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List of historic states of Germany

Germany is traditionally a country organized as a federal state. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German-speaking territories of the empire became allied in the German Confederation (1815–1866), a league of states with some federalistic elements. After the war between Austria and Prussia of 1866, Prussia led the Northern states into a federal state called North German Confederation of 1867–1870. The Southern states joined the federal state in 1870/71, which was consequently renamed German Empire (1871–1918). The state continued as the Weimar Republic of 1919–1933.

States of the German ConfederationEdit

 
A map of the German Confederation.
State Capital
Empires (Kaisertümer)
  Austria (Österreich)
(only western Cisleithania)
Vienna
Kingdoms (Königreiche)
  Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
  Hanover (Hannover) Hanover
  Prussia (Preußen)
(excluding Posen, East Prussia and West Prussia)
Berlin
  Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
  Württemberg Stuttgart
Electorates (Kurfürstentum)
  Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel) Kassel
Grand Duchies (Großherzogtümer)
  Baden Karlsruhe
  Hesse-Darmstadt (Hessen-Darmstadt) Darmstadt
  Luxembourg Luxembourg
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
  Oldenburg Oldenburg
  Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Duchies (Herzogtümer)
  Anhalt – from 1863 Dessau
  Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
  Holstein Glückstadt
  Limburg – from 1839 N/A
  Nassau Wiesbaden
  Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) – from 1826 Altenburg
  Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) – from 1826 Coburg
  Saxe-Lauenburg Ratzeburg
  Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Principalities (Fürstentümer)
  Hohenzollern-Hechingen – to Prussia in 1850 Hechingen
  Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen – to Prussia in 1850 Sigmaringen
  Liechtenstein Vaduz
  Lippe Detmold
  Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Gera
  Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Greiz
  Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
  Waldeck and Pyrmont (Waldeck und Pyrmont) Arolsen
Landgraviates (Landgrafschaft)
  Hesse-Homburg (Hessen-Homburg) – from 1817 Bad Homburg
Free Cities (Freie Städte)
  Bremen
  Frankfurt
  Hamburg
  Lübeck
States merged to form Anhalt
  Anhalt-Dessau – merged with Anhalt-Bernburg in 1863 Dessau
  Anhalt-Bernburg – merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1863 Bernburg
  Anhalt-Köthen – merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1853 Köthen
States split between Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
and Saxe-Meiningen in 1826
  Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg) Gotha
  Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld) Coburg
  Saxe-Hildburghausen (Sachsen-Hildburghausen) Hildburghausen

In 1864, Austria and Prussia together became the new sovereign of Holstein (a member of the confederation) and Schleswig (outside the confederation).

States of the North German ConfederationEdit

 
A map of the North German Confederation.
State Capital
Kingdoms (Königreiche)
  Prussia (Preußen)
(including Lauenburg)
Berlin
  Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
Grand Duchies (Großherzogtümer)
  Hesse (Hessen)
(Only Upper Hesse, the province north of the River Main)
Giessen
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
  Oldenburg Oldenburg
  Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Duchies (Herzogtümer)
  Anhalt Dessau
  Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
  Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
  Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) Coburg
  Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Principalities (Fürstentümer)
  Lippe Detmold
  Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Gera
  Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Greiz
  Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
  Waldeck and Pyrmont (Waldeck und Pyrmont) Arolsen
Free and Hanseatic Cities (Freie und Hansestädte)
  Bremen
  Hamburg
  Lübeck

States of the German EmpireEdit

 
A map of the German Empire.
State Capital
Kingdoms (Königreiche)
  Prussia (Preußen) Berlin
  Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
  Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
  Württemberg Stuttgart
Grand Duchies (Großherzogtümer)
  Baden Karlsruhe
  Hesse (Hessen) Darmstadt
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
  Oldenburg Oldenburg
  Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Duchies (Herzogtümer)
  Anhalt Dessau
  Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
  Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
  Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) Coburg
  Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Principalities (Fürstentümer)
  Lippe Detmold
  Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Gera
  Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Greiz
  Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
  Waldeck and Pyrmont (Waldeck und Pyrmont) Arolsen
Free and Hanseatic Cities (Freie und Hansestädte)
  Bremen
  Hamburg
  Lübeck
Imperial Territories (Reichsländer)
  Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass-Lothringen) Straßburg

States of the Weimar RepublicEdit

 
A map of the Weimar Republic.
State Capital
Free States (Freistaaten)
  Anhalt Dessau
  Baden Karlsruhe
  Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
  Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
  Coburg – to Bavaria in 1920 Coburg
  Hesse (Hessen) Darmstadt
  Lippe Detmold
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
  Oldenburg Oldenburg
  Prussia (Preußen) Berlin
  Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
  Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
  Thuringia (Thüringen) – from 1920 Weimar
  Waldeck-Pyrmont – to Prussia
(Pyrmont joined Prussia in 1921, Waldeck followed in 1929)
Arolsen
  Württemberg Stuttgart
Free and Hanseatic Cities (Freie und Hansestädte)
  Bremen
  Hamburg
  Lübeck
States merged to form Thuringia in 1920
  Gotha Gotha
  Reuss Gera
  Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
  Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
  Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen

See alsoEdit