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Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent; and is commonly used in South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisines, traditional medicine, and religious rituals.

Ghee (clarified butter)
Butterschmalz-3.jpg
Nutritional value per 1 tablespoon
Energy 469 kJ (112 kcal)
Monounsaturated 3.678 g
Polyunsaturated 0.473 g
0.04 g
Minerals
Potassium
(0%)
1 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Contents

DescriptionEdit

Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, which is churned from cream (traditionally made by churning yogurt), skimming any impurities from the surface, and then pouring and retaining the clear, still liquid fat, while discarding the solid residue that settled on the bottom.[1] Spices can be added for flavor.[2] The texture, color, and taste of ghee depend on the quality of the butter, source of the milk used in the process and the duration of the boiling.

EtymologyEdit

The word ghee comes from Sanskrit: घृत (ghṛta-, IPA: [ɡʱr̩t̪ə]) 'clarified butter, ghee', from ghṛ- 'to sprinkle'.[3]

In HinduismEdit

Traditionally, ghee (Sanskrit: गोघृत, go-ghṛta) is always made from the milk of cows, which are considered sacred, and it is a sacred requirement in Vedic yajña and homa (fire sacrifices), through the medium of Agni (fire) to offer oblations to various deities. (See Yajurveda).

Fire sacrifices have been performed dating back over 5,000 years. They are thought to be auspicious for ceremonies such as marriage, funerals, etc. Ghee is also necessary in Vedic worship of mūrtis (divine deities), with aarti (offering of ghee lamp) called diyā or dīpa and for Pañcāmṛta (Panchamruta) where ghee along with mishri (mishri is different from sugar), honey, milk, and dahī (curd) is used for bathing the deities on the appearance day of Krishna on Janmashtami, Śiva (Shiva) on Mahā-śivarātrī (Maha Shivaratri). There is a hymn to ghee.[4]

In the Mahabharata, the kaurava were born from pots of ghee.[5] Finding ghee pure enough to use for sacred purposes is a problem these days for devout Hindus, since many large-scale producers add salt to their product.[citation needed] Ghee is also used in bhang in order to heat the cannabis to cause decarboxylation, making the drink psychoactive.[6][7]

Culinary usesEdit

 
A dosa in India served with ghee

Ghee is common in cuisines from the Indian subcontinent, including traditional rice preparations (such as biryani). In Rajasthan, ghee often accompanies baati. All over north India, ghee tops roti. In Tamil Nadu, ghee tops pongal, dosa, and kesari bhath. In Bengal (both West Bengal and Bangladesh) and Gujarat, khichdi is a traditional evening meal of rice with lentils, cooked in curry made from yogurt, cumin seeds, curry leaves, cornflour, turmeric, garlic, salt and ghee. It is also an ingredient in kadhi and Indian sweets, such as Mysore pak and varieties of halva and laddu. Pakistani and Punjabi restaurants typically incorporate large amounts of ghee, sometimes brushing naan and roti with it, either during preparation or just before serving. Ghee is widely used in South Indian cuisine for tempering curries, in preparation of rice dishes and sweets. South Indians have a habit of adding ghee to their rice before eating it with pickles and curries. South Indians are one of the biggest consumers of ghee. The people from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh especially use ghee for preparation of savoury and sweet dishes alike. Ghee is important to traditional Punjabi cuisine, with parathas, daals and curries often using ghee instead of oil for a richer taste. The type of ghee, in terms of animal source, tends to vary with the dish; for example, ghee prepared from cow's milk (Bengali: গাওয়া ঘী, gaoa ghi) is traditional with rice or roti or as a finishing drizzle atop a curry or daal (lentils) whereas buffalo-milk ghee is more typical for general cooking purposes.

