The Silent Generation, also known as the Traditionalist Generation, is the Western demographic cohort following the Greatest Generation and preceding the baby boomers. The generation is generally defined as people born from 1928 to 1945.[1] By this definition and U.S. Census data, there were 23 million Silents in the United States as of 2019.[2]

In the United States, the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II in the early-to-mid 1940s caused people to have fewer children and as a result, the generation is comparatively small.[3] It includes most of those who fought during the Korean War. Upon coming of age in the postwar era, Silents were sometimes characterized as trending towards conformity and traditionalism, as well as comprising the "silent majority".[4] However, they have also been noted as forming the leadership of the civil rights movement and the 1960s counterculture, and creating the rock and roll music of the 1950s and 1960s.[5]

In the United Kingdom, the Silent Generation was also born during a period of relatively low birthrates for similar reasons to the United States and was quite traditional upon coming of age. They lived through times of prosperity as young adults, economic upheaval in middle age, and relative comfort in later life. The Sixtiers is a similar age group in the Soviet Union whose upbringings were also heavily influenced by the troubles of the mid-20th century. The term "the builders" has been used to describe a similar cohort in Australia. Most people of the Silent Generation are the parents of Generation X and younger baby boomers. Their own parents most commonly belonged to either the Greatest Generation or the Lost Generation.

Terminology Edit

Time magazine first used the term "Silent Generation" in a November 5, 1951, article titled "The Younger Generation", although the term appears to precede the publication:[6]

The most startling fact about the younger generation is its silence. With some rare exceptions, youth is nowhere near the rostrum. By comparison with the Flaming Youth of their fathers & mothers, today's younger generation is a still, small flame. It does not issue manifestoes, make speeches or carry posters. It has been called the "Silent Generation."

The Time article used birth dates of 1923 to 1933 for the generation, but the term somehow migrated to the later years currently in use.[7] A reason later proposed for this perceived silence is that as young adults during the McCarthy Era, many members of the Silent Generation felt it was unwise to speak out.[8]

The term "Silent Generation" is also used to describe a similar age group in the UK but has been at times described as a reference to strict childhood discipline which taught children to be "seen but not heard."[9][10] In Canada, it has been used with the same meaning as in the United States.[11] The cohort is also known as the "Traditionalist Generation".[12]

Dates and age range definitions Edit

The Pew Research Center uses 1928 to 1945 as birth years for this cohort. According to this definition, people of the Silent Generation are 77 to 95 years old in 2023.[13][14]

The Intergenerational Centre of the Resolution Foundation has used 1926 to 1945, while the Encyclopedia of Strategic Leadership and Management uses the range 1925 to 1945. This generation had reached maturity as early as 1946 and as late as 1963, but the majority of Silents had become of age in the 1950s, in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement, which was followed by older boomers in the 1960s.[15][16] Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe use 1925 to 1942.[3][17] People born in the later years of World War II who were too young to have any direct recollections of the conflict are sometimes considered to be cultural, if not demographically, baby boomers.[18][19][20]

Characteristics Edit

Australia Edit

Australia's McCrindle Research uses the name "Builders" to describe the Australian members of this generation, born between 1925 and 1945, and coming of age to become the generation "who literally and metaphorically built [the] nation after the austerity years post-Depression and World War II".[21][22][23]

Soviet Union Edit

The Silent Generation in the Soviet Union is similar to Sixtiers. These people were born into Stalinism, raised during collectivization, and were witnesses of the Holodomor. So even though there was no Great Depression in the Soviet Union, they still experienced a lack of resources and food as children. In the 1930s and 1940s many of them lost their parents or close relatives during Stalinist repressions and later during battles and German occupation in WWII. Sometimes this generation is called the "Children of XX-th Congress".

