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The 26 cantons of Switzerland (German: Kanton, French: canton, Italian: cantone, Romansh: chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte. Two further major steps in the development of the Swiss cantonal system are referred to by the terms Acht Alten Orte ("confederation of eight";[1] between 1353 and 1481) and Dreizehn Alten Orte ("Thirteen-Canton Confederation",[1] during 1513–1798); they were important intermediate periods of the Ancient Swiss Confederacy.

Swiss cantons
Schweizer Kantone (German)
Cantons suisses (French)
Cantoni Svizzeri (Italian)
Chantun svizra (Romansh)
Also known as:
  • Stand
  • État
  • Stato
Category Federated state
Location Swiss Confederation
Found in Country
Created 16th century
Number 26 cantons (as of 1979)
Populations 15,778 (Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden) – 1,421,895 (Canton of Zürich)
Areas 36 km2 (14 sq mi) (Canton of Basel-Stadt) – 7,105.5 km2 (2,743.43 sq mi) (Canton of Graubünden)
Government List of cantonal executives of Switzerland
Subdivisions Districts and communes

Each canton (or in earlier times: Statt ("site/settlement"), or Städte und Länder ("towns and countries/countrysides"), or Ort (lit.: place, referring to "sovereign territory", "community"), or Stand ("estate") from the 13th century to around 1800) was a fully sovereign state[2] with its own border controls, army, and currency from the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848; with a brief period of centralized government during the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803). With the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, increasing to 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979.[3]

Contents

Terminology and its historical developmentEdit

The term canton, now also used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for "edge, corner" (recorded in Fribourg in 1475). After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy.[citation needed]

English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy (as opposed to the heraldic sense) dates to the early 17th century.[citation needed]

In German Switzerland, the term Ort (plural: Orte; lit.: place; referring to "sovereign territory", "community") was in use from the early 15th century as a generic term uniting the towns and rural allies previously named separately as Städte ("towns") and Länder ("countries; countrysides"), or even just Stett/Statt (plural: Stätte, "site/settlement") prior and during the early constitution of the Ancient Swiss Confederacy.[2][4]

It was increasingly replaced by Stand (plural: Stände, "estate") after 1550.[2]

The French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic. Only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.[2]

The term Stand remains in synonymous usage (in French état) and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament, the Council of States (German: Ständerat, French: Conseil des États, Italian: Consiglio degli Stati, Romansh: Cussegl dals Stadis).

"Republic"

Some cantonal constitutions provide for a longer formal name of the state. Most of Romandy's cantons (Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais[5] and Vaud[6]) and Ticino[7] call themselves république/Repubblica ("republics") officially, at least within their constitutions. For example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève ("Republic and canton of Geneva").

HistoryEdit

 
The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798)

In the 16th century, the Old Swiss Confederacy was composed of 13 sovereign confederate allies (German: Dreizehn Alten Orte), and there were two different kinds: five rural states – Uri, Schwyz (which became eponymous of the confederacy), Unterwalden, Glarus, Appenzell – and eight urban states – Zürich, Bern, Luzern, Zug, Basel, Fribourg, Solothurn, Schaffhausen.

Though they were technically part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach.[8]

In the early modern period, the individual confederate allies came to be seen as republics; while the six traditional allies had a tradition of direct democracy in the form of the Landsgemeinde, the urban states operated via representation in city councils, de facto oligarchic systems dominated by families of the patriciate.[9][clarification needed]

The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798. The cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803. The status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons (the six accessions to the early modern Thirteen Cantons being composed of former associates and subject territories: St. Gallen, Grisons, Aargau, Thurgau, Ticino, Vaud). Three additional western cantons, Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815.

The process of "Restoration", completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution. This tension, paired with religious issues ("Jesuit question") escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the radical party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain individual standing armies or international relations. As the revolutions of 1848 in Western Europe had failed elsewhere, Switzerland during the later 19th century (and with the exception of the French Third Republic, until the end of World War I) found itself as an isolated democratic republic, surrounded by the restored monarchies of France, Italy, Austria-Hungary and Germany.

