The Yukon River (Gwich'in: Ųųg Han or Yuk Han, Yup'ik: Kuigpak, Inupiaq: Kuukpak, Deg Xinag: Yeqin, Hän: Tth'echù or Chuu k'onn, Southern Tutchone: Chu Nìikