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Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ (Vedic Sanskrit: Dyáuṣpitṛ́, द्यौष्पितृ, literally 'Sky Father') is the Rigvedic sky deity. His consort is Prithvi, the earth goddess, and together they were the archetypal parents in the Rigveda.

God of Sky and Heaven
Member of the Pancha Bhoota
Other namesAkasha
AffiliationDeva, Pancha Bhoota
AbodeDyuloka, Sky (ākāśa, आकाश)
ConsortPrithvi Mata
OffspringSurya, Ushas, and the other gods
Greek equivalentZeus
Roman equivalentJupiter


Dyauṣ stems from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dyā́wš, from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) daylight-sky god *Dyēus, and is cognate with the Greek Zeus Patēr, Illyrian Dei-pátrous, or Latin Jupiter (from an earlier *Djous patēr), stemming from the PIE Dyḗus ph₂tḗr ("Father Daylight-sky").[1]

The noun dyaús (when used without the pitā́ 'father') refers to the daylight sky, and occurs frequently in the Rigveda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avamá, madhyamá, and uttamá or tṛtī́ya.[2]


Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata 'Mother Earth' in the ancient Vedic scriptures of Hinduism.[3]

In the Rigveda, Dyáuṣ Pitṛ́ appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4[4] He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprithvi, for example, is a dvandva compound combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyaush and Prithvi. His daughter, Ushas, personifies the dawn.[5] The gods, especially Surya, are stated to be the children of Dyaush and Prithvi. Indra's separation of Dyaush and Prithvi is celebrated in the Rigveda as an important creation myth. Dyaush is also known for the rape of his own daughter, which is vaguely by vividly mentioned in the Rigveda.[6] An example of Dyaush's paternal role is at Rigveda 1.164.33

dyaurme pitā janitā nābhiratra bandhurme mātā pṛthivīmahīyam |

uttānayoścamvoryonirantaratrā pitā duhiturgharbhamādhāt ||

[The Sun:] “My father, my progenitor, is Heaven; here is my navel. My mother, this great Earth, is my relation.

My womb is within the two open cups [=Heaven and Earth]. Here my father placed the child [=the Sun] of his daughter [=Dawn].”

Translated by Stephanie Jamison & Joel. P. Brereton [2014] [7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ West 2007, p. 171.
  2. ^ Rigveda, 5.60.6.
  3. ^ Leeming, David; Fee, Christopher (2016). The Goddess: Myths of the Great Mother. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-538-7.
  4. ^ Sanskrit: Rigveda, Wikisource; translation: Ralph T. H. Griffith Rigveda, Wikisource
  5. ^ Roshen Dalal (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 9788184752779. Entry: "Dyaus"
  6. ^ Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda –– The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 50–51.
  7. ^ Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda- The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0190685003.
  • Oberlies, Thomas (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda. Vienna.