Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism or (anachronistically) ancient Hinduism[a]), and subsequent Brahmanism, constituted the religious ideas and practices among some of the Indo-Aryan peoples of northwest India and the western Ganges plain of ancient India during the Vedic period (1500–500 BC).[3][4][5][6] These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts.

The spread of the Vedic culture in the late Vedic period. Aryavarta was limited to northwest India and the western Ganges plain, while Greater Magadha in the east was occupied by non-Vedic Indo-Aryans.[1][2] The location of shakhas is labeled in maroon.

The Vedic religion developed during the early Vedic period (1500–1100 BCE), but has roots in the Eurasian steppe Sintashta culture (2200–1800 BCE) and the subsequent Central Asian Andronovo culture (2000–900 BCE), and possibly also the Indus Valley Civilisation (2600–1900 BCE).[7] It was a composite of the religion of the Central Asian Indo-Aryans, itself "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements",[8] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices"[9] from the Bactria–Margiana culture;[9] and the remnants of the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley.[10]

During the late Vedic period (1100–500 BCE) Brahmanism, also called Brahminism, developed out of the Vedic religion, as an ideology of the Kuru-Pancala realm which expanded into a wider area after the demise of the Kuru-Pancala realm. Brahmanism was one of the major influences that shaped contemporary Hinduism, when it was synthesized with the non-Vedic Indo-Aryan religious heritage of the eastern Ganges plain (which also gave rise to Buddhism and Jainism), and with local religious traditions.[11][2][1][12][a]

Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others: the Soma rituals; Fire rituals involving oblations (havir); and the Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice)[13][14] The rites of grave burials as well as cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period.[15] Deities emphasized in the Vedic religion include Indra, Agni and Varuna. Important ethical concepts are satya and ṛta.


Vedism refers to the oldest form of the Vedic religion, when Indo-Aryans entered into the valley of the Indus River in multiple waves during the 2nd millennium BCE. Brahmanism refers to the further developed form which took shape at the Ganges basin around c. 1000 BCE.[16][12] According to Heesterman, "It is loosely known as Brahmanism because of the religious and legal importance it places on the brāhmaṇa (priestly) class of society."[16]

Origins and developmentEdit

Indo-Aryan Vedic religionEdit

The Vedic religion was the religion of some of the Vedic Indo-Aryan tribes, the aryas,[17][18][b] who migrated into the Indus River valley region of the Indian subcontinent.[3][c] The Vedic religion, and subsequent Brahmanism center on the myths and ritual ideologies of the Vedas, as distinguished from Agamic, Tantric and sectarian forms of Indian religion, which take recourse to the authority of non-Vedic textual sources.[3] The Vedic religion is described in the Vedas and associated voluminous Vedic literature including the early Upanishads, preserved into the modern times by the different priestly schools.[20][3] It existed in the western Ganges plain in the early Vedic period from c. 1500–1100 BCE,[21][d] and developed into Brahmanism in the late Vedic period (1100–500 BCE).[12][24] The eastern Ganges-plain was dominated by another Indo-Aryan complex, which rejected the later Brahmanical ideology, and gave rise to Jainism and Buddhism, and the Mauryan Empire.[1][2]

The Indo-Aryans were speakers of a branch of the Indo-European language family, which originated in the Sintashta culture and further developed into the Andronovo culture, which in turn developed out of the Kurgan culture of the Central Asian steppes.[25][c][e] The commonly proposed period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to 2nd millennium BCE.[46]

The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion,[47][f] and shows relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture, from which the Indo-Aryan people descended.[48] According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran.[8] It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements"[8] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices"[9] from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC).[9] This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non-Indo-European words that were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma.[49] According to Anthony,

Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers.[31]

The oldest inscriptions in Old Indic, the language of the Rig Veda, are found not in northwestern India and Pakistan, but in northern Syria, the location of the Mitanni kingdom.[50] The Mitanni kings took Old Indic throne names, and Old Indic technical terms were used for horse-riding and chariot-driving.[50] The Old Indic term r'ta, meaning "cosmic order and truth", the central concept of the Rig Veda, was also employed in the Mitanni kingdom.[50] Old Indic gods, including Indra, were also known in the Mitanni kingdom.[51][52][53]

