota people and compiled a dictionary of the Dakota dialect. He had studied medicine at Harvard without earning a degree. He continued his studies under the tutelage of the fort's physician, Dr. Purcell. However, Purcell died before Marsh had completed the coursework needed, so he still had no medical degree.[22] Marsh eventually went west to California.

In 1840 the fort commander sent troops to shut down and evict Pigs-eye Parrant from his Fountain Cave establishment south of the fort. His commercial venture was the first in what would become St Paul and was notorious for his trading of alcohol to both the natives and fort's garrison.[23] The eviction coincided with the arrival of the Catholic missionary Lucian Galtier who would rename Pigs Eye settlement St. Paul. Another event in 1840 was the arrival of Pierre Bottineau, the Kit Carson of the Northwest.[24] He staked a claim in St. Paul, but would serve officers of the fort as a guide and interpreter. He could speak French and English, Sioux, Chippewa, Cree, Mandan and Winnebago.[24]

Lieutenant Colonel Seth Eastman did two tours as commander of Fort Snelling during the 1840s.[25][26] Eastman was an artist. He has been recognized for his many paintings and drawings of the Dakota, recording their customs and lives.[27] His skill was such that he was commissioned by Congress to illustrate the six-volume study of Indian Tribes of the United States by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. The set was published 1851–1857 with hundreds of his works.[28]

Bridge linking Ft. Snelling with St. Paul, 1880–1912
  • In 1848 A Co of the 6th U.S. Infantry was dispatched from Fort Snelling to build Fort Ripley.[15]
  • In the summer of 1849, D Company 1st Dragoons escorted Maj. Woods of the 6th Infantry at Fort Snelling, to mark a northern boundary line and select a site for a future fortification near Pembina.[29]
  • In 1850 E Co of the 6th Infantry was sent south to build Fort Dodge and would garrison the fort until the army closed it and sent E Co. to help construct Fort Ridgely.[15]
  • In 1853 C, E, and K Companies of the 6th Infantry were tasked with the construction of Fort Ridgely.[30]\
  • Also in 1853 congress authorized money specifically to "mount" E Company of the 3rd Artillery to be stationed at Fort Snelling and Fort Ridgely.[31]

As the towns of Minneapolis and St. Paul grew and with Minnesota statehood before Congress, the need for a forward frontier military post had ceased. In 1857, with the fort's deactivation looming, the garrison was sent to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to join the other units being sent to Utah for what became known as the Utah War.[16] With the departure of the 10th Infantry, Fort Snelling was designated surplus government property. In 1858, when Minnesota became a state, the army sold it to Franklin Steele for $90,000. Steele was a former sutler at the fort and friend of the sitting President, James Buchanan.[32] At that time the fort sat on 8000 acres (32 km²). A small portion of that land was later annexed into south Minneapolis).[33] The balance of that original land is now broken into: Historic Fort Snelling Interpretive Center (300 acres), Fort Snelling State Park (2,931 acres), Fort Snelling National Cemetery (436 acres), Fort Snelling VA Hospital (160 acres),[34] Minnesota Veterans Home (53 acres), Coldwater Spring National Park (29 acres),[35] the Upper Post Veterans Home, Minneapolis St Paul International Airport and the Minneapolis-St Paul Joint Air Reserve Station (2,930 acres).

  • Fort Snelling watercolor by Lt. Sully October 1855.[36]

Slavery at the fortEdit

When Fort Snelling was built in 1820, fur traders and officers at the post, including Colonel Snelling, employed slave labor for cooking, cleaning, and other domestic chores. Although slavery was a violation of both the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820, an estimated 15–30 enslaved Africans worked at the fort.[37] US Army officers submitted pay vouchers to cover the expenses of retaining enslaved workers. From 1855–1857, nine individuals were enslaved at Fort Snelling. The last slave-holding unit was the 10th Infantry. Slavery was constitutionally outlawed when Minnesota became a state in 1858.[38]

Two enslaved women that had lived at the fort sued for their freedom and were set free in 1836. One, named Rachel, was enslaved to a Lieutenant Thomas Stockton at Fort Snelling from 1830–1831, then at Fort Crawford at Prairie du Chien until 1834. When Rachel and her son were sold in St. Louis, she sued, claiming that she had been illegally enslaved in the Minnesota Territory. The Missouri Supreme Court ruled in her favor in 1836 and she was freed. The other enslaved woman from Fort Snelling was named Courtney (and her son William) were also freed at the same time.[38] Courtney had another son named Godfrey that remained in Minnesota when she was sent to a slave market in St. Louis.[39] He is the only known "Minnesota runaway slave" that ran away from the fort and was taken in by the Sioux.[39] He was involved in the Sioux uprising and was the first defendant on the docket of the military tribunal for hanging..[39]