ConstitutionEdit

 
The 22 cantonal coats of arms (all but Jura, with the half-cantons represented jointly) in stained glass set in the dome of the Federal Palace of Switzerland (c. 1900)

Each canton has its own constitution, legislature, government and courts.[10] Most of the cantons' legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats. A few legislatures are general assemblies known as Landsgemeinden. The cantonal governments consist of either five or seven members, depending on the canton.[11] For the names of the institutions, see List of legislative and executive councils of the Cantons of Switzerland.

The Swiss Federal Constitution declares the cantons to be sovereign to the extent that their sovereignty is not limited by federal law.[10] The cantons also retain all powers and competencies not delegated to the Confederation by the Constitution. Most significantly, the cantons are responsible for healthcare, welfare, law enforcement and public education; they also retain the power of taxation. The cantonal constitutions determine the degree of autonomy accorded to the municipalities, which varies but almost always includes the power to levy taxes and pass municipal laws. The areas of the cantons vary from 37 km2 to 7,105 km2; the populations vary from 15,471 to 1,244,400.

Direct democracyEdit

As on the federal level, all cantons provide for some forms of direct democracy. Citizens may demand a popular vote to amend the cantonal constitution or laws, or to veto laws or spending bills passed by the parliament. General popular assemblies (Landsgemeinde) are now limited to the cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus. In all other cantons democratic rights are exercised by secret ballot.

ListEdit

The cantons are listed in their order of precedence given in the federal constitution.[Note 1] This reflects the historical order of precedence of the Eight Cantons in the 15th century, followed by the remaining cantons in the order of their historical accession to the confederacy.[12]

Coat of
arms
Code Canton Since Capital Population[Note 2] GDP per capita (2014)[13]in CHF Area (km2) Density
(per km2)[Note 3]
No. munic. Official languages
  ZH Zürich 1351 Zürich 1,487,969[14] 96,411 1,729 701 168 German
  BE Bern 1353 Bern 1,026,513[14] 76,307 5,960 158 352 German, French
  LU Luzern 1332 Lucerne 403,397[14] 65,119 1,494 233 83 German
  UR Uri 1291[15] Altdorf 36,145[14] 51,332 1,077 33 20 German
  SZ Schwyz 1291[15] Schwyz 155,863[14] 58,788 908 143 30 German
  OW Obwalden 1291[15] or 1315 (as part of Unterwalden) Sarnen 37,378[14] 64,253 491 66 7 German
  NW Nidwalden 1291[15] (as Unterwalden) Stans 42,556[14] 69,559 276 138 11 German
  GL Glarus 1352 Glarus 40,147[14] 67,379 685 51 3 German
  ZG Zug 1352 Zug 123,948[14] 150,613 239 416 11 German
  FR Fribourg 1481 Fribourg 311,914[14] 58,369 1,671 141 150 French, German
  SO Solothurn 1481 Solothurn 269,441[14] 65,588 790 308 109 German
  BS Basel-Stadt 1501 (as Basel until 1833/1999) Basel 198,249[16] 163,632 37 5,072 3 German
  BL Basel-Landschaft 1501 (as Basel until 1833/1999) Liestal 286,848[17] 68,537 518 502 86 German
  SH Schaffhausen 1501 Schaffhausen 80,769[14] 85,529 298 246 26 German
  AR Appenzell Ausserrhoden 1513 (as Appenzell until 1597/1999) Herisau[Note 4] 54,954[14] 56,663 243 220 20 German
  AI Appenzell Innerrhoden 1513 (as Appenzell until 1597/1999) Appenzell 16,003[14] 61,067 172 87 6 German
  SG St. Gallen 1803[18] St. Gallen 502,552[14] 72,624 2,031 222 77 German
  GR Graubünden 1803[19] Chur 197,550[14] 70,968 7,105 26 114 German, Romansh, Italian
  AG Aargau 1803 Aarau 663,462[14] 61,959 1,404 388 213 German
  TG Thurgau 1803[20] Frauenfeld[Note 5] 270,709[14] 60,533 992 229 80 German
  TI Ticino 1803[21] Bellinzona 354,375[14] 82,438 2,812 110 130 Italian
  VD Vaud 1803[22] Lausanne 784,822[14] 68,084 3,212 188 318 French
  VS Valais 1815[23] Sion 339,176[14] 52,532 5,224 53 134 French, German
  NE Neuchâtel 1815/1857[24] Neuchâtel 178,567[14] 83,835 802 206 36 French
  GE Geneva 1815 Geneva 489,524[14] 102,113 282 1,442 45 French
  JU Jura 1979[25] Delémont 73,122[14] 64,606 839 82 57 French
  CH Switzerland Bern 8,419,550[14] 78,619 41,291 174 2,289 German, French, Italian, Romansh