The Vedic religion was the product of "a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations".[54] White (2003) cites three other scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion is partially derived from the Indus Valley Civilization.[10] The Vedic religion texts are cerebral, orderly and intellectual, but it is unclear if the theory in diverse Vedic texts actually reflect the folk practices, iconography and other practical aspects of the Vedic religion.[20]

The Vedic religion changed when Indo-Aryan people migrated into the Ganges Plain after c. 1100 BCE and became settled farmers,[12][55][56] further syncretising with the native cultures of northern India.[2][page needed][3] The evidence suggests that the Vedic religion evolved in "two superficially contradictory directions", state Jamison and Witzel, namely an ever more "elaborate, expensive, and specialized system of rituals",[57] which survives in the present-day srauta-ritual,[58] and "abstraction and internalization of the principles underlying ritual and cosmic speculation" within oneself,[57][59] akin to the Jain and Buddhist tradition.

Aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived into modern times. The Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient Śrauta rituals. The complex Vedic rituals of Śrauta continue to be practiced in Kerala and coastal Andhra.[60] The Kalash people residing in northwest Pakistan also continue to practice a form of ancient Hinduism.[58][g]

According to Heinrich von Stietencron, in the 19th century, in western publications, the Vedic religion was believed to be different from and unrelated to Hinduism. The Hindu religion was thought to be linked to the Hindu epics and the Puranas through sects based on purohita, tantras and Bhakti. In the 20th century, a better understanding of the Vedic religion and its shared heritage and theology with contemporary Hinduism has led scholars to view the historical Vedic religion as ancestral to modern Hinduism.[65] The historical Vedic religion is now generally accepted to be a predecessor of Hinduism, but they are not the same because the textual evidence suggests significant differences between the two,[a] such as the belief in an afterlife instead of the later developed reincarnation and samsāra concepts.[67] The Hindu reform movements and the Neo-Vedanta have emphasized the Vedic heritage and "ancient Hinduism", and this term has been co-opted by some Hindus.[65]


Brahmanism, also called Brahminism, developed out of the Vedic religion, incorporating non-Vedic religious ideas, and expanding to a region stretching from the northwest Indian subcontinent to the Ganges valley.[3][12] Brahmanism included the Vedic corpus, but also post-Vedic texts such as the Dharmasutras and Dharmasastras, which gave prominence to the priestly (Brahmin) class of the society,[3] Heesterman also mentions the post-Vedic Smriti (Puranas and the Epics),[3] which are also incorporated in the later Smarta tradition. The emphasis on ritual and the dominant position of Brahmans developed as an ideology developed in the Kuru-Pancala realm, and expanded into a wider realm after the demish of the Kuru-Pancala realm.[12] It co-existed with local religions, such as the Yaksha cults.[2][68][69]

The word Brahmanism was coined by Gonçalo Fernandes Trancoso (1520–1596) in the 16th century.[70] Historically, and still by some modern authors, the word 'Brahmanism' was used in English to refer to the Hindu religion, treating the term Brahmanism as synonymous with Hinduism, and using it interchangeably.[71][72] In the 18th and 19th centuries, Brahminism was the most common term used in English for Hinduism, and "Hindu" meant "Indian" when applied to people.