The fort surgeon, Dr. John Emerson, purchased Dred Scott as a slave in Saint Louis, Missouri, a slave state. Emerson was then posted to Fort Snelling during the 1830s and brought Dred north with him.[37] There Dred meet and married Harriet and had two children as slaves at Fort Snelling from 1836–1840. Dr. Emerson's wife Irene, returned to St. Louis taking the Scotts and their children in 1840. In 1843 Dred sued for his family's freedom for illegally being indentured in free territory. Although he lost that first trial, he appealed and in 1850 his family was given their freedom. In 1852, Emerson appealed and the Scotts were again enslaved. Dred Scott appealed that decision and in 1857 the US Supreme Court decided that the Scotts would stay enslaved. Dred Scott v. Sandford was a landmark case that held that neither enslaved nor free Africans were meant to hold the privileges or constitutional rights of United Stated citizens. This case garnered national attention and pushed political tensions towards the Civil War.[38][37]

A longstanding precedent in freedom suits of "once free, always free" was overturned in this case. (The cases were combined under Dred Scott's name.) It was appealed to the United States Supreme Court. In Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Chief Justice Taney ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that Africans had no standing under the constitution, so could not sue for freedom. The decision increased sectional tensions between the North and South.

Civil WarEdit

Dakota internment camp, Pike Island, winter 1862
Hanging of Little Six and Medicine Bottle November 11, 1865, Ft Snelling
Memorial honoring the Dakota people interned and died at Fort Snelling
The Wokiksuye K'a Woyuonihan memorial site at Fort Snelling, with a pipestone encased in the center, surrounded by bundles of the four sacred medicines: sage, cedar, tobacco, and sweetgrass.

During the American Civil War, Franklin Steele leased Fort Snelling back to the War Department for use as an induction station. When Governor Ramsey offered President Lincoln 1000 troops to fight the South the volunteers he got were organized at Fort Snelling into a regiment, the 1st Minnesota. More than 24,000 recruits were trained there.[40]

Minnesota units mustered in at Fort Snelling:

In 1860 and 1863 the Minnesota State Fair was held at the fort.[43]

Dakota WarEdit

When the Dakota War of 1862 broke out on 17 August, the fort did not belong to the US Government as it was being rented and garrisoned by regiments of the State of Minnesota. To deal with the uprising the War Department created the Department of the Northwest, headquartered at Fort Snelling commanded by Major General John Pope. Gen. Pope immediately sent requests to the Governors of Iowa and Wisconsin for additional troops. The 25th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment arrived at Fort Snelling on September 22. They would be joined by the 27th Iowa Infantry Regiment.[44] The fort was under the command of Col. Crooks of the 6th Minnesota Volunteers. Governor Ramsey had placed a $25.00 per scalp bounty on Dakota males.[45][46] Governor Ramsey's successor, Henry A. Swift raised it to $200.00.[45] When the hostilities ceased the Dakota men surrendered and 1,658 women, children, and elders turned themselves in to the Lower Sioux Agency. Minnesota troops collected them and escorted them to Fort Snelling where an encampment was created below the fort on Pike Island. Shortly after they arrived, soldiers raped one of the women.[47] Col. Crooks had a palisade erected around the encampment as much as to contain the Dakota as to protect them.[47] They wintered there in 1862–1863. Between 100–300 died due to the harsh conditions, lack of food, measles and cholera.[48] The following May, the Dakota who survived were loaded on two steamboats and taken down the Mississippi and up the Missouri River to Crow Creek by the Great Sioux Reservation. Three hundred more died on the way and three to four a day for weeks after they arrived. Some of the Dakota who made it to Crow Creek were forced to move again three years later to the Santee Sioux Reservation in Nebraska. For the women it was an extended period of hardship and degradation.[49] The descendants of the displaced Dakota reside there today. A memorial is outside the Fort Snelling State Park visitor center commemorating all the native Americans who died during this period.[50] Because of the prevailing attitudes towards all "Indians" the Ho-Chunk people a.k.a. Winnebago that were living outside Mankato were also sent to Fort Snelling.[51] There, they too were put on riverboats for Crow Creek. They lost 500 along the way and once there, they and the Sioux would lose another 1,300 to starvation. Two Sioux leaders who had crossed into Canada were drugged, kidnapped and turned over to Major E.A.C. Hatch at Fort Pembina for a bounty. Hatch's Independent Battalion of Cavalry took the men to Fort Snelling to be hanged.[52] They were Little Six (Taoyteduta Shakopee) and Medicine Bottle (Wakanozanzan).[53] The next year four companies of the 30th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment arrived at Fort Snelling with three of them moving forward to Camp Ridgely.[54]