United Kingdom Edit

Childhood and youth Edit

Child evacuees in Reading, the children are carrying Gas Masks which were issued to British Civilians in 1938 during the Munich Crisis (1940)[24]

There was a slump in birth rates in the UK between the two major baby booms following each world war. This roughly correlated with the economic downturn in the 1930s and World War II.[25] The era of the Great Depression was a time of deprivation for many children, unemployment was high and slum housing was common. However, education was compulsory from the age of five to fourteen years old. Gaining a place at grammar school was a way for young people whose families could not afford them to be privately educated to gain full access to secondary schooling. In a time before widespread car use, children commonly played outside in the street and further afield without adult supervision. Toys of this era were quite simple but examples included dolls, model airplanes, and trains. Other popular activities included reading comics, playing board games, going to the cinema, and joining children's organizations such as the scouts.[26] It was estimated that more than 85% of British households owned a wireless (radio) by 1939.[27]

The Second World War impacted the lives of children in various ways. Significant numbers of schoolchildren were evacuated without their parents to the countryside to avoid the threat of bombing throughout the war years.[28] The quality of education fell everywhere but particularly in urban areas for various reasons, including a shortage of teachers and supplies, the distress pupils suffered from air raids and the disruption caused by evacuations.[29][30][31] The degree of supervision children received also fell as fathers left to fight and mothers joined the workforce.[32][33] However, rationing during World War II and the years after improved the health of the population overall with one study conducted in the early 2000s suggesting that a typical 1940s child ate a healthier diet than their counterpart at the start of the 21st century.[34][35] Following the Second World War, the school-leaving age was raised to 15 with every child being allocated to one of three types of school based on a test taken at the age of 11 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (selection between two types of school took place at age 12 in Scotland[36]).[37][38]

Early television, an example of mid-20th century consumer goods

The years after the Second World War saw a continuation of difficult social conditions, there was a serious housing shortage and rationing was at times more restrictive than it had been during the war. The late 1940s saw substantial social reforms and changes to the structure of the British economy.[39][40] Economic conditions and living standards improved significantly during the 1950s and 60s.[41][42] Unemployment rested at roughly two percent during this period,[43] much lower than it had been during the depression or would be later in the 20th century.[44] Consumer goods such as Televisions and household labour saving devices became increasingly common.[45] By the late 1950s, Britain was one of the most affluent societies anywhere in the world.[46] In 1957, 52% of the British population described themselves as "very happy" in comparison to 36% in 2005.[47][48] That year, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan famously said:[49]

Let us be frank about it: most of our people have never had it so good. Go round the country, go to the industrial towns, go to the farms and you will see a state of prosperity such as we have never had in my lifetime – nor indeed in the history of this country.

The idea of the "teenager" as a distinctive phase of life associated with rebellion against adult authority and older generations social norms became increasingly prominent in public discourse during the 1940s and 50s.[50][51][52][53] Though in many ways those reaching maturity in the years after the Second World War were quite traditionally conservative in experience and attitudes. National service (military conscription) was reintroduced after the war and continued throughout the 1950s.[54][55] Young people would often attend ballroom dances to socialise and find potential romantic partners.[56] The average age of first marriage in England and Wales fell reaching its lowest level in more than a hundred years by the late 1960s of 27.2 and 24.7 years for men and women respectively.[57] Cultural norms[58][59][60][61][62] and government policy[63][64][65][66] encouraged marriage and women to focus on their role as homemaker, wife and mother whilst their husband acted as the household's primary breadwinner. The treatment of those who did not meet society's expectations in their personal lives was often quite unsympathetic. Abortion[67] and homosexuality[68] were illegal whilst later investigations suggest that many women who gave birth out of wedlock had their babies forcibly removed from them.[69] Laws were liberalised significantly in the late 1960s,[70] but change was slower in certain areas in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[67][68]

Mid and later life Edit

Heavy industry had been troubled in the UK throughout the 1960s,[71] this combined with a global energy crisis and influx of cheap goods from Asia led to rapid deindustrialisation by the mid 1970s. New jobs were either low wage or too high-skilled for those laid off.[72][73][74] This situation led to significant political instability and industrial unrest causing a great deal of frustration and inconvenience to the general public.[75][76] Meanwhile, another set of problems was developing in Northern Ireland where politics had become increasingly tense and divided during the 1960s. This developed into a sectarian conflict with the British Army involved known as The Troubles which continued over several decades.[77][78] This conflict caused more than 3,500 deaths.[79] In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became prime minister and brought about the end to some aspects of the Post-War Consensus on economic policy.[80] For instance, her government created the right-to-buy scheme which allowed renters to buy up their council homes at a reduced prices.[81] Middle aged people were one of the social groups which particularly benefited from this policy.[82] Her policies have been described as giving millions of people direct ownership of capital through share or house ownership but have also been associated with high unemployment, rising poverty and social unrest.[83][84]