Ghee is an ideal fat for deep frying because its smoke point (where its molecules begin to break down) is 250 °C (482 °F), which is well above typical cooking temperatures of around 200 °C (392 °F) and above that of most vegetable oils.[8]

Clarified butter vs. gheeEdit

Ghee differs slightly in its production. The process of creating traditional clarified butter is complete once the water is evaporated and the fat (clarified butter) is separated from the milk solids. However, the production of ghee includes simmering the butter, which makes it nutty-tasting and aromatic.[1][9][10][11]

A traditional Ayurvedic recipe for ghee is to boil raw milk, let it cool to 110 °F (43 °C). After letting it sit covered at room temperature for around 12 hours, add a bit of yogurt to it and let it sit overnight. This makes more yogurt. This is churned with water, to obtain cultured butter, which is used to simmer into ghee.[12]

Traditional medicineEdit

Ayurveda considers pure unadulterated ghee to be sāttvik or sattva-guṇi (in the "mode of goodness"), when used as food. It is the main ingredient in some of the Ayurvedic medicines, and is included under catuh mahā sneha (the four main oils: ghṛta, taila, vasā, and majjā) along with sesame oil, muscle fat, and bone marrow. Ghee is used preferentially for diseases caused by Pitta Dosha. Many Ayurvedic formulations contain ghee, for example, Brāhmi ghṛta, Indukānta ghṛta, Phala ghṛta, etc. Though eight types of ghee are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, ghee made of human breast milk and cow's ghee are favored. Ghee is also used in Ayurvedas for constipation and ulcers.

In Sri Lankan indigenous medical traditions (Deshīya Cikitsā), ghee is included in pas tel (five oils: ghee, margosa oil, sesame oil, castor oil, and butter tree oil).

NutritionEdit

Ghee
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
0 g
99.5 g
Saturated 61.9 g
Trans 4g
Monounsaturated 28.7 g
Polyunsaturated 3.7 g
0 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A 3069 IU
Vitamin E
(105%)
15.7 mg
Other constituents
Cholesterol 256 mg

Fat percentage can vary.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed almost entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats; the nutrition facts label found on bottled cow's ghee produced in the United States indicates 8 mg of cholesterol per teaspoon.

It should not be confused with Vanaspati Ghee which is partially hydrogenated vegetable oil not clarified butter. Ghee is also sometimes called desi (country-made) ghee or asli (genuine) ghee to distinguish it from "vegetable ghee".

Fats & fatty acids Amounts per 100 g of ghee[13]
Total fat 99.5 g ( 153% DV)
Saturated fat 61.9 g (310% DV)
Monounsaturated fat 28.7 g
Polyunsaturated fat 3.7 g
Trans fats 4 g
Omega-3 fatty acids 1.447 mg[citation needed]
Omega-6 fatty acids 2.247 mg[citation needed]
Omega-9 fatty acids 25.026 mg[citation needed]
Other non-fat nutrients Amounts per 100 g of ghee
Carbohydrates 0
Minerals 0
Cholesterol 256 mg (85%DV)
Phytosterols 0
Vitamin A 3069 IU (61% DV)
Vitamin B, C, D 0
Vitamin E 2.8 mg (14% DV)
Vitamin K 8.6 µg (11% DV)

Outside the Indian subcontinentEdit

 
Fiji's Choice Ghee is one variety that is made outside the Indian subcontinent, in Fiji.

Several communities outside the Indian subcontinent make ghee. Egyptians make a product called samna baladi (سمنة بلدى IPA: [ˈsæmnæ ˈbælædi], meaning "countryside butter" identical to ghee in terms of process and result, but made from water buffalo milk instead of cow milk, and white in color. Also, during the process, the darkened milk solids are considered a delicacy called morta مرطة, which is a salty condiment used sparingly as a spread, or as an addition on fava dishes. Regular samna is also made from cow milk in Egypt and is often yellowish.

Ghee is also used by various ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa. Tesmi (in Tigrinya language) is the clarified butter prepared in the country of Eritrea. The preparation is similar to that of ghee but the butter is oftentimes combined with garlic and other spices found native to the area. Tesmi is a staple ingredient in Eritrean cuisine. In Ethiopia, niter kibbeh (error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help)) is made and used in much the same way as ghee, but with spices added during the process that result in distinctive tastes. In Somalia, clarified butter is known as subag, where it is traditionally used in breakfast meals.