  • During the Dakota war the 6th, 7th, and 10th Minnesota Regiments did garrison duty at Fort Snelling.

Indian Wars and Spanish-American WarEdit

Steele had made plans and plotted his purchase to build the City of Fort Snelling.[55] Steele, however, failed to make payments as agreed causing the government to revoke the sale and repossess the fort lands.[56] Placing the Department of the Northwest at Fort Snelling led to the fort's further development in 1866 when the department transitioned to the Department of Dakota.[56] The next year the headquarters of the department moved to St. Paul. The HQ returned to the fort in 1879 and would remain until 1886 when it went back to St. Paul.[56] After the Civil war Minneapolis began to expand into the fort's surroundings.[57]

The United States Army assigned the 7th Infantry to garrison the fort in 1878 and six companies arrived in September.[58] That year Congress approved $100,000 to be spent on the Department of Dakota and the old fort's walls were torn down for reuse in the new construction.[59] The following October the remaining four companies of the 7th Infantry arrived and took over garrison duties. The six companies that had been the garrison departed to fight the Utes at White River, Colorado. They returned to Fort Snelling in 1880.[58] In November the 7th was relieved by the 25th Infantry (colored).[60] The 25th's HQ, band and four companies would garrison the fort until 1888 when they were relieved by the 3rd Infantry. During the 1880s, companies of the 7th Cavalry would be at the fort.[10] The 3rd Regiment would remain until 1898. Some of the garrison were sent to Cuba and fought in the Spanish–American War of 1898.[8] During one of the last battles of the Indian Wars, six soldiers of the 3rd Infantry were killed at the Battle of Leech Lake October 5, 1898. Those killed were Major Wilkinson, Sgt. William Butler, and Privates Edward Lowe, John Olmstead (Onstead), John Schwolenstocker (aka Daniel F. Schwalenstocker), and Albert Ziebel. Those men were buried at north end of the post.[61] Ten others were wounded in the battle. Among them were five Minnesotans: Privates George Wicker, Charles Turner, Edward Brown, Jes Jensen, and Gottfried Ziegler.[62] Pvt. Oscar Burkard would receive the last Medal of Honor awarded during the Indian wars for his action on 5 October 1898 at Leech Lake with the 3rd Infantry. He was also from Minnesota.

In 1895 General E. C. Mason, post commandant, called for the preservation of what remained of the old fort, having realized something had been lost with the dismantling of the walls. Nothing came of the preservation proposal, but from 1901 through 1905 Congress would spend $2,000,000 on the Fort Snelling upper post.[56]

In 1901 the 14th Infantry became the garrison followed by the 28th in 1904.[56] From 1905–1911 squadrons of the 3rd, 2nd, and 4th Cavalry Regiments were the occupants of the new cavalry barracks on the upper post.[63] In June 1916 the 1st Infantry Regiment Minnesota National Guard arrived at the fort for deployment because of the Mexican border. They were redesignated the 135th Infantry in October.

  • Sgt. Charles H. Welch was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Little Big Horn in 1876. His award lists his home as Fort Snelling. Welch enlisted in the Army on June 8, 1873 at Fort Snelling, and was assigned to D Company 7th U.S. Cavalry.[64]

World War IEdit

Once the United States entered the war the fort became a recruit processing station. For WWI the 41st Infantry was constituted at the fort in May of 1917 and inactivated in September 1921. Fort Snelling's round tower is centered on the regimental crest. The army established an officer training school which closed when the war ended.[65] At that time the only building seeing use was the base hospital. It was expanded to 1200 beds and designated General Hospital 29. During the 1918 influenza pandemic it saw extensive use.[65] That hospital would be the forerunner of the VA Hospital at Fort Snelling now. Between wars, the 14th Field Artillery and the 7th Tank Battalion were assigned to Fort Snelling while the base was considered the "Country Club of the U. S. Army".[65]

In 1921 the 3rd Infantry was in Ohio and ordered to report to Fort Snelling with no designated transport. They marched the 940 miles only to have the 2nd and 3rd Battalions inactivated upon arriving at Fort Snelling. The following June the 1st Battalion was inactivated only for a short time. The regiment would remain at Fort Snelling until 1941.