The two-letter abbreviations for Swiss cantons are widely used, e.g., on car license plates. They are also used in the ISO 3166-2 codes of Switzerland with the prefix "CH-" (Confœderatio Helvetica—Helvetian Confederation—Helvetia having been the ancient Roman name of the region). CH-SZ, for example, is used for the canton of Schwyz.

Half-cantonsEdit

Six of the 26 cantons are traditionally, but no longer officially, called "half-cantons" (German: Halbkanton, French: demi-canton, Italian: semicantone, Romansh: mez-chantun), reflecting a history of mutual association or partition.

The half-cantons are identified in the first article of the Swiss Federal Constitution of 1999 by being joined to their other "half" with the conjunction "and":

The People and the Cantons of Zürich, Bern, Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden and Nidwalden, Glarus, Zug, Fribourg, Solothurn, Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, Schaffhausen, Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden, St. Gallen, Graubünden, Aargau, Thurgau, Ticino, Vaud, Valais, Neuchâtel, Geneva, and Jura form the Swiss Confederation.

— Article 1 of the Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (underlining not in original)[26]

The 1999 constitutional revision retained this distinction, on the request of the six cantonal governments, as a way to mark the historic association of the half-cantons to each other.[27] In contrast, the first article of the 1848 and 1874 constitutions constituted the Confederation as the union of "twenty-two sovereign cantons",[28] referring to the half-cantons as "Unterwalden (ob und nid dem Wald [‘above and beneath the woods’])", "Basel (Stadt und Landschaft [‘city and country’])" and "Appenzell (beider Rhoden [‘both Rhoden’])".[29] While the older constitutions referred to these states as "half-cantons", a term that remains in popular use, the 1999 revision and official terminology since then use the appellation "cantons with half of a cantonal vote".[30]

With their mutual association a purely historical matter, the half-cantons are since 1848 equal to the other cantons in all but two respects:[31]

  • They elect only one member of the Council of States instead of two (Cst. art. 150 par. 2).
  • In popular referendums about constitutional amendments, which require for adoption a national popular majority as well as the assent of a majority of the cantons (Ständemehr / majorité des cantons), the result of the half-cantons' popular vote counts only one half of that of the other cantons (Cst. arts. 140, 142). This means that for purposes of a constitutional referendum, at least 12 out of a total of 23 cantonal popular votes must support the amendment.[32]
 
Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833

The reasons for the association between the three pairs of half-cantons are varied:

In the 20th century, some Jurassic separatists suggested a new canton of Jura to be divided into half-cantons of North Jura and South Jura.[36] Instead, North Jura became the (full) canton of Jura while South Jura remains in the canton of Bern as the region of Bernese Jura.

Names in national languagesEdit

The name of each canton in its own official language is shown in bold.