Brahmanism gave importance to Absolute Reality (Brahman) speculations in the early Upanishads, as these terms are etymologically linked, which developed from post-Vedic ideas during the late Vedic era.[4][73][74][75] The concept of Brahman is posited as that which existed before the creation of the universe, which constitutes all of existence thereafter, and into which the universe will dissolve, followed by similar endless creation-maintenance-destruction cycles.[76][77][78][h]

The post-Vedic period of the Second Urbanisation saw a decline of Brahmanism.[79][80] With the growth of cities, which threatened the income and patronage of the rural Brahmins; the rise of Buddhism; and the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great (327–325 BCE), the rise of the Mauryan Empire (322–185 BCE), and the Saka invasions and rule of northwestern India (2nd c. BC – 4th c. CE), Brahmanism faced a grave threat to its existence.[81][82] This was overcome by providing new services[83] and incorporating the non-Vedic Indo-Aryan religious heritage of the eastern Ganges plain and local religious traditions, giving rise to contemporary Hinduism.[81][11][2][1][12][3][a] This "new Brahmanism" appealed to rulers, who were attracted to the supernatural powers and the practical advice Brahmis could provide,[83] and resulted in a resurgence of Brahmanical influence, dominating Indian society since the classical Age of Hinduism in the early centuries CE.[81][82]

Nowadays, the term Brahmanism, used interchangeably with Brahminism, is used in several ways. It denotes the specific Brahmanical rituals and worldview as preserved in the Śrauta ritual, as distinct from the wide range of popular cultic activity with little connection with them. Brahminism also refers specifically to the Brahminical ideology, which sees Brahmins as naturally privileged people entitled to rule and dominate society. The term may be used by anti-Brahminical opponents, who object against their domination of Indian society and their exclusivist ideology,[84]

Textual historyEdit

A Yupa sacrificial post of the time of Vasishka, 3rd century CE. Isapur, near Mathura. Mathura Museum.

Texts dating to the Vedic period, composed in Vedic Sanskrit, are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and some of the older Upanishads[i] are also placed in this period. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices. These texts are also considered as a part of the scripture of contemporary Hinduism.[85]

Who really knows?
Who will here proclaim it?
Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.
Who then knows whence it has arisen?
Nasadiya Sukta, Rig Veda, 10:129-6[86][87][88]


The idea of reincarnation, saṃsāra, is not mentioned in the early layers of the historic Vedic religion texts such as the Rigveda.[89][90] The later layers of the Rigveda do mention ideas that suggest an approach towards the idea of rebirth, according to Ranade.[91][92]

The early layers of the Vedas do not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife.[93][94] According to Sayers, these earliest layers of the Vedic literature show ancestor worship and rites such as sraddha (offering food to the ancestors). The later Vedic texts such as the Aranyakas and the Upanisads show a different soteriology based on reincarnation, they show little concern with ancestor rites, and they begin to philosophically interpret the earlier rituals.[95][96][97] The idea of reincarnation and karma have roots in the Upanishads of the late Vedic period, predating the Buddha and the Mahavira.[98][99] Similarly, the later layers of the Vedic literature such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (c. 800 BCE) – such as in section 4.4 – discuss the earliest versions of the Karma doctrine as well as causality.[100][101]

Ancient Vedic religion lacked the belief in reincarnation and concepts such as Saṃsāra or Nirvana. Ancient Vedic religion was a complex animistic religion with polytheistic and pantheistic aspects. Ancestor worship was an important, maybe the central component, of the ancient Vedic religion. Elements of the ancestors cult are still common in modern Hinduism, see Śrāddha.[67][102]

According to Olivelle, some scholars state that the renouncer tradition was an "organic and logical development of ideas found in the vedic religious culture", while others state that these emerged from the "indigenous non-Aryan population". This scholarly debate is a longstanding one, and is ongoing.[103]


A Śrauta yajna being performed in Kerala, South India

Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include, among others:[13][verification needed]

  • The Soma rituals, which involved the extraction, utility and consumption of Soma:
  • Fire rituals involving oblations (havir):
  • The royal consecration (Rajasuya) sacrifice
  • The Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice) or a Yajna dedicated to the glory, wellbeing and prosperity of the kingdom or empire[14]
  • The Purushamedha
  • The rituals and charms referred to in the Atharvaveda are concerned with medicine and healing practices[104]
  • The Gomedha or cow sacrifice:
    • The Taittiriya Brahmana of the Yajur Veda gives instructions for selecting the cow for the sacrifice depending on the deity.[105]
    • Panchasaradiya sava – celebration where 17 cows are immolated once every five years. The Taittiriya Brahmana advocates the Panchasaradiya for those who want to be great.[105]
    • Sulagava – sacrifice where roast beef is offered. It is mentioned in the Grihya Sutra[105]
    • According to Dr. R. Mitra, the offered animal was intended for consumption as detailed in the Asvalayana Sutra. The Gopatha Brahmana lists the different individuals who are to receive the various parts like Pratiharta (neck and hump), the Udgatr, the Neshta, the Sadasya, the householder who performs the sacrifice (the two right feet), his wife (the two left feet) and so on.[105]

The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period; while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture, there is a late Rigvedic reference invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)". (RV 10.15.14)


Though a large number of names for devas occur in the Rigveda, only 33 devas are counted, eleven each of earth, space, and heaven.[106] The Vedic pantheon knows two classes, Devas and Asuras. The Devas (Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga, Amsa, etc.) are deities of cosmic and social order, from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities, most notably heroic Indra, Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods, and Soma, the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians.[107] Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "All-gods", the Vishvadevas.[108]


In the Hindu tradition, the revered sages of this era were Yajnavalkya,[109][110] Atharvan,[111] Atri,[112] Bharadvaja,[113] Gautama Maharishi, Jamadagni,[114] Kashyapa,[115] Vasistha,[116] Bhrigu,[117] Kutsa,[118] Pulastya, Kratu, Pulaha, Vishwamitra Narayana, Kanva, Rishabha, Vamadeva, and Angiras.[citation needed]

Ethics – satya and rtaEdit

Ethics in the Vedas are based on concepts like satya and ṛta.[119]

In the Vedas and later sutras, the meaning of the word satya (सत्य) evolves into an ethical concept about truthfulness and is considered an important virtue.[120][121] It means being true and consistent with reality in one's thought, speech and action.[120]

Vedic ṛtá and its Avestan equivalent aša are both thought by some to derive from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hr̥tás "truth",[122] which in turn may continue from a possible Proto-Indo-European *h2r-tós "properly joined, right, true", from a presumed root *h2er-. The derivative noun ṛta is defined as "fixed or settled order, rule, divine law or truth".[123] As Mahony (1998) notes, however, the term can be translated as "that which has moved in a fitting manner" – although this meaning is not actually cited by authoritative Sanskrit dictionaries it is a regular derivation from the verbal root -, and abstractly as "universal law" or "cosmic order", or simply as "truth".[124] The latter meaning dominates in the Avestan cognate to Ṛta, aša.[125]

Due to the nature of Vedic Sanskrit, the term Ṛta can be used to indicate numerous things, either directly or indirectly, and both Indian and European scholars have experienced difficulty in arriving at fitting interpretations for Ṛta in all of its various usages in the Vedas, though the underlying sense of "ordered action" remains universally evident.[126]

The term is also found in the Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples.[127] The term dharma was already used in the later Brahmanical thoughts, where it was conceived as an aspect of ṛta.[128]

Post-Vedic religionsEdit

The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BCE. The period between 800 BCE and 200 BCE is the formative period for later Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.[129][130] According to Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "ascetic reformism",[131] while the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".[132] Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period", when "traditional religious practices and beliefs were reassessed. The Brahmins and the rituals they performed no longer enjoyed the same prestige they had in the Vedic period".[133]

The hymn 10.85 of the Rigveda includes the Vivaha-sukta (above). Its recitation continues to be a part of Hindu wedding rituals.[134][135]

The transition from ancient Brahmanism into schools of Hinduism was a form of evolution in interaction with non-Vedic traditions, one that preserved many of the central ideas and theosophy in the Vedas, and synergistically integrated non-Vedic ideas.[136][2][1][12] While part of Hinduism, Vedanta, Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism share their concern with escape from the suffering of existence with Buddhism.[137]


Vedic religion was followed by Upanishads which gradually evolved into Vedanta, which is regarded by some as the primary institution of Hinduism. Vedanta considers itself "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas".[138]