Houses adapted for elderly people in Omagh, Northern Ireland (2010)

For several decades prior to 2010, women received the State Pension from the age of 60 and men from the age of 65.[85] A 2019 report stated that Pensioner Poverty in the UK had increased rapidly during the 1970s and the 1980s but fell in the 1990s and early 21st century. According to the report 20% of the silent generation, which it described as individuals born from 1926 to 1945, had lived in poverty at the age of 70 in comparison to 45% of the Greatest Generation and 15% of Baby Boomers at similar ages. The report attributed the change to more private pensions, increased home ownership and government policy.[86] Commentators suggested that older people were somewhat insulated from the effects of the austerity programme in the 2010s.[87][88] Though pensioner poverty was rising slightly by the mid to late 2010s and early 2020s, especially among women.[89][90] The average life expectancy was around 80 years old, a few years older for women than men, in the late 2000s and 2010s.[91]

General trends Edit

An analysis of British Election Study surveys for the 1964 to 2019 general elections suggested that the Silent Generation as a cohort became more likely to vote for the Conservative Party as they grew older. The results suggested that at 35 years old, people born from 1928 to 1945 were about 5 percentage points less likely to vote Conservative than the national average, but that by the time they were 70 years old, they were about ten percentage points more likely to do so than the national average. They were, however, by the end of the time period studied, less likely to vote for the Conservatives than the next youngest age group, baby boomers. An article on the analysis commented that it is conventional wisdom that people become more conservative as they get older but that isn't true of all the age groups the analysis covered and environmental factors are also important in influencing the development of voter behavior.[92]

United States Edit

As children and adolescents Edit

A girl listening to vacuum-tube radio during the Great Depression

As a cultural narrative, the Silent Generation are described as children of the Great Depression whose parents, having revelled in the highs of the Roaring Twenties, now faced great economic hardship and struggled to provide for their families. Before reaching their teens, they shared with their parents the horrors of World War II but through children's eyes. Many lost their fathers or older siblings who were killed in the war. They saw the fall of Nazism and the catastrophic devastation made capable of the nuclear bomb. When the Silent Generation began coming of age after World War II, they were faced with a devastated social order within which they would spend their early adulthood and a new enemy in Communism via the betrayal of post-war agreements and rise of the Soviet Union. Unlike the previous generation who had fought for "changing the system," the Silent Generation was about "working within the system." They did this by keeping their heads down and working hard, thus earning themselves the "silent" label. Their attitudes leaned toward not being risk-takers and playing it safe. Fortune magazine's story on the College Class of '49 was subtitled "Taking No Chances".[93] This generation was also heavily influenced by the transformations brought about by the Golden Age of Radio, the rise of trade unions, the development of transatlantic flight and the discovery of penicillin during their formative years.[16]

In adulthood Edit

From their childhood experiences during the Depression and the example of frugality set by their parents, Silents tended to be thrifty and even miserly, preferring to maximize a product's lifespan, i.e., "get their money's worth." This led some members of the Silent Generation to develop hoarding behaviors in the guise of "not being wasteful."[94][95]

As with their own parents, Silents tended to marry and have children young. American Silents are noted as being the youngest of all American generations in the age of marriage and parenthood. As young parents, the older members of this generation primarily produced the later Baby Boomers, while younger members of the generation and older members who held off raising a family until later in life gave birth to Generation X. Whereas divorce in the eyes of the previous generation was considered aberrant behavior, the Silents were the generation that reformed marriage laws to allow for divorce and lessen the stigma. This led to a historically unprecedented wave of divorces among Silent Generation couples in the United States.[96]

Critics of the theory that Silents tend towards conformity and playing it safe note that, at least in the United States, leaders of 1960s-era rebellion/innovation/protest such as Muhammad Ali, Bob Dylan, Noam Chomsky, Martin Luther King Jr., and Jimi Hendrix were members of the Silent Generation, and not Baby Boomers, for whom these figures were heroes, although the majority of their followers were Boomers.[7] While seven Presidents of the United States were members of the Greatest Generation (John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush), four Presidents have been Baby boomers (Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump), and two Presidents were members of the Lost Generation (Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower), only one President, Joe Biden, has been a member of the Silent Generation.