World War IIEdit

During WWII the Fort Snelling military reservation served both the army and navy. The army had an enlistment center there that processed 300,000 enlistees. The War Department chose the base to be the site of the army's Military Railway Service HQ and a winter warfare program. In 1944 the Military Intelligence Service Language School (MISLS) for Japanese language had outgrown its facilities at Camp Savage and it relocated to Fort Snelling. It had 125 classrooms, 160 instructors, and 3000 students. June 1946 would see the fort's 21st and last commencement at the school. The War Department constructed scores of buildings at the fort for housing and teaching during the war.[59][33] The language school was relocated to Monterey, California, in June 1946.[66]

In 1943 the navy opened a naval air station on the north side of Minneapolis-St Paul airport that existed until 1970. Those facilities are now used by reserve units and Minnesota Air National Guard. WWII facilities covered 1,521 acres at war's end.

Post-war 20th centuryEdit

The War Department decommissioned Fort Snelling a second time on 14 October 1946. Various federal agencies were allowed to request land parcels from the land that made up Fort Snelling Unorganized Territory. Since the army departed, the majority of the structures fell into disrepair. In 1960, the fort itself was listed as a National Historic Landmark, citing its importance as the first major military post in the region, and its later history in the development of the United States Army.[2][67]

Many acres of fort land have been lost to roads. Construction of the Mendota Bridge ran a state highway across old fort land. More fort land was lost when an Interstate 94 interchange was added as well as access roads to the International Airport, National Cemetery, VA Hospital and bridge into St. Paul.

In 1963 Fort Snelling became headquarters of United States Army Reserve 205th Infantry Brigade, that had units throughout the upper Midwest. In 1994 that ended as a part of force-structure eliminations.

Fort Snelling Administration Building on the Upper Post, built 1878
Neglected barracks in the Upper Post last used during World War II
Reenactors firing a cannon at the fort.

The fort has been reconstructed to replicate its original appearance starting in 1965.[68] Time and use had been hard on the original fort. The walls, barracks and buildings had been removed. There was archaeological work done at the site in 1957–1958 and again in 1966–1967.[68] At that time all that remained of the original fort were the round and hexagonal towers. State archaeologists located the foundations of all that had been demolished allowing them to pin point the structures they reconstructed. The Minnesota Historical Society has since made the original walled fort or "Lower Post" into an interactive interpretive center. It has been staffed from spring to early fall with personnel attired in period costumes. Although restoring the original fort assured its survival, many buildings constructed from the Indian Wars to WWII and known as the "Upper Post" fell into serious disrepair and neglect.

21st centuryEdit

In May 2006, the National Trust for Historic Preservation added Upper Post of Fort Snelling to its list of "America's Most Endangered Places". Some restoration on historic Fort Snelling continues. Crews removed the flagpole from the iconic round tower and installed it in the ground, a change since its opening as a historic fort. Pending funding, the historic fort has planned a massive renovation project for the year 2020.