According to David Knipe, some communities in India have preserved and continue to practice portions of the historical Vedic religion, such as in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh state of India and elsewhere.[139] Of the continuation of the Vedic tradition in a newer sense, Fowler writes the following:

Despite the radically different nature of the Upanishads in relation to the Vedas it has to be remembered that the material of both form the Veda or "knowledge" which is sruti literature. So the Upanishads develop the ideas of the Vedas beyond their ritual formalism and should not be seen as isolated from them. The fact that the Vedas that are more particularly emphasized in the Vedanta: the efficacy of the Vedic ritual is not rejected, it is just that there is a search for the Reality that informs it.[140]


According to German Professor Axel Michaels, the Vedic gods declined but did not disappear, and local cults were assimilated into the Vedic-brahmanic pantheon, which changed into the Hindu pantheon. Deities such as Shiva and Vishnu became more prominent and gave rise to Shaivism and Vaishnavism.[141]

Interpretations of Vedic mantras in HinduismEdit

The various Hindu schools and traditions give various interpretations of the Vedic hymns.

Mīmāṃsā philosophers argue that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a god to validate the rituals.[142] Mīmāṃsā argues that the gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of gods.[143]

Adi Shankara, an 8th-century CE philosopher who unified and established the main currents of thought in Hinduism,[144] interpreted Vedas as being nondualist or monist.[145] However, the Arya Samaj New religious movement holds the view that the Vedic mantras tend to monotheism.[146] Even the earlier Mandalas of Rig Veda (books 1 and 9) contains hymns which are thought to resemble monotheism.[147] Often quoted isolated pada 1.164.46 of the Rig Veda states (trans. Griffith):

Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān,
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ

They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmān.
To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan.

Moreover, the verses of 10.129 and 10.130, deal with the one being (Ékam sát). The verse 10.129.7 further confirms this (trans. Griffith):

iyám vísṛṣṭiḥ yátaḥ ābabhūva / yádi vā dadhé yádi vā ná / yáḥ asya ádhyakṣaḥ paramé vyóman / sáḥ aṅgá veda yádi vā ná véda

He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not, He who surveys it all from his highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps even he does not

Sramana traditionEdit

The non-Vedic śramaṇa traditions existed alongside Brahmanism.[148][149][j][150][151] These were not direct outgrowths of Vedism, but movements with mutual influences with Brahmanical traditions,[148] reflecting "the cosmology and anthropology of a much older, pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India".[152] Jainism and Buddhism evolved out of the Shramana tradition.[153]

There are Jaina references to 22 prehistoric tirthankaras. In this view, Jainism peaked at the time of Mahavira (traditionally put in the 6th century BCE).[154][155] Buddhism, traditionally put from c. 500 BCE, declined in India over the 5th to 12th centuries in favor of Puranic Hinduism[156] and Islam.[157][158]