As a birth cohort, Silents never rose in protest as a unified political entity.[97] Widely seen as "following the rules" and benefiting from stable wealth creation, their Boomer and Gen X children would become estranged from them due to their different views regarding social issues of the day and their relatively decreased economic opportunity, creating a different generational zeitgeist. For example, the Boomer children were instrumental in bringing about the counterculture of the 1960s, and the rise of left wing, liberal views considered anti-establishment, which went directly against the "work within the system" approach that many Silents had practiced. Gen X children grew up in the 1970s and 1980s with the threat of nuclear annihilation hanging over them and a resultant bleak view of the future, contributing to their generational disaffection, in contrast to the optimistic outlook of their Silent Generation parents.[98]

The style of parenting from the Lost Generation or the Interbellum Generation (older members of the Greatest Generation), was known to the Silents and the generations before them originated in the late 1800s, when the Lost Gens were Children or Teenagers.[99] Representative of this was the idea that "children should be seen but not heard". These ideas were ultimately challenged following the 1946 publication of the book The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care by Benjamin Spock, which influenced some Boomers' views on parenting and family values when they became parents themselves.[100] The book also influenced how Baby Boomers were parented. These less-restrictive behavioral standards, seen as overly permissive by the Silents, further estranged those Boomers from their parents and, amongst other things, gave rise in the 1970s to the term generation gap. This was to describe the initial conflict of cultural values between the Silents and their Generation Joneser (younger Baby Boomers) and to a lesser extent, their Generation X'er children in the 1980s. Although it wasn't quite as extreme as it was between the Greatest Generation and the "Leading Edge Boomers", (older Baby Boomers) in the 1960s.[101][102]

