Rock candy or sugar candy (in British English), also called rock sugar, is a type of confection composed of relatively large sugar crystals. This candy is formed by allowing a supersaturated solution of sugar and oil to crystallize onto a surface suitable for crystal nucleation, such as a string, stick, or plain granulated sugar. Heating the water before adding the sugar allows more sugar to dissolve thus producing larger crystals. Crystals form after 1 to 2 days. Food coloring may be added to the mixture to produce colored candy.
|Alternative names||Rock sugar|
|Place of origin||Isfahan , Iran|
|Region or state||Iran|
|Main ingredients||Sugar, water|
|14-56 kcal (-220 kJ)|
Etymologically, "sugar candy" derives from late 13th century English (in reference to "crystallized sugar"), from Old French çucre candi (meaning "sugar candy"), and ultimately from Arabic qandi, from Persian qand ("cane sugar"), probably from Sanskrit khanda ("piece of sugar)", The sense gradually broadened (especially in the U.S.A.) to mean by the late 19th century "any confection having sugar as its basis". In Britain these are sweets, and "candy" tends to be restricted to sweets made only from boiled sugar and striped in bright colors.
The modern American term "rock candy" (referring to brittle large natural sugar crystals) should not be confused with the British term rock (referring to an amorphous and opaque boiled sugar product, initially hard but then chewy at mouth temperature).
Candied sugar has its origins in Isfahan, Iran. Islamic writers in the first half of the 9th century described the production of candy sugar, where crystals were grown through cooling supersaturated sugar solutions. In order to accelerate crystallization, confectioners later learned to immerse small twigs in the solution for the crystals to grow on. The sugar solution was colored with cochineal and indigo, and scented with ambergris or flower essence.
Rock candy is often dissolved in tea. It is an important part of the tea culture of East Frisia, where a lump of rock sugar is placed at the bottom of the cup. Rock candy consumed with tea is also the most common and popular way of drinking tea in Iran, where it is called nabat; the most popular nabat is saffron.
It is a common ingredient in Chinese cooking. In China, it is used to sweeten chrysanthemum tea, as well as Cantonese dessert soups and the liquor baijiu. Many households have rock candy available to marinate meats, add to stir fry, and to prepare food such as yao shan. In less modern times, rock sugar was a luxury only for the wealthy. Rock candy is also regarded as having medicinal properties, and in some Chinese provinces, it is used as a part of traditional Chinese medicine.
In the US, rock candy comes in many colors and flavors, and is slightly hard to find, due to it being considered old-fashioned.
|Type||Rock candy or sweetener|
|Place of origin||India and Iran|
Misri (Urdu: مسری, Hindi: मिश्री, Bengali: মিছরি) refers to crystallized sugar lumps, and a type of confectionery mineral, which has its origins in India and Persia, also known as rock sugar elsewhere. It is used in India as a type of candy, or used to sweeten milk or tea.
In Hinduism, mishri may be offered to a deity as bhog and distributed as prasad. The god Krishna is said to be fond of makkhan (butter) and misri. In many devotional songs written in Brajbhoomi in praise of Krishna, the words makkhan and misri are often used in combination. In Northern Karnataka people serve mishri along with water to visitors in the Summer season.
Among Indian misri dishes are mishri-mawa (kalakand), mishri-peda, which are more commonly eaten in Northern-Western India, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Orissa, North coastal of Andhra Pradesh and many other states and parts of India.
Rock and rye is a term used both for alcoholic liqueurs and cocktails using rye whiskey and rock candy, as well as for non-alcoholic beverages made in imitation thereof, such as the "Rock & Rye" flavor of soda pop made by Faygo.
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