The United States Navy named an amphibious warfare ship, the USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30), to honor the fort.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 15, 2006.
  2. ^ a b "Fort Snelling". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2007-10-03.
  3. ^ "Historic Fort Snelling". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
  4. ^ Military Reservation law and legal definition, military, reservation, us
  5. ^ Feshir, Riham (April 20, 2016). "Historic Fort Snelling named 'national treasure'". MPR News. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  6. ^ Government relations with the Dakota Sioux (1851--1876), University of Montana Dissertation, Kenneth Burton Moore, 1937 [1]
  7. ^ Pike island, Pike Island, Dakota County History Bulletin, David Schreier, Nov 2000, p.3, Dakota County History-Pike-island-Faribault,Ruddle.pdf.
  8. ^ a b "Historic Fort Snelling: A Brief History of Fort Snelling". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved 2007-05-30.[dead link]
  9. ^ St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota), Family Search, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, March 2015 [2]
  10. ^ a b c d Old Fort Snelling 1819-1858, The Project Gutenberg Ebook, Marcus L. Hansen, September 2007, p.21-28[3]
  11. ^ History of Weather Observations, Fort Ripley Minnesota, 1849-1990, Minnesota State Climatology Office DNR-Division of Waters, St Paul, Mn, Peter Boulay, 2006, pp. 9-10[4]
  12. ^ Annual Climatolocial Summary, Fort Snelling MN, Year 1820, MN DNR webpage, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 500 Lafayette Road, Saint Paul, MN [5]
  13. ^ The First Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. Charles Byrne, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p.401, U.S Army Center of Military History website [6]
  14. ^ The Fifth Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. Charles Byrne, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p.480, U.S Army Center of Military History website [7]
  15. ^ a b c The Sixth Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. Charles Byrne, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p. 466, U.S Army Center of Military History website [8]
  16. ^ a b The Tenth Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. S.Y. Seyburn, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p. 531, U.S Army Center of Military History website [9]
  17. ^ The Post Office in Early Minnesota, Minnesota History Vol. 40 No.2, Summer 1966, J. W. Patterson, p.78, MHS website [10]
  18. ^ a b Zachary Taylor and Minnesota, Minnesota History Vol. 30, June 1949, Holman Hamilton p.101, MHS website[11]
  19. ^ Sibley, Henry H. (1880). "Reminiscences of the Early Days of Minnesota". Retrieved August 18, 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ a b The Original Saint Paul Jail, Saint Paul Police Historical Society webpage, Edward J. Steenberg, 2020 [12]
  21. ^ "List of slaves owned by Lawrence Taliaferro, 1813". Collections Online. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  22. ^ Colbruno, Michael "Lives of the Dead: Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland." December 12, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2015..
  23. ^ This date in Minnesota History, Pigs-eye Parrant, Minnesota Historical Society Society Archives, St Paul, Mn [13]
  24. ^ a b Pierre Bottineau, GENi, Joe Eickhoff, July 2020,[14]
  25. ^ Patricia Condon Johnston, "Seth Eastman: The Soldier Artist", PBS, accessed 11 December 2008
  26. ^ "Seth Eastman". United States Army Center of Military History. December 1, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
  27. ^ "Seth Eastman", Library: History Topics, Minnesota Historical Society, 2011, accessed 3 February 2011
  28. ^ "West Point, New York by Seth Eastman", with bio, US Senate, accessed 29 September 2009
  29. ^ A DRAGOON ON THE MARCH TO PEMBINA IN 1849, Minnesota Pioneer (St. Paul), March 6, 1850, Minnesota Historical Society website, Minnesota History, March 1927, p. 63 [15]
  30. ^ On Duty at Fort Ridgely Minnesota, South Dakota History, South Dakota State Historical Society, Paul L. Hedren, 1977, p. 169 [16]
  31. ^ The Army of the US, Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief, Third Regiment of Artillery, New York Maynard, Merrill, & CO, Lieut. WM. E. Birkhimer, Adjutant 3D U. S. Artillery, 1896, pp. 328, 341, 345 [17]
  32. ^ "Franklin Steele". History of Hennepin County and The City of Minneapolis, 1881. North Star Publishing. p. 635. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Fort Snelling State Park Upper Bluff Reuse Study" (PDF). Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. November 1998. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  34. ^ Our History, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, June 2015 [18]
  35. ^ Friends of Coldwater Green Museum initiative, Friends of Coldwater webpage [19]