Kalash peopleEdit

According to the historian and Sanskrit linguist Michael Witzel, some of the rituals of the Kalash people have elements of the historical Vedic religion, but there are also some differences such as the presence of fire next to the altar instead of "in the altar" as in the Vedic religion.[159][160]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Scholars such as Jan Gonda have used the term ancient Hinduism, distinguishing it from "recent Hinduism". Stephanie W. Jamison and Michael Witzel (1992) "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradictio in terminis since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion – at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism".[20]
    According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, from the Vedic religion emerged Brahmanism, a religious tradition of ancient India. It states, "Brahmanism emphasized the rites performed by, and the status of, the Brahman, or priestly, class as well as speculation about Brahman (the Absolute reality) as theorized in the Upanishads (speculative philosophical texts that are considered to be part of the Vedas, or scriptures)."[66] From Brahmanism developed Hinduism, when it was synthesized with the non-Vedic Indo-Aryan religious heritage of the eastern Ganges plain and with local religious traditions.[11][2][1][12]
  2. ^ Michaels: "They called themselves arya ('Aryans', literally 'the hospitable', from the Vedic arya, 'homey, the hospitable') but even in the Rgveda, arya denotes a cultural and linguistic boundary and not only a racial one."[19]
  3. ^ a b The Indo-Aryans were pastoralists[12] who migrated into north-western India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization,[19][26][27] bringing with them their language[28] and religion.[29][30] They were closely related to the Indo-Aryans who founded Mitanni kingdom in northern Syria[31] (c.1500–1300 BCE).
    Both groups were rooted in the Andronovo-culture[32] in the BactriaMargiana era, in present northern Afghanistan,[31] and related to the Indo-Iranians, from which they split off around 1800–1600 BCE.[33] Their roots go back further to the Sintashta culture, with funeral sacrifices which show close parallels to the sacrificial funeral rites of the Rig Veda.[34]
    The immigrations consisted probably of small groups of people.[25] Kenoyer (1998) notes that "there is no archaeological or biological evidence for invasions or mass migrations into the Indus Valley between the end of the Harappan phase, about 1900 B.C. and the beginning of the Early Historic period around 600 B.C."[35]
    For an overview of the current relevant research, see the following references.[36][37][38][39]
  4. ^ There is no exact dating possible for the beginning of the Vedic period. Witzel mentions a range between 1900 and 1400 BCE.[22] Flood (1996) mentions 1500 BCE.[23]
  5. ^ Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans into India,[40][41][19][42] due to a lack of archaeological evidence and signs of cultural continuity,[19] hypothesizing instead a slow process of acculturation[19] or transformation.[26] According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, and others. The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryams came to the subcontinent as immigrants. Another view, advocated mainly by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent."[42] Edwin Bryant used the term "Indo-Aryan controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan migration theory, and some of its opponents.[43]
    Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency", namely the Anatolian hypothesis, and a migration out of the Eurasian steppes.[44] Linguistic and archaeological data clearly show a cultural change after 1750 BCE,[19] with the linguistic and religious data clearly showing links with Indo-European languages and religion.[45] According to Singh, "The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryans came to the subcontinent as immigrants."[42]
    An overview of the "Indigenist position" can be obtained from Bryant & Patton (2005).[43] See also the article Indigenous Aryans
  6. ^ See Kuzʹmina (2007), The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, p. 339, for an overview of publications up to 1997 on this subject.
  7. ^ Up to the late 19th century, the Nuristanis of Afghanistan observed a primitive form of Hinduism until they were forcibly converted to Islam under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan.[61][62][63] However, aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived in other corners of the Indian subcontinent, such as Kerala, where the Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient Śrauta rituals. The Kalash people residing in northwest Pakistan also continue to practice a form of ancient Hinduism.[58][64]
  8. ^ For the metaphysical concept of Brahman, see: Lipner, Julius (2012). Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. pp. 251–252, 283, 366–369. ISBN 978-1-135-24061-5; Perrett, Roy W. (1998). Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-0-8248-2085-5.
  9. ^ Upanishads thought to date from the Vedic period are Bṛhadāraṇyaka, Chāndogya, Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana.
  10. ^ Cromwell: "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times."[148]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Bronkhorst 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Samuel 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Heesterman 2005, p. 9552–9553. Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "FOOTNOTEHeesterman20059552–9553" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b "Vedic religion". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  5. ^ Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6.
  6. ^ Samuel 2010, pp. 97-99, 113-118.
  7. ^ White 2003.
  8. ^ a b c Anthony 2007, p. 462.
  9. ^ a b c d Beckwith 2011, p. 32.
  10. ^ a b White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-226-89483-5.
  11. ^ a b c "Vedic religion". Encyclopedia Britannica. It [Vedic religion] takes its name from the collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. It was one of the major traditions that shaped Hinduism.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Witzel 1995.
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  58. ^ a b c West, Barbara A. (19 May 2010). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 357. ISBN 9781438119137. The Kalasha are a unique people living in just three valleys near Chitral, Pakistan, the capital of North-West Frontier Province, which borders Afghanistan. Unlike their neighbors in the Hindu Kush Mountains on both the Afghani and Pakistani sides of the border the Kalasha have not converted to Islam. During the mid-20th century a few Kalasha villages in Pakistan were forcibly converted to this dominant religion, but the people fought the conversion and once official pressure was removed the vast majority continued to practice their own religion. Their religion is a form of Hinduism that recognizes many gods and spirits ... given their Indo-Aryan language, ... the religion of the Kalasha is much more closely aligned to the Hinduism of their Indian neighbors that to the religion of Alexander the Great and his armies.
  59. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 113.
  60. ^ Knipe 2015, pp. 1–50.
  61. ^ Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 205. ISBN 9781610690188. Living in the high mountain valleys, the Nuristani retained their ancient culture and their religion, a form of ancient Hinduism with many customs and rituals developed locally. Certain deities were revered only by one tribe or community, but one deity was universally worshipped by all Nuristani as the Creator, the Hindu god Yama Raja, called imr'o or imra by the Nuristani tribes.
  62. ^ Barrington, Nicholas; Kendrick, Joseph T.; Schlagintweit, Reinhard (18 April 2006). A Passage to Nuristan: Exploring the mysterious Afghan hinterland. I.B. Tauris. p. 111. ISBN 9781845111755. Prominent sites include Hadda, near Jalalabad, but Buddhism never seems to have penetrated the remote valleys of Nuristan, where the people continued to practice an early form of polytheistic Hinduism.
  63. ^ Weiss, Mitch; Maurer, Kevin (31 December 2012). No Way Out: A story of valor in the mountains of Afghanistan. Berkley Caliber. p. 299. ISBN 9780425253403. Up until the late nineteenth century, many Nuristanis practiced a primitive form of Hinduism. It was the last area in Afghanistan to convert to Islam—and the conversion was accomplished by the sword.
  64. ^ Bezhan, Frud (19 April 2017). "Pakistan's Forgotten Pagans get their Due". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 31 July 2017. About half of the Kalash practice a form of ancient Hinduism infused with old pagan and animist beliefs.
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  73. ^ Maritain, Jacques (2005). An Introduction to Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield. pages 6–7 footnote 1. ISBN 978-0-7425-5053-7. This [the primitive religion of the Vedas] resulted, after a period of confusion, in the formation of a new system, Brahmanism (or Hinduism), which is essentially a philosophy, a metaphysic, a work of human speculation, ...; [footnote 1]... the neuter, Brahman, as the one impersonal substance.
  74. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2002). Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings. Routledge. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-1-134-68918-7. The early Upanishads are primarily metaphysical treatises concerned with identifying the Brahman, the ground of the universe. ... The essence of early Brahmanism is the search for the Absolute and its natural development is in Vedantin monism which claims that the soul is identical with the Absolute.
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  146. ^ Saraswati, Swami Dayanand. "Light of Truth". chapter 7. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009.
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  150. ^ Masih, Y. (2000). A Comparative Study of Religions. Delhi, IN: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 18. ISBN 81-208-0815-0. There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to Vedic sacrifices, Vedic deities or caste. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed ... much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times.
  151. ^ Jaini, P.S. (1979). The Jaina Path to Purification. Delhi, IN: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 169. Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions, moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-Vedic character of Jaina cosmology, soul theory, karmic doctrine and atheism.
  152. ^ Zimmer 1989, p. 217.
  153. ^ Svarghese, Alexander P. (2008). India : History, religion, vision and contribution to the world. pp. 259–260.
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  155. ^ Dundas, Paul (2002). The Jains. p. 17. Jainism, then, was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture that flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BCE.
  156. ^ "Buddhism". Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Library ed.). 2009.
  157. ^ Ruhe, Brian. Freeing the Buddha: Diversity on a sacred path – large scale concerns. pp. 78–83.}
  158. ^ Sarao, K.T.S. A text book of the history of Theravāda Buddhism. Dept. of Buddhist Studies. University of Delhi. p. 110.
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