Abbr English[37] German French Italian Romansh
AG Aargau; Argovia   Aargau  Argovie Argovia Argovia
AI Appenzell Innerrhoden; Appenzell Inner-Rhodes   Appenzell Innerrhoden  Appenzell Rhodes-Intérieures Appenzello Interno Appenzell dadens
AR Appenzell Ausserrhoden; Appenzell Outer-Rhodes   Appenzell Ausserrhoden  Appenzell Rhodes-Extérieures Appenzello Esterno Appenzell dador
BS Basel-Stadt; Basle-City   Basel-Stadt  Bâle-Ville Basilea-Città Basilea-Citad
BL Basel-Landschaft; Basle-Country   Basel-Landschaft  Bâle-Campagne Basilea-Campagna Basilea-Champagna
BE Bern; Berne   Bern  Berne Berna Berna
FR Fribourg; Friburg[citation needed]   Freiburg  Fribourg Friborgo Friburg
GE Geneva   Genf  Genève Ginevra Genevra
GL Glarus; Glaris[citation needed]   Glarus  Glaris Glarona Glaruna
GR Graubünden; Grisons   Graubünden  Grisons Grigioni Grischun
JU Jura   Jura  Jura Giura Giura
LU Lucerne   Luzern  Lucerne Lucerna Lucerna
NE Neuchâtel   Neuenburg  Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Neuchâtel
NW Nidwalden; Nidwald[citation needed]   Nidwalden  Nidwald Nidvaldo Sutsilvania
OW Obwalden; Obwald[citation needed]   Obwalden  Obwald Obvaldo Sursilvania
SH Schaffhausen; Schaffhouse   Schaffhausen  Schaffhouse Sciaffusa Schaffusa
SZ Schwyz   Schwyz  Schwyz (or Schwytz) Svitto Sviz
SO Solothurn; Soleure   Solothurn  Soleure Soletta Soloturn
SG St. Gallen; St. Gall   St. Gallen  Saint-Gall San Gallo Son Gagl
TG Thurgau; Thurgovia   Thurgau  Thurgovie Turgovia Turgovia
TI Ticino; Tessin   Tessin  Tessin Ticino Tessin
UR Uri   Uri  Uri Uri Uri
VS Valais; Wallis   Wallis  Valais Vallese Vallais
VD Vaud   Waadt  Vaud Vaud Vad
ZG Zug   Zug  Zoug Zugo Zug
ZH Zürich; Zurich   Zürich  Zurich Zurigo Turitg

Admission of new cantonsEdit

The enlargement of Switzerland by way of the admission of new cantons ended in 1815. The latest formal attempt considered by Switzerland was of Vorarlberg in 1919 but subsequently rejected. A few representatives submitted in 2010 a parliamentary motion to consider enlargement although it was widely seen as anti-EU rhetoric rather than a serious proposal.[38] The motion was eventually dropped and not even examined by the parliament.[39]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This is the order generally used in Swiss official documents. At the head of the list are the three city cantons that were considered preeminent in the Old Swiss Confederacy; the other cantons are listed in order of accession to the Confederation. This traditional order of precedence among the cantons has no practical relevance in the modern federal state, in which the cantons are equal to one another, although it still determines formal precedence among the cantons' officials (see Swiss order of precedence).
  2. ^ See references for dates
  3. ^ Per km2, based on 2000 population
  4. ^ Seat of government and parliament is Herisau, the seat of the judicial authorities is Trogen
  5. ^ Seat of parliament half-yearly alternates between Frauenfeld and Weinfelden