In North Africa, Maghrebis take this one step further, aging spiced ghee for months or even years, resulting in a product called smen (oedie in the Amazigh language).

In northeastern Brazil, an unrefrigerated butter very similar to ghee, called manteiga-de-garrafa (butter-in-a-bottle) or manteiga-da-terra (butter of the land), is common.

Ghee is widely used in Europe. For example, Wiener Schnitzel is traditionally fried in a version of ghee known as Butterschmalz. In Switzerland as well as bordering areas, butter was rendered in the old days to preserve the product for several months without refrigeration. "Boiled Butter", as it is commonly called, is used extensively to finish a typical dish of roesti, the Swiss version of hash browns. It gives the dish its distinct flavor. This product is also used in baking of various pastries and cakes as a substitute for fresh butter to enhance the flavor of the products.

Among Nilotic pastoralist communities in the African Great Lakes region, such as the Nandi, Tugen, and Maasai communities, ghee and flocculated byproducts (kamaek) from ghee-making were traditionally used as cooking oil.

In Japan, ghee was mentioned in the Nirvana Sutra, and inspired the creation of Daigo, created from so, a milk skin cheese.

MarketEdit

The market size of ghee in India is 10,000 crores (INR 1011) as of 2016. India is the world’s largest producer of buffalo and cow milk and consequently also the largest producer and consumer of ghee. [14] [15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Landis, Denise (2003). All About Ghee New York Times - Food Chain
  2. ^ Shilpa (14 May 2007). "How to make Ghee". Aayi's Recipes. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  3. ^ as contrasted with navanīta 'fresh butter': Carl Darling Buck, A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages, 1949, reprinted 1992 ISBN 0226079376, p. 399, §5.89 'Butter'
  4. ^ Language and Style of the Vedic Rsis, Tatyana Jakovlevna Elizarenkova (C) 1995, p. 18.
  5. ^ Fitzgerald, James L.; Adrianus, Johannes; Buitenen, Bernardus. The Mahabharata, Volume 7: Book 11: The Book of the Women Book 12 ..., Part 1. p. 613. 
  6. ^ Gottlieb, Adam (1993). Cooking with Cannabis: The Most Effective Methods of Preparing Food and Drink with Marijuana, Hashish, and Hash Oil. Ronin Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 0-914171-55-0. 
  7. ^ Drake, Bill (2002). The Marijuana Food Handbook. Ronin Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 0-914171-99-2. 
  8. ^ "What are the advantages and disadvantages of butter and ghee when it comes to cooking?". Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  9. ^ Iyer, Raghavan (2008). 660 Curries, p. 21. New York: Workman Publishing ISBN 978-0-7611-3787-0, cited in Wikipedia contributors. "Clarified butter." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Jul. 2013. Web. 10 Jul. 2013.
  10. ^ Jaffrey, Madhur (1982). Madhur Jaffrey’s Indian Cooking, p. 211. London: BBC Books. ISBN 0-8120-6548-4, cited in Wikipedia contributors. "Clarified butter." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Jul. 2013. Web. 10 Jul. 2013.
  11. ^ Sahni, Julie (1998). Julie Sahni’s Introduction to Indian Cooking, p. 217 under “usli ghee.” Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-89815-976-8, cited in Wikipedia contributors. "Clarified butter." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 10 Jul. 2013. Web. 10 Jul. 2013.
  12. ^ Joshi, KS (2014). "Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method". J Ayurveda Integr Med. 5: 85–8. doi:10.4103/0975-9476.131730. PMC 4061595 . PMID 24948858. 
  13. ^ "Show Foods". Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  14. ^ Milk in India: a popular refreshment, a huge business and a gift from the gods
  15. ^ "Delhi's tax free budget: Desi ghee to cost less in Delhi". timesofindia-economictimes. Retrieved 27 December 2015.