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Dyauṣ Pitṛ (द्यौष्पितृ / Dyauṣpitṛ, literally "Sky Father") is the "Father Heaven" deity of the Vedic pantheon, who appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata "Mother Earth" in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism. He is significant in comparative philology scholarship of Proto-Indo-European religion as similar vocative and nominative concepts have been discovered in other languages, such as Dies Pater (Latin), Zευς πατήρ (Greek), Tius or Zio (Old German) and Toutiks dipater (South-Picenean), all of which like Dyaus Pita mean "sky father".[1][2][3]

Dyaus Pita
God of Sky and Heaven
Devanagari द्यौष्पितृ
Sanskrit transliteration Dyauṣpitṛ
Affiliation Deva
Abode Sky (आकाश/ākāsh)
Texts Rigveda
Consort Bhumi Devi

In the Rigveda, Dyaus Pitr appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4[4] He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprithvi, for example, is a dvandva combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyaus Pitr and Prithvi Mata.

The name Dyauṣ Pitṛ is etymologically connected to theonyms such as the Greek Zeus Pater, and closely related to Latin Roman Jupiter. Both Dyauṣ and Zeus stem from a Proto-Indo-European *Dyeus (also Dyḗus Ph2tḗr, alternatively spelled dyēws). This, and many other parallels such as the Indic rain god Parjanyas similarity to Slavic Perun, Lithuanian Perkūnas, and Norse Thor and Fjörgyn led 19th-century scholars to comparative mythology studies and a conjecture that Vedic, post-Vedic, Greek and Roman rituals likely had more ancient Proto-Indo-European roots.[5]

The noun dyaús (when used without the pitā "father") refers to the daylit sky, and occurs frequently in the Rigveda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avama , madhyama, and uttama or tṛtīya (RV 5.60.6).

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Werner Winter (2003). Language in Time and Space. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-3-11-017648-3. 
  2. ^ F Bopp; HH Wilson (1851). Edinburgh Review, Or Critical Journal Volume XCIII-XCIV. A & C Black. p. 171. 
  3. ^ Friedrich Max Müller (1902). The life and letters of the right Honourable Friedrich Max Müller. Longmans, Green, and co. pp. 506–507. 
  4. ^ Sanskrit: Rigveda, Wikisource; Translation: Ralph T. H. Griffith Rigveda, Wikisource
  5. ^ Hil Davidson (1993). The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe. Psychology Press. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-0-415-04936-8. 
  • Thomas Oberlies, Die Religion des Rgveda, Wien (1998).