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White Mountain, an alpine environment at 4,300 metres (14,000 ft) above sea level in California, United States.

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate.

Contents

DefinitionEdit

There are multiple definitions of alpine climate.

One simple definition is the climate which causes trees to fail to grow due to cold.

In the Köppen climate classification, the alpine and mountain climates are part of group E, along with the polar climate, where no month has a mean temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F).[1]

According to the Holdridge life zone system, there are two mountain climates which prevent tree growth :

a) the alpine climate proper which occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F). The alpine climate¨in Holdridge system is roughly equivalent to the warmest tundra climates (ET) in Köppen system.

b) the alvar climate, the coldest mountain climate since the biotemperature is between 0°C and 1.5°C (biotemperature can never be below 0°C). It corresponds more or less to the coldest tundra climates and to the ice cap climates (EF) as well.

Holdrige reasoned that plants net primary productivity ceases at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) and above 30 °C (86 °F) [2] (plants are dormant) so he defined biotemperature as the mean of all temperatures but with all temperatures below freezing and above 30 °C adjusted to 0 °C (that is the sum of temperatures not adjusted divided by the number of all temperatures without any exception, be it adjusted or not).

CauseEdit

The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an interaction between radiation and convection. Sunlight in the visible spectrum hits the ground and heats it. The ground then heats the air at the surface. If radiation were the only way to transfer heat from the ground to space, the greenhouse effect of gases in the atmosphere would keep the ground at roughly 333 K (60 °C; 140 °F), and the temperature would decay exponentially with height.[3]

However, when air is hot, it tends to expand, which lowers its density. Thus, hot air tends to rise and transfer heat upward. This is the process of convection. Convection comes to equilibrium when a parcel of air at a given altitude has the same density as its surroundings. Air is a poor conductor of heat, so a parcel of air will rise and fall without exchanging heat. This is known as an adiabatic process, which has a characteristic pressure-temperature curve. As the pressure gets lower, the temperature decreases. The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation is known as the adiabatic lapse rate, which is approximately 9.8 °C per kilometer (or 5.4 °F per 1000 feet) of altitude.[3]

The presence of water in the atmosphere complicates the process of convection. Water vapor contains latent heat of vaporization. As air rises and cools, it eventually becomes saturated and cannot hold its quantity of water vapor. The water vapor condenses (forming clouds), and releases heat, which changes the lapse rate from the dry adiabatic lapse rate to the moist adiabatic lapse rate (5.5 °C per kilometre or 3 °F per 1000 feet).[4] The actual lapse rate, called the environmental lapse rate, is not constant (it can fluctuate throughout the day or seasonally and also regionally), but a normal lapse rate is 5.5 °C per 1,000 m (3.57 °F per 1,000 ft).[5][6] Therefore, moving up 100 metres (330 ft) on a mountain is roughly equivalent to moving 80 kilometres (50 miles or 0.75° of latitude) towards the pole.[7] This relationship is only approximate, however, since local factors, such as proximity to oceans, can drastically modify the climate.[8] As the altitude increases, the main form of precipitation becomes snow and the winds increase. The temperature continues to drop until the tropopause, at 11,000 metres (36,000 ft), where it does not decrease further. This is higher than the highest summit.

DistributionEdit

Although this climate classification only covers a small portion of the Earth's surface, alpine climates are widely distributed. They are present in the Himalayas, the Tibetan Plateau, Gansu, Qinghai, the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Mountains and the Sierra Nevada in Eurasia, the Andes in South America, the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian Mountains, and the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt in North America, the Snowy Mountains in Australia, high elevations in the Atlas Mountains and the Eastern Highlands of Africa, and the central parts of Borneo and New Guinea and the summit of Mauna Loa in the Pacific.

The lowest altitude of alpine climate varies dramatically by latitude. If alpine climate is defined by the tree line, then it occurs as low as 650 metres (2,130 ft) at 68°N in Sweden,[9] while on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, the tree line is at 3,950 metres (12,960 ft).[9]

Monthly variabilityEdit

The variability of the alpine climate throughout the year depends on the latitude of the location. For tropical oceanic locations, such as the summit of Mauna Loa, elev. 13,679 ft (4,169 m), the temperature is roughly constant throughout the year:

Climate data for Mauna Loa slope observatory (1961–1990), extremes 1955–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
85
(29)
65
(18)
67
(19)
68
(20)
71
(22)
70
(21)
68
(20)
67
(19)
66
(19)
65
(18)
67
(19)
85
(29)
Average high °F (°C) 49.8
(9.9)
49.6
(9.8)
50.2
(10.1)
51.8
(11.0)
53.9
(12.2)
57.2
(14.0)
56.4
(13.6)
56.3
(13.5)
55.8
(13.2)
54.7
(12.6)
52.6
(11.4)
50.6
(10.3)
53.2
(11.8)
Average low °F (°C) 33.3
(0.7)
32.9
(0.5)
33.2
(0.7)
34.6
(1.4)
36.6
(2.6)
39.4
(4.1)
38.8
(3.8)
38.9
(3.8)
38.5
(3.6)
37.8
(3.2)
36.2
(2.3)
34.3
(1.3)
36.2
(2.3)
Record low °F (°C) 19
(−7)
18
(−8)
20
(−7)
24
(−4)
27
(−3)
28
(−2)
26
(−3)
28
(−2)
29
(−2)
27
(−3)
25
(−4)
22
(−6)
18
(−8)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.3
(58)
1.5
(38)
1.7
(43)
1.3
(33)
1.0
(25)
0.5
(13)
1.1
(28)
1.5
(38)
1.3
(33)
1.1
(28)
1.7
(43)
2.0
(51)
17
(431)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.0
(0.0)
1.0
(2.5)
0.3
(0.76)
1.3
(3.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.0
(2.5)
3.6
(9.06)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 4 5 6 5 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 55
Source: NOAA[10], WRCC[11]

For mid-latitude locations, such as Mount Washington the temperature varies, but never gets very warm:

Climate data for Mount Washington, elev. 6,267 ft (1,910.2 m) near the summit
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 48
(9)
43
(6)
54
(12)
60
(16)
66
(19)
72
(22)
71
(22)
72
(22)
69
(21)
62
(17)
52
(11)
47
(8)
72
(22)
Average high °F (°C) 13.6
(−10.2)
14.7
(−9.6)
20.7
(−6.3)
30.4
(−0.9)
41.3
(5.2)
50.4
(10.2)
54.1
(12.3)
53.3
(11.8)
47.1
(8.4)
36.4
(2.4)
28.1
(−2.2)
18.4
(−7.6)
34.0
(1.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 4.8
(−15.1)
6.2
(−14.3)
12.9
(−10.6)
23.9
(−4.5)
35.6
(2.0)
45.0
(7.2)
49.1
(9.5)
48.2
(9.0)
41.6
(5.3)
30.2
(−1.0)
20.7
(−6.3)
10.1
(−12.2)
27.4
(−2.6)
Average low °F (°C) −4.1
(−20.1)
−2.4
(−19.1)
5.0
(−15.0)
17.4
(−8.1)
29.8
(−1.2)
39.5
(4.2)
44.0
(6.7)
43.0
(6.1)
36.1
(2.3)
24.0
(−4.4)
13.3
(−10.4)
1.7
(−16.8)
20.6
(−6.3)
Record low °F (°C) −47
(−44)
−46
(−43)
−38
(−39)
−20
(−29)
−2
(−19)
8
(−13)
24
(−4)
20
(−7)
9
(−13)
−5
(−21)
−20
(−29)
−46
(−43)
−47
(−44)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 6.44
(164)
6.77
(172)
7.67
(195)
7.44
(189)
8.18
(208)
8.40
(213)
8.77
(223)
8.32
(211)
8.03
(204)
9.27
(235)
9.85
(250)
7.73
(196)
96.87
(2,460)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 44.0
(112)
40.1
(102)
45.1
(115)
35.6
(90)
12.2
(31)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
2.2
(5.6)
17.6
(45)
37.8
(96)
45.5
(116)
281.2
(714)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 19.7 17.9 19.0 17.4 17.4 16.8 16.5 15.2 13.9 16.8 19.1 20.7 210.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 19.3 17.3 16.6 13.1 6.4 0.9 0.1 0.2 1.7 9.1 14.6 19.2 118.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.0 106.9 127.6 143.2 171.3 151.3 145.0 130.5 127.2 127.1 82.4 83.1 1,487.6
Percent possible sunshine 32 36 34 35 37 33 31 30 34 37 29 30 33
Source #1: NOAA (normals 1981–2010, sun 1961–1990)[12][13][14]
Source #2: extremes 1933–present[15][16]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 235–7. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. ^ Lugo, A. E. (1999). "The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping". Journal of Biogeography. 26 (5): 1025–1038. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00329.x. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  3. ^ a b Goody, Richard M.; Walker, James C.G. (1972). "Atmospheric Temperatures" (PDF). Atmospheres. Prentice-Hall.
  4. ^ "Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate". tpub.com. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  5. ^ "Adiabatic lapse rate in atmospheric chemistry". Adiabatic Lapse Rate. Goldbook. IUPAC. 2009. doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00144. ISBN 978-0-9678550-9-7.
  6. ^ Dommasch, Daniel O. (1961). Airplane Aerodynamics (3rd ed.). Pitman Publishing Co. p. 22.
  7. ^ "Mountain Environments" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-25.
  8. ^ "Factors affecting climate". The United Kingdom Environmental Change Network. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16.
  9. ^ a b Körner, Ch (1998). "A re-assessment of high elevation treeline positions and their explanation" (PDF). Oecologia. 115 (4): 445–459. Bibcode:1998Oecol.115..445K. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.454.8501. doi:10.1007/s004420050540. PMID 28308263.
  10. ^ "Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". MAUNA LOA SLOPE OBS, HAWAII. NOAA. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
  11. ^ "MAUNA LOA SLOPE OBS 39, HAWAII Period of Record General Climate Summary - Temperature". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  12. ^ "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  13. ^ "Station Name: NH MT WASHINGTON". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  14. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for MOUNT WASHINGTON, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  15. ^ "Mount Washington Observatory: Normals, Means and Extreme". Mount Washington Observatory. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  16. ^ "Today's Weather atop Mount Washington". Mount Washington Observatory. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013.