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The Shakti Pitha or the Shakti Peethas (Sanskrit: शक्ति पीठ, Śakti Pīṭha, seat of Shakti) are significant shrines and pilgrimage destinations in Shaktism, the goddess-centric denomination in Hinduism. The shrines are dedicated to various forms of Adi Shakti.[a] Various Puranas such as Srimad Devi Bhagavatam state the existence of varying number of 51, 52, 64 and 108 Shakti peethas of which 18 are named as Astadasha Maha (major) in medieval Hindu texts.
Various legends explain how the Shakti Peetha came into existence. The most popular is based on the story of the death of the goddess Sati. Out of grief and sorrow, Lord Shiva carried Sati's body, reminiscing about their moments as a couple, and roamed around the universe with it. Lord Vishnu had cut her body into 51 body parts, using his Sudarshana Chakra, which fell on Earth to become sacred sites where all the people can pay homage to the Goddess. To complete this massively long task, Lord Shiva took the form of Bhairava.
Most of these historic places of goddess worship are in India, also in but there are seven in Bangladesh, three in Pakistan, three in Nepal, and one each in Tibet and Sri Lanka. There were many legends in ancient and modern sources that document this evidence. A consensus view on the number and location of the precise sites where goddess Sati's corpse fell is lacking, although certain sites are more well-regarded than others.
Mention in Hindu scripturesEdit
Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas mentions 64 Shakti Peetha of Goddess Parvati in the Bharat or Greater India including present-day India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, some parts of Southern Tibet in China and parts of southern Pakistan. Another text which gives a listing of these shrines, is the Shakti Peetha Stotram, written by Adi Shankara, the 9th-century Hindu philosopher.
According to the manuscript Mahapithapurana (c. 1690–1720 CE), there are 52 such places. Among them, 23 are located in the Bengal region, 14 of these are located in what is now West Bengal, India, 1 in Baster (Chhattisgarh), while 7 are in what is now Bangladesh.
Rishi Markandeya composed the 'Devi Saptashati' or the seven hundred hymns extolling the virtues of the Divine Goddess at the shaktipeetha in Nashik. The idol is also leaning a little to the left to listen to the sage's composition. The Saptashati or the "Durga Stuti" forms an integral part in the Vedic form of Shakti worship.
The third eye of Mata Sati fell below a tree in a mortuary in the Ishan corner of Vakreshwar. This is on the bank of the north-flowing Dwarka river in the east of Baidyanath. Here Mata Sati is called Chandi Bhagwai Ugra Tara and Bhairav is called Chandrachur. This Shaktipeeth is called Tarapith in Birbhum district West bengal, India.
According to legend, Lord Brahma had performed a yagna (Vedic ritual of fire sacrifice) to please Shakti and Shiva to aid in the creation of the universe. As a result, Goddess Shakti separated from Shiva and emerged to help Brahma. Once her purpose was fulfilled, Shakti had to be returned to Shiva. In time, Brahma's son Daksha performed several yajnas to obtain Shakti as his daughter in the form of Sati, with the motive of marrying her to Lord Vishnu.
Daksha performed a yajna with a desire to take revenge on Lord Shiva. Daksha invited all the deities to the yajna, except Shiva and Sati. The fact that she was not invited did not deter Sati's desire to attend the yajna. She expressed her desire to Shiva, who tried his best to dissuade her from going. He relented at her continued insistence, Sati went to her father's yajna. However, Sati was not given her due respect at the yajna, and had to bear witness to Daksha's insults aimed at Shiva. Anguished, Sati cursed her father and self-immolated.
Enraged at the insult and death of his spouse, Shiva in his Virabhadra avatar destroyed Daksha's yajna and cut off his head. His anger not abated and immersed in grief, Shiva then picked up the remains of Sati's body and performed the Tandava, the celestial dance of destruction, across all creation. Frightened, the other Gods requested Vishnu to intervene to stop this destruction. As a recourse, Vishnu used the Sudarshana Chakra on Sati's corpse. This caused various parts of Sati's body to fall at several spots across the world.