  36. ^ Sully: Alfred, Fort Ridgely (1855, Minnesota). 021338.1955. Tulsa: Gilcrease Museum,[20]
  37. ^ a b c "Dred and Harriet Scott in Minnesota | MNopedia". Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  38. ^ a b c "Enslaved African Americans and the Fight for Freedom". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  39. ^ a b c Slavery and Freedom on the Minnesota Territory Frontier: The Strange Saga of Joseph Godfrey, Black Past web site, Walt Bachman, August 2013 [21]
  40. ^ a b c "The Civil War". Historic Fort Snelling. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  41. ^ Minnesota was Tainted by Slavery, Marshall H. Tanick, MINNPOST online, POB 18438, Minneapolis, Mn, Feb 2019,[22]
  42. ^ Winstead, 2009
  43. ^ Minnesota State Fair timeline, Minnesota State Fair webpage, [23]
  44. ^ Neighbors to the Rescue: Wisconsin and Iowa, Minnesota History Winter 1979, Edward Noyes, Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul, Mn, p. 312[24]
  45. ^ a b Minnesota Bounties on Dakota Men During the U.S.-Dakota War, 40 William Mitchell Law Review 1,Colette Rotell, 2013, p. 21, [25]
  46. ^ Wingard, MaryLethert (2010). North Country: The Making of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. cccxlviii.
  47. ^ a b U.S.-Dakota War’s aftermath a ‘dark moment’ in Fort Snelling history, Pioneer Press, Nick Woltman, May 2019 [26]
  48. ^ "Forced Marches and Imprisonment". The U.S.-Dakota War of 1862. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  49. ^ Survival At Crow Creek, 1863-66, Minnesota History 61:4, Winter 2008-9 Colette A. Hyman, Minnesota Historical Society website, p. 148-60 [27]
  50. ^ Referenced from the photo Wokiksuye K'a Woyuonihan on the right hand side of the page
  51. ^ The REMOVAL from MINNESOTA of the Sioux and Winnebago Indians, The Record(Mankato), William E. Lass, November 8, 1862, Minnesota State Historical Society web site, St. Paul, Mn, Minnesota History [28].
  52. ^ This Week in History, March 3, 1968, Manitoba Provincial Historical Society,
  53. ^ The United States Dakota War Trials, A Study in Military Injustice, Stanford Law Review Vol. 43:13, November 1990, University of Minnesota Law School Scholarship Repository, Carol Chomsky [29]
  54. ^ 30th Wisconsin Infantry, Wisconsin in the Civil War, Wisconsin Historical Society Historical essay, Charles E. Estabrook (1914), pp. 789–792 [30]
  55. ^ City at Fort Snelling, Minnesota Historical Society web site, MHS, [31]
  56. ^ a b c d e Lost Frontier: Fort Snelling in the Nineteeth Century, Fort Snelling's Buildings 17, 18, 22, and 30: Their Evolution and Context, Charlene Roise, Historian and Penny Petersen, Researcher, Hess, Roise and Company, The Foster House, 100 N. 1st Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota, February 2008, p.4 [32]
  57. ^ "Urban Connections – Minneapolis". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
  58. ^ a b The Seventh Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. A.B. Johnson, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p. 498, U.S Army Center of Military History website [33]
  59. ^ a b New fort Snelling Vistor Center, prepared by Minnesota Historical Society, Nov 2009, p. 9 [34]
  60. ^ The Twenty Fifth Regiment of Infantry, The Army of the US Historical Sketches of the Line and Staff with Portraits of the Generals in Chief, Lt. Charles Byrne, New York Maynard, Merrill and Company, 1896, p. 698, U.S Army Center of Military History website [35]
  61. ^ Obituaries, St Paul Globe October 9, 1898. p. 3: Wilkinson [Section A-25/Site 6705]; Lowe [Section A-5/Site 607]; Onstead [Section A-25/6618]; Schwalenstocker [Section A-5/Site 644] and Ziebel [Section A-5/Site 648] in the National Cemetery. Butler was reburied at Palmyra, Michigan, Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul, Mn
  62. ^ See Holbrook, Franklin F., Minnesota War Records, 1923 & The Deteriorating Upper Post of Ft. Snelling,
  63. ^ Cavalry Barracks, Buildings 17 & 18 Study, State Historic Preservation Office, Thomas R. Zahn, 1993 [36]
  64. ^ Charles H. Welch, Find a Grave bio, 2020 [37]
  65. ^ a b c Fort Snelling, Minnesota Historical Society website, 2020 [38]
  66. ^ Yamashita, Jeffrey T. "Fort Snelling" Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved on July 3, 2014.
  67. ^ Marilynn Larew (March 15, 1978). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Fort Snelling" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-06-21. and Accompanying 29 images, including photos from late-1880s to 1977. (6.55 MB)
  68. ^ a b Reconstructing old Fort Snelling, Loren Johnson. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Mn [39]

Other sourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Anfinson, John O. (2003). River of History: A Historic Resources Study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. St. Paul District, Corps of Engineers.
  • DeCarlo, Peter. Fort Snelling at Bdote: A Brief History (Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2017). 96 pp.

External linksEdit