Demographics Edit


Data is from the Pew Research Center.[2] Recent cohort sizes are greater than the number born due to immigration.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Is It Time to 'Pass the Torch?' The Generational Dilemma of the 2020 Democratic Primary". Time. July 30, 2019. Archived from the original on December 22, 2021. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Fry, Richard (April 28, 2020). "Millennials overtake Baby Boomers as America's largest generation". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  3. ^ a b Howe, Neil (2014-07-13). "The Silent Generation, 'The Lucky Few' (Part 3 of 7)". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2014-09-23. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  4. ^ McLaughlin, Dan (February 16, 2016). "Closing The Book on the Silent Generation". National Review. Archived from the original on 2022-03-23. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
  5. ^ Menand, Louis (18 August 1029). "The Misconception About Baby Boomers and the Sixties". New Yorker. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  6. ^ "People: THE YOUNGER GENERATION". Time. November 5, 1951. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  7. ^ a b Menand, Louis (11 October 2021). "It's Time to Stop Talking About 'Generations'". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2 September 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  8. ^ Handbook to Life in America, Volume 8 Rodney P. Carlisle Infobase Publishing, 2009, p. 22
  9. ^ "From the silent generation to 'snowflakes': why you need friends of all ages". the Guardian. 2019-10-18. Archived from the original on 2019-10-18. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  10. ^ "Millennials, baby boomers or Gen Z: Which one are you and what does it mean?". BBC Bitesize. Archived from the original on 2019-10-13. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  11. ^ Dangerfield, Katie (23 July 2017). "From baby boomers to millennials: Which generation speaks to you?". Global News. Archived from the original on 2022-04-04. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  12. ^ Fineman, Stephen (2011). Organising Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-19957-804-7.
  13. ^ "Generations and Age". Pew Research. March 1, 2018. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018.
  14. ^ "Definitions - Pew Research Center". Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
  15. ^ Rahman, Fahmida; Tomlinson, Daniel (February 2018). "Cross Countries: International comparisons of intergenerational trends" (PDF). Intergenerational Commission. Resolution Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 17, 2018. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  16. ^ a b Bowman, Sandra G.; Mulvenon, Sean W. (2017). "Effective Government of Generational Dynamics in the Workplace". In Wang, Victor C. X. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Strategic Leadership and Management. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. p. 835. ISBN 978-1-52251-050-5. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  17. ^ Strauss, William (2009). The Fourth Turning. Three Rivers Press. ASIN B001RKFU4I.
  18. ^ Howe, Neil (20 August 2014). "The Boom Generation, "What a Long Strange Trip" (Part 4 of 7)". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2022-04-04. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  19. ^ Strauss, William; Howe, Neil (1992). Generations the history of America's future, 1584 to 2069. Quill. ISBN 978-0-688-11912-6. OCLC 1072494545.
  20. ^ Owram, Doug (1997-12-31). Born at the Right Time. doi:10.3138/9781442657106. ISBN 978-1-4426-5710-6.
  21. ^ Generations Defined. Mark McCrindle Archived June 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ McCrindle, Mark. "The ABC of XYZ Understanding the Global Generations" (PDF). McCrindle Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  23. ^ "Generations defined: 50 years of change over 5 generations". McCrindle Research. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on December 22, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  24. ^ "On this day: Gas masks issued to British civilians". The Scotsman. 9 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  25. ^ "Our population – Where are we? How did we get here? Where are we going?". Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  26. ^ "Childhood in the 1920s and 1930s". Historic UK. Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  27. ^ Scott, Peter (2017). The Market Makers: Creating Mass Markets for Consumer Durables in Inter-war Britain. Oxford University Press. p. 134.
  28. ^ "The Evacuated Children Of The Second World War". Imperial War Museums. Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  29. ^ Eric Hopkins, "Elementary education in Birmingham during the Second World War." History of education 18#3 (1989): 243-255.
  30. ^ Emma Lautman, "Educating Children on the British Home Front, 1939-1945: Oral History, Memory and Personal Narratives." History of education researcher 95 (2015): 13-26.
  31. ^ Roy Lowe, "Education in England during the Second World War." in Roy Lowe, ed., Education and the Second World War: studies in schooling and social change (1992) pp 4-16.
  32. ^ Khatkar, Perminder (2010-05-26). "What's it like to be a latchkey child?". BBC Magazine. Archived from the original on 2023-01-12. Retrieved 2023-01-12.
  33. ^ Harris, Carol (2011-02-17). "BBC - History - British History in depth: Women Under Fire in World War Two". Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-12.
  34. ^ Stormont, Brian (16 July 2020). "Healthy eating: What can we learn from wartime food rationing?". The Courier. Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  35. ^ Townsend, Mark (2004-01-04). "Study shows wartime rations were better for children". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  36. ^ L. Patterson, "Schools and schooling: 3. Mass education 1872–present", in M. Lynch, ed., The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), ISBN 0-19-211696-7, pp. 566–9.
  37. ^ "The Education Act of 1944". Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  38. ^ "The 1947 Education Act - a landmark in Northern Ireland's history". Queen's Policy Engagement. 2017-08-07. Archived from the original on 2022-08-13. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  39. ^ Brown, Derek (2001-03-14). "1945-51: Labour and the creation of the welfare state". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2023-01-13. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  40. ^ Burnett, A social history of housing: 1815-1985 (1985) pp 278-330
  41. ^ Black, Lawrence; Pemberton, Hugh (28 July 2017). An Affluent Society?: Britain's Post-War 'Golden Age' Revisited. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-95917-9. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  42. ^ Gurney, Peter (2005). "The Battle of the Consumer in Postwar Britain". Journal of Modern History. 77 (4): 956–987. doi:10.1086/499831. JSTOR 10.1086/499831. S2CID 145257014.
  43. ^ Kynaston 2009.
  44. ^ Sloman, John; Garratt, Dean; Alison Wride (6 January 2015). Economics. Pearson Education Limited. p. 811. ISBN 978-1-292-06484-0.
  45. ^ Burnett 1986, p. 302.
  46. ^ Hill, Charles Peter (1985). British Economic and Social History, 1700–1982. E. Arnold. ISBN 978-0-7131-7382-6. Archived from the original on 2023-01-14. Retrieved 2023-01-19.
  47. ^ Easton, Mark (2 May 2006). "Britain's happiness in decline". BBC. Archived from the original on 2009-02-16. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
  48. ^ Healey, Nigel, ed. (26 September 2002). Britain's Economic Miracle: Myth Or Reality?. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-89226-6. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  49. ^ "1957: Britons 'have never had it so good'". BBC. 20 July 1957. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 12 March 2009.
  50. ^ David F. Smith, "Delinquency and welfare in London: 1939–1949". The London Journal 38#1 (2013): 67–87.
  51. ^ Melanie Tebbutt, Making Youth: A History of Youth in Modern Britain (2016).[page needed]
  52. ^ David Fowler, Youth culture in modern Britain, c. 1920-c. 1970: from ivory tower to global movement-a new history (2008).[page needed]
  53. ^ Bill Osgerby, Youth in Britain since 1945 (1998).[page needed]
  54. ^ "What was National Service? | National Army Museum". Archived from the original on 2020-06-18. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  55. ^ "National Service". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 2023-01-14. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  56. ^ Jack, Ian (2016-01-23). "Dance halls were the Tinder of their day". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2023-01-14. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  57. ^ "Marriages in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  58. ^ Simonton, Deborah (2011). Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill, and Identity from 1700. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 321–323. ISBN 978-0-415-21308-0.
  59. ^ "Marriages in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  60. ^ Phyllis Whiteman, Speaking as a Woman (1953) p 67
  61. ^ The Practical Home Handywoman: A Book of Basic Principles for the Self-Reliant Woman Dealing with All the Problems of Home-Making and Housekeeping. London: Odhams Press. 1950. p. 233.
  62. ^ Gillis, Stacy; Hollows, Joanne (2008-09-07). Feminism, Domesticity and Popular Culture. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-89426-9. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  63. ^ Pugh, Martin (1990). "Domesticity and the Decline of Feminism 1930–1950". In Smith, Harold L. (ed.). British feminism in the twentieth century. Elgar. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-85278-096-8. Archived from the original on 2023-01-14. Retrieved 2023-01-19..
  64. ^ Martin Pugh, "Domesticity and the Decline of Feminism 1930–1950". p 158"
  65. ^ Bruley, Women in Britain since 1900 p 118
  66. ^ Beaumont, Caitríona (2017-01-02). "What Do Women Want? Housewives' Associations, Activism and Changing Representations of Women in the 1950s". Women's History Review. 26 (1): 147–162. doi:10.1080/09612025.2015.1123029. ISSN 0961-2025. S2CID 148013595. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  67. ^ a b "What are the UK's laws on abortion?". BBC News. 2019-10-22. Archived from the original on 2022-12-20. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  68. ^ a b "A short history of LGBT rights in the UK". British Library. Archived from the original on 2018-05-13. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  69. ^ "BBC News Channel - If You Love Your Baby… The Story of Forced Adoptions". BBC. Archived from the original on 2023-01-14. Retrieved 2023-01-14.
  70. ^ Thorpe, Andrew (2001). A History of the British Labour Party. Palgrave. pp. 145–165. ISBN 0-333-92908-X.
  71. ^ High, Steven (November 2013). ""The wounds of class": a historiographical reflection on the study of deindustrialization, 1973–2013". History Compass. Wiley. 11 (11): 994–1007. doi:10.1111/hic3.12099.
  72. ^ Tim Strangleman, James Rhodes, and Sherry Linkon, "Introduction to crumbling cultures: Deindustrialization, class, and memory". International Labor and Working-Class History 84 (2013): 7–22. online Archived 2017-01-31 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ Steven High, "' The Wounds of Class': A Historiographical Reflection on the Study of Deindustrialization, 1973–2013". History Compass 11.11 (2013): 994–1007
  74. ^ Harrison 2009, p. 295.
  75. ^ Turner, Alwyn W. (19 March 2009). Crisis? What Crisis?: Britain in the 1970s. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-84513-851-6. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  76. ^ Beckett, Andy (7 May 2009). When the Lights Went Out: Britain in the Seventies. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-25226-8. Archived from the original on 19 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  77. ^ Dixon, Paul (26 September 2008). Northern Ireland: The Politics of War and Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-05424-1. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  78. ^ Farrington, C. (28 February 2006). Ulster Unionism and the Peace Process in Northern Ireland. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-80072-4. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  79. ^ "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". Archived from the original on 2018-11-18. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  80. ^ Rudolf Klein, "Why Britain's conservatives support a socialist health care system." Health Affairs 4#1 (1985): 41–58. online
  81. ^ Beckett, Andy (26 August 2015). "The right to buy: the housing crisis that Thatcher built". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  82. ^ Beckett, Andy (2015-08-26). "The right to buy: the housing crisis that Thatcher built". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2023-02-03. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  83. ^ "Obituary: Margaret Thatcher". BBC News. 2010-06-21. Archived from the original on 2023-01-17. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  84. ^ Rogers, Simon (2013-04-08). "15 ways that Britain changed under Margaret Thatcher". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2023-01-15. Retrieved 2023-01-15.
  85. ^ "Waspi campaign: The fight against changes to women's state pension age". BBC News. 2019-10-03. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  86. ^ "Pensioner poverty rates have fallen by two-thirds since 1980s peak • Resolution Foundation". Resolution Foundation. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  87. ^ Stewart, Heather (2015-03-11). "Pensioners escaped effects of austerity while young suffered most, says report". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  88. ^ "Rising interest rates will split the Conservatives' electoral coalition". The Economist. 11 August 2022. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-18. Since 2010 a combination of tight fiscal policy (for everyone bar pensioners) and loose monetary policy has created an effective electoral coalition. Older voters, who overwhelmingly vote Conservative, avoided the worst of austerity. Pensioners were protected by a "triple-lock" rule that kept the state pension rising inexorably, regardless of the wider economy or the state of government finances. The National Health Service, the public service that older people use most, was ring-fenced.
  89. ^ "Pensioner poverty rates". JRF. 2022-01-20. Archived from the original on 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  90. ^ Youssef, Anna (2022-03-24). "Why is pensioner poverty on the rise?". ITV News. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  91. ^ "National life tables – life expectancy in the UK - Office for National Statistics". Archived from the original on 2023-02-03. Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  92. ^ Burn-Murdoch, John (2022-12-30). "Millennials are shattering the oldest rule in politics". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2023-01-15. Retrieved 2023-01-17.
  93. ^ "The Class of '49". Fortune. June 1949.
  94. ^ Kane, Sally (2022-04-04). "Common Workplace Characteristics of the Traditionalist Generation". The Balance Careers. Archived from the original on 2022-04-04. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  95. ^ Abramson, Alexis (July 3, 2018). "The Silent Generation Characteristics and Facts You Need to Know". Dr.Alexis. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  96. ^ "Divorce In The Silent Generation". rocketswag. Archived from the original on 2020-09-26. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  97. ^ "Closing The Book On The Silent Generation". National Review. February 15, 2016. Archived from the original on March 23, 2022. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  98. ^ Jenkins, Paula (6 June – 7 July 2011). "Generation X, the Cold War and faith". catapult magazine. Vol. 10, no. 12. Archived from the original on 19 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  99. ^ O'Driscoll, Nicole (18 April 2017). "Child-Rearing Practices in the 1800s". How To Adult. Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  100. ^ "This is How the Greatest Generation Ruined the Baby Boomers". Fatherly. April 28, 2018. Archived from the original on January 19, 2023. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  101. ^ "Definition of generation gap |". Archived from the original on 2021-02-05. Retrieved 2023-01-19.
  102. ^ Furlong, Andy (2013). Youth Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-415-56479-3.

External links Edit