The history of Daksha yajna and Sati's self-immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Sanskrit literature and influenced the culture of India. Each of the places on Earth where Sati's body parts were known to have fell were then considered as Sakti Peethas and were deemed places of great spiritual importance. Several stories in the Puranas and other Hindu religious books refer to the Daksha yajna. It is an important incident in both Shaivism and Shaktism, and marks the replacement of Sati with Parvati, and of the beginning of Shiva's house-holder (grihastāshramī) life from an ascetic. This event is ahead of the emergence of both of the couple's children, Kartikeya and Ganesha.
Each temple has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava, and most Shakti and Kalabhairava in different Shakti Peeth have different names.
Map of Shakti PeethasEdit
List of 4 Adi Shakti PeethasEdit
Some of the great religious texts like the Shiva Purana, the Devi Bhagavata, the Kalika Purana, the AshtaShakti, and Pithanirnaya Tantra recognize four major shakti Peethas (centers) / Ādī Śaktī Pīṭhas,
- Vimala Temple (Pada Khanda) inside the Jagannath Temple of Puri, Odisha
- Tara Tarini (Stana Khanda), near Purushottampur, Odisha
- Kamakhya Temple (Yoni Khanda), in Guwahati, Assam; and
- Kalighat Kali Temple (Mukha Khanda) in Kolkata, West Bengal
which represent respectively the parts (Khandas) foot (Pada), breasts (Stana), genitals (Yoni), and face (Mukha) Neck (Kanth) of the body of Maata Sati.
The Ashtashakti and Kalika Purana says (in Sanskrit):
- "vimalā pāda khaṇḍañca stana khaṇḍañca tāriṇi ( Devi Tārā Tāriṇi )
- kāmākhyā yōni khaṇḍañca
- mukha khaṇḍañca kālikā (Dakshina Kalika)
- aṅga pratyaṅga saṅghēna
- viṣṇu cakra kṣatēna ca ॥ "
- "ṛṣikulya taṭē dēvi
- tārakasya mahāgiri
- tasya śṛṅga sthita tāriṇi
- vaśiṣṭha rājitāparā"
List of 18 Astadasha Maha Shakti PeethasEdit
There are believed to be 64 locations. Adi Shankara's Asta Dasha Shakti Peetha Stotram mentions 18 locations known as the Maha Shakti Pithas. Among these, the Shakti Peethas at Kamakhya, Gaya and Ujjain are regarded as the most sacred as they symbolize the three most important aspects of the Mother Goddess viz. Creation (Kamarupa Devi), Nourishment (Sarvamangala Devi/Mangalagauri), and Annihilation (Mahakali Devi).
Sr. No. Temple Place State in India/Country Appellation Part of the body fallen Shakti Image 1 Shankari Devi Temple Tricomalee Srilanka Shankari Peetham Groin Maa Shankari 2 Kamakshi Amman Temple Kanchipuram Tamil Nadu Kama koti peetham Navel Kamakshi Amman 3 Shrinkala Pradmunyee (Pandua) Bengal Bhavatārini Peetham Part of stomach Maa Shrinkala 4 Chamundeshwari Temple Mysuru Karnataka Krouncha Peetham Hair Chamundeshwari 5 Jogulamba Devi Alampuram, Gadwal district Telangana Yogini Peetham Teeth Jogulamba Thalli (Yogamba) 6 Bhramaramba Mallikarjuna Temple Srisailam Andhra Pradesh Srisaila Peetham Neck Bhramarambika 7 Mahalakshmi Temple, Kolhapur Kolhapur Maharashtra Shri Peetham Eye Aai Ambabai 8 Renuka Temple Mahur, Maharashtra Maharashtra Moola Peetham Left hand renuka devi 9 Mahakaleswar Temple Ujjain Madhya Pradesh Ujjaini Peetham Upper lip Mahakali 10 Kukkuteswara Swamy Temple Pithapuram Andhra Pradesh Pushkarini Peetham Back Puruhutika devi 11 Biraja Temple Jajpur Odisha Oddyana Peetham Navel Maa Biraja 12 Bhimeswara Temple Draksharamam Andhra Pradesh Daksharama Peetham Left cheek Manikyamba 13 Kamakhya Temple Guwahati Assam Kamarupa Peetham Womb Devi Kamakhya 14 Alopi Devi Mandir Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh Prayaga Peetham Fingers Maa Madhaveswari 15. Jwalamukhi Temple Kangra Himachal Pradesh Jwalamukhi Peetham Head Maa Jwalamukhi 16. Mangla Gauri Temple Gaya Bihar Gaya Peetham Breast Maa Sarvamangala 17. Vishalakshi Temple Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Varanasi Peetham Noses Maa Vishalakshi 18. Sharada Peeth Sharda, Kashmir Pakistan Administered Kashmir Sharada Peetham Right hand Maa Sharada Devi
Sharadha Peet is currently in ruined state. Only ruins are found in these places. Its ruins are near the Line of Control (LOC) between the Indian and Pakistani-controlled portions of the former princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. Instead, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri in Karnataka even though not a Shakti Peetha, is this aspect of the goddess. Requests have been made by the Hindu community in Pakistan to the Pakistani government to renovate the temple, the issue being raised by former Indian Home minister L. K. Advani to the Pakistan authorities as a confidence-building measure, by increasing the people-to-people cross-border interaction.
In Skanda PuranaEdit
As per Sankara Samhita of Sri Skanda Purana,
- Sri Sankari Peetham (Lanka)
- Sri Simhika Peetham (Simhala)
- Sri Manika Peetham (Dakshavati)
- Sri Shadkala Peetham (Peethapuram, Andhra Pradesh)
- Sri Bhramaramba Peetham (Srisailam)
- Sri Vijaya Peetham (Vijayapura)
- Sri Mahalakshmi Peetham (Kolhapuri)
- Sri padmakshi renuka (Kawadepuri)
- Sri Kamakshi Peetham (Kanchipuram)
- Sri Kuchananda Peetham (Salagrama)
- Sri Biraja Peetham (Jajpur, Odisha)
- Sri Sarala Peetham (Jhankad, Odisha)
- Sri Bhadreshwari Peetham (Harmyagiri)
- Sri Mahakali Peetham (Ujjayini)
- Sri Vindhyavasini Peetham (Vindhya mountains)
- Sri Mahayogi Peetham (Ahicchatra)
- Sri Kanyaka Peetham (Kanya Kubja)
- Sri Vishalakshi Peetham (Kashi)
- Sri Saraswati Peetham (Kashmira)
- Sri Abhirami Peetham (Padmagiri, Dindigul)
List of all Shakti PeethasEditThis section needs attention from an expert in Hinduism. The specific problem is: Listing confusion and unverifiable other information.(November 2019)This section is missing information about List of Shakti Peethas. The total listing is 108.(July 2022)
In the listings below:
- "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani, Sati; later known as Parvati or Durga;
- "Bhairava" refers to the corresponding consort, each a manifestation of Shiva;
- "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.
More details on this are available in the text 'Tantrachūḍamanī' where Parvati tells these details to her son Skanda.
Sr. No. Place State in India/Country Body part or ornament Shakti Bhairava Image 1 A. Amarnath Temple, from Srinagar through Pahalgam 94 km by Bus, Chandanwari 16 km by walk
B. Shri Parvat in Ladakh
Jammu and Kashmir A. Throat
Mahamaya Trisandhyeshwar 2 Attahas Temple – At a village also named as Attahas or Ashtahas around 2 km east of Labhpur village road in the district of Birbhum West Bengal Lips Phullara Vishvesh 3 Bahula at Ketugram, 8 km from Katwa, Purba Bardhaman West Bengal Left arm Goddess Bahula Bhiruk 4 Bakreshwar, on the banks of Paaphara river, 24 km distance from Siuri Town [a district headquarter], district Birbhum, 7 km from Dubrajpur Rly. Station West Bengal Portion between the eyebrows Mahishmardini Vakranath 5 Bhairavparvat, also known as Harsiddhi, at Bhairav hills on the banks of Shipra river in the city of Ujjaini. Madhya Pradesh Elbow Avanti Lambkarna 6 Bhabanipur, located in the Upazila of Sherpur, Bogra, Rajshahi Division. Also located at Karatoyatat, it is about 28 km distance from the town of Sherpur. Bangladesh Left anklet (ornament) Aparna Vaman 7 Biraja Temple at Jajpur, in Jajpur District Odisha Navel Biraja Varaha (Baraha) 8 Padmakshi Renuka jagdamba mandir, kavade, Alibag Maharashtra nails of Sati Devi and head of Devi Renuka Shree renuka Adimaya Bhairva (Kankeshwar), Jamadagni 9 Muktinath Temple Nepal Right cheek Gandaki Chandi Chakrapani 10 Goddess Bhadrakali on banks of Godavari in Nashik city (Saptashrungi) Maharashtra Chin (2 parts) Bhadrakali Vikritaksh 11 Hinglaj Mata Temple Pakistan Bramharandhra (Part of the head) Kottari Bhimlochan 12 Jayanti at Nartiang village in the Jaintia Hills district. This Shakti Peetha is locally known as the Nartiang Durga Temple. Meghalaya Left thigh Jayanti Kramadishwar 13 Jeshoreshwari Kali Temple Bangladesh Palms of hands and soles of the feet Jashoreshwari Chanda 14 Jwalaji, Kangra from Pathankot alight at Jwalamukhi Road Station from there 20 km Himachal Pradesh Tongue Siddhida (Ambika) Unmatta Bhairav 15 Kalipeeth, (Kalighat, Kolkata) West Bengal Right toes Kalika Nakuleshwar 16 Kamgiri, Kamakhya, in the Neelachal hills in Guwahati Assam Womb Kamakhya Umananda or Bhayaanand 17 Kankalitala, on the banks of Kopai River 10 km north-east of Bolpur station in Birbhum district, Devi locally known as Kankaleshwari West Bengal Pelvis Devgarbha Ruru 18 A Kanyashram of Balaambika – The Bhagavathy temple in Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of mainland India, Tamil Nadu
B. (also thought to be situated in Yunnan province, China) C Gourikunda Temple
A. Tamil Nadu
B. Yunnan, China C. Sitakunda, Chattogram, Bangladesh
Back Sarvani Nimish 19 Bajreshwari Temple, Nagarkot, district Kangra Himachal Pradesh left Breast Jayadurga Abhiru 20 Kiriteswari Temple at Kiritkona village, 3 km from Lalbag Court Road railway station in Murshidabad district West Bengal Crown Vimla Sanwart 21 Ratnavali, on the banks of Ratnakar river at Khanakul I Krishnanagar, district Hooghly (locally known as Anandamayee Tala) West Bengal Right Shoulder Kumari Ghanteshwar 22 'A.Locally known as Bhramari Devi in Jalpaiguri near a small village Boda on the bank of river Teesta or Tri-shrota (combination of three flows) mentioned in Puranas
B.Ma Malai Chandi Temple at Amta, Howrah
West Bengal A. Left leg
B. Part of Left Knee
Bhraamari Ambar 23 Manas, under Tibet at the foot of Mount Kailash in Lake Manasarovar, a piece of Stone China Right hand Dakshayani Amar 24 Manibandh, at Gayatri hills near Pushkar 11 km north-west of Ajmer. People know this temple as Chamunda Mata Temple or Shri Raj Rajeshwari Puruhuta Manivedic Shaktipeeth. Rajasthan Wrists Gayatri Sarvanand 25 Mithila, near Janakpur railway station on the border of India and Nepal Nepal Left shoulder Uma Mahodar 26 Nainativu (Manipallavam), Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Located 36 km from the ancient capital of the Jaffna kingdom, Nallur. The murti of the Goddess is believed to have been consecrated and worshipped by Lord Indra. The protagonist, Lord Rama and antagonist, Ravana of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana have offered obeisances to the Goddess. Nāga and Garuda of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; resolved their longstanding feuds after worshipping this Goddess. Sri Lanka Silambu (Anklets) Indrakshi (Nagapooshani / Bhuvaneswari) Rakshaseshwar (Nayanair) 27 Guhyeshwari Temple Nepal Both knees Mahashira Kapali 28 Chandranath Temple Bangladesh Right arm Bhavani Chandrashekhar 29 Panchsagar Near Lohaghat (in Champawat District of Uttarakhand) just 12 km from nearest railway station Tanakpur. पूर्णागिरी Champawat Varahi Devi Uttarakhand Lower teeth/ Navel Varahi Maharudra 30 Prabhas, 4 km from Veraval station near Somnath temple in Junagadh district. Local People call this temple as Kali Mandir, It is nearby Triveni Sangam. Gujarat Stomach Chandrabhaga Vakratund 31 Alopi Devi Mandir near Sangam at Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh Finger Lalita Bhava 32 Present day Kurukshetra town or Thanesar ancient Sthaneshwar Haryana Ankle bone Savitri/BhadraKali Sthanu 33 Sharda Peeth on top Trikoot Hill, at Maihar Madhya Pradesh necklace Shivani Chanda 34 Nandikeshwari Temple is located in Sainthia city West Bengal Necklace Nandini Nandikeshwar 35 Kotilingeswar Ghat temple on the banks of Godavari river near Rajamundry Andhra Pradesh Cheeks Bhuvaneswari or Vishweshwari Vatsnabh or Dandpani 36 Naina Devi Temple Himachal Pradesh Right eye Mahishmardini Krodhish 37 Shondesh, at the source point of Narmada River in Amarkantak Madhya Pradesh Right buttock Narmada Bhadrasen 38 Sri Sailam, at Nallamala hills, Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh, India Neck Bramarambika Mallikarjuna 39 Shuchi, in a Shiva temple at Suchindrum 11 km on Kanyakumari Trivandrum road Tamil Nadu Upper teeth Narayani Sanhar 40 Sugandha, situated in Shikarpur, Gournadi, about 20 km from Barisal town, on the banks of Sonda river.8 Bangladesh Nose Sugandha Trayambak 41 Udaipur, Tripura, at the top of the hills known as Tripura Sundari temple near Radhakishorepur village, a little distance away from Udaipur town Tripura Right leg Tripura Sundari Tripuresh 42 Ujaani, at Mangalkot 16 km from Guskara station in Purba Bardhaman district West Bengal Right wrist Mangal Chandika Kapilambar 43 Varanasi at Manikarnika Ghat on banks of the Ganges at Kashi Uttar Pradesh Face or Earring Vishalakshi & Manikarni Kaal bhairav 44 Bargabhima temple, at Tamluk under district Purba Medinipur West Bengal Left ankle Kapalini (Bhimarupa) also known as Bargabhima Sarvanand 45 Virat Nagar district, Alwar, near Bharatpur, India Rajasthan Fingers of Left Leg Ambika Amritaksha 46 Katyayani Shaktipeeth, Vrindavan, district Mathura Uttar Pradesh Ringlets of hair Uma Bhutesh 47 Devi Talab Mandir, District Jalandhar Punjab Left Breast Tripurmalini Bhishan 48 Baidyanath Dham Jharkhand Heart Jaya Durga Baidyanath 49 Adhi Kamakshi Amman Temple behind Kamakshi Amman Temple, situated at Kanchipuram Town, Kanchipuram District Tamil Nadu Odyanam (Navel) Kamakshi Egaambraswara 50 Jogadya (যোগাদ্যা), at Kshirgram (ক্ষীরগ্রাম) near Kaichar under Burdwan district West Bengal Great toe Jogadya (যোগাদ্যা) Ksheer Kantak (ক্ষীর কন্টক) 51 Pithapuram under Kakinada Port Town Andhra Pradesh Hip part Purohotika Durvasa 52 Ambaji at Anart Gujarat Heart Amba Batuk Bhairav 53 Jwaladevi Temple, Shaktinagar, Sonbhadra Uttar Pradesh Tongue Jwala Devi Rudra 54 Chandika Sthan, near Munger town Bihar Left eye Chandika Devi Chandala 55 Danteshwari Temple, Dantewada Chhattisgarh Tooth or daant Danteshwari devi Kapalbhairav 56 Juranpur, Nadia West Bengal Forehead(কপাল) Jaya Durga Bhairav 57 Tara Tarini, Purushottampur, Ganjam Odisha Breast/Sthan Maa Tara Tarini Tumbeswar 58 Nalhateswari, Nalhati West Bengal Stomach/Nauli Kalika Jogesh 59 Vaishno Devi Temple, Katra Jammu & Kashmir Vaishno Devi Bhaironath 60 Mankachar, 266 km from Guwahati Assam Little finger Devi Deva 61 Vimala Temple, Inside Jagannath Temple, Puri Odisha Foot Vimala Jagannath 62 Anjanakshi, inside Marundeeswarar Temple, Thirukachur on Mount Rudragiri in Aadhi Kanchi, Thirukachoor, Chengalpattu District or Marundeeswarar Temple Tamil Nadu Skin Anjanakshi Marundeeswarar (Oushadheeshwar) 63 Jayanti Maha Shakti Peeth Jayanti, Alipurduar, West bengal Left Shank Jayanti Kramadishwar 64 Shri Hatta Kali Temple, Shri Shail (also known as Mahalakshmi Griva Peeth) Gotatikar, Kalagul tea state, Dakshin Surma Upazila, Sylhet, Bangladesh Neck Mahalakshmi Sambaranand 65 Dhakeshwari Temple (now relocated at Dhakeswari Mata Temple) Dhaka, Bangladesh Gem of Sati's Crown Dhakeshwari (a form of Katyani Mahishasurmardini Durga) Shiva 66 Tarapith Rampurhat West Bengal Third eye Maa Tara (second mahavidya) (main form of Parvati) Chandrachur bhairav 67 Lalta Maata Mandir Neemsaar, Sitapur Uttar Pradesh heart Maa lalta devi mandir (goddess heart) (main heart form of Parvati) Lalita/laltaa mata 68 Chhinnamastika Shaktipeeth at Chintpurni, in Una District of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Foot Chhinnamastika Rudra Mahadev 69 Dirgheswari Mandir at North Guwahati, in the Sitachal hills in Guwahati Assam Femur Dirgheswari Manikarneswara
Other claimed Shakti PeethasEdit
These are not recognised as the Shakti Peethas, but still claimed by the followers, for various reasons.
1. Jwala devi Jobner
2. Jayanti Kali Temple
There are disputes about the position of this peetha. Based on most presented manuscripts and facts it is situated in jaintiapur upazila, Bangladesh, which was previously the capital of jaintia hills tribe kingdom, which became the jaintia hills district of Meghalaya, India, excluding jaintiapur. However, some people say that it is the nartiang Durga temple which is the real jayanti shaktipeeth, though there is shortage of corroborating evidences. Some other people argue the actual peetha is at Amta in West Bengal, where the Devi is worshiped as Maa Melai Chandi in Melai Chandi Mandir. But this fact can not be corroborated with any evidences. Moreover, refuting most text, in Melai Chandi Mandir the Bhairava is Durgeshwar rather than Kramadishwar. Some also relates Jayanti Devi with the Mahakal cave temple situated in the village Jayanti of Alipurduar, where many status were created by Stalagmite and Stalactite (combination of limes with water), but strong historical support is also absent here.
3. Vindhyavasini Shakti Peetha
The Vindhyavasini Shakti Peetha is considered a Shakti Peetha despite the fact that any body parts of Sati did not fall there. Vindhyavasini Devi is ultimate form of goddess , she is called as aadi shakti. Maa Vindhyavasini consists of all of the dus mahavidya & all other devi present in this universe, she is tripura sundari herself. Many legends are associated with Maa vindhyavasini, she is Mahishaasurmardani . She is combined form all the 108 shaktipeeth as Devi Bhagwath mentions. This is because it is the place where Devi chose to reside after her birth in Dvapara Yuga. At the time of birth of Lord Krishna to Devaki and Vasudeva, the Yogamaya(Devi) took birth in Gokul to Nanda Baba and Yashoda as per instruction of Lord Vishnu.The Vasudeva replaced his son Krishna with this girl child of Yashoda. When Kansa tried to kill the girl she slipped from his hands and assumed the form of Mahadevi Adishakti. Thereafter Devi chose Vindhya Mountains as her abode to live on the earth.
- Hindu pilgrimage (yatra)
- Hindu pilgrimage sites
- List of Hindu temples
- List of Mansa Devi temples
- List of Shakti peeth in Bengal
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|last1=has generic name (help)
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- ^ "District Census Handbook Mirzapur" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.