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Chronology". Bern, Switzerland: The Swiss Federal Administration. Retrieved 2016-10-09. 
  2. ^ a b c d Andreas Kley: Kantone in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2016-04-13.
  3. ^ François Schifferdecker, François Kohler: Jura (canton) in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2015-07-20.
  4. ^ Josef Wiget: Waldstätte in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2014-12-27.
  5. ^ Constitution du Canton du Valais: "Le Valais est une république démocratique, souveraine […] incorporée comme Canton à la Confédération suisse."
  6. ^ Constitution du canton de Vaud: "Le Canton de Vaud est une république démocratique [… qui] est l'un des États de la Confédération suisse."
  7. ^ "Costituzione della Repubblica e Cantone del Ticino, del 4 luglio 1830" (in Italian). Swiss Federal Council. Le canton du Tessin est une république démocratique [… qui] est membre de la Confédération suisse et sa souveraineté n'est limitée que par la constitution fédérale." 
  8. ^ "Switzerland". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. p. 251. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 
  9. ^ Zug was the exception in this, in being an urban state and still holding a Landsgemeinde. Jackson Spielvogel, Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715, (Cengage 2008), p. 386
  10. ^ a b Cantons, In the Federal State since 1848 in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  11. ^ Swiss Government website with links to each cantonal government, accessed 11 November 2008
  12. ^ "Regional Portraits: Cantons". Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2011. Retrieved 2015-12-21. 
  13. ^ Office, Federal Statistical. "Cantonal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita". www.bfs.admin.ch. Retrieved 2017-08-22. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 30 August 2017
  15. ^ a b c d founding forest-canton, foundation date traditionally given as either 1307, 1304 or 1291 (see Foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy).
  16. ^ Canton of Basel-Stadt Statistics, MS Excel document – T01.0.01 - Bevölkerungsstand 30 June 2017 numbers (in German) accessed 22 August 2017
  17. ^ Canton of Basel-Land Statistics, Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität und Konfession per 31. März 2017 (in German) accessed 15 June 2017
  18. ^ Act of Mediation, formed out of the Canton of Säntis and the northern half of the Canton of Linth.
  19. ^ Act of Mediation; formerly the Canton of Raetia, comprising the earlier Three Leagues.
  20. ^ coterminous with the canton of Thurgau of the Helvetic Republic (1798), formerly a condominium.
  21. ^ combining the former cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano; see Ennetbirgische Vogteien.
  22. ^ Act of Mediation, formerly Canton of Léman.
  23. ^ Restoration, formerly the Simplon département
  24. ^ claimed by Frederick William III of Prussia until the Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856–1857.
  25. ^ seceded from Berne
  26. ^ Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 18 April 1999, SR/RS 101 (E·D·F·I), art. 1 (E·D·F·I)
  27. ^ Felix Hafner / Rainer J. Schweizer in Ehrenzeller, Art. 1 N 2; Häfelin, N 966.
  28. ^ Twenty-three after the creation of the Canton of Jura in 1978.
  29. ^ Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft vom 29. Mai 1874, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft vom 12. September 1848 (in German); author's translation.
  30. ^ Felix Hafner / Rainer J. Schweizer in Ehrenzeller, Art. 1 N 10; Häfelin, N 963
  31. ^ Häfelin, N 963, 967
  32. ^ Häfelin, N 950
  33. ^ Pacte fédéral du 1er Archived 30 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. août 1291] sur Admin.ch "vallée inférieure d'Unterwald" signifie Nidwald.
  34. ^ Pacte fédéral du 1er août 1291 sur Cliotexte
  35. ^ Réforme catholique, Contre-Réforme et scission Article du dictionnaire historique de la Suisse
  36. ^ Bassand, Michel (1975). "The Jura Problem". Journal of Peace Research. Sage Publications. 12 (2: Peace Research in Switzerland): 139–150: 142. doi:10.1177/002234337501200206. JSTOR 423158. (Subscription required (help)). 
  37. ^ The most commonly used forms in English are mostly adopted from either French on German; in some cases, there may have been a historical shift in preference, e.g. from the French form Berne to the German form Bern; in individual cases, the Latin form may be current, certainly in the case of Geneva and arguably for Argovia, Thurgovia. Actual anglicized forms exist in the cases of Basle, Lucerne and St. Gall.
  38. ^ Renz, Fabian (2010-06-11). "SVP will der Schweiz Nachbargebiete einverleiben". Tages-Anzeiger. Retrieved 2017-07-11. 
  39. ^ Baettig, Dominique (2010-03-18). "Pour une intégration facilitée de régions limitrophes en qualité de nouveaux cantons suisses". The Federal Assembly — The Swiss Parliament. Retrieved 2017-07-11. L'intervention est classée, l'auteur ayant quitté le conseil 

BibliographyEdit

  • Bernhard Ehrenzeller, Philipp Mastronardi, Rainer J. Schweizer, Klaus A. Vallender (eds.) (2002). Die schweizerische Bundesverfassung, Kommentar (in German). ISBN 3-905455-70-6.  . Cited as Ehrenzeller.
  • Häfelin, Ulrich; Haller, Walter; Keller, Helen (2008). Schweizerisches Bundesstaatsrecht (in German) (7th ed.). Zürich: Schulthess. ISBN 978-3-7255-5472-0.  Cited as Häfelin.

External linksEdit

  • Swissworld.org – The cantons of Switzerland
  • GeoPuzzle – Assemble cantons on a Swiss map
  • Badac – Database on Swiss cantons and cities (in French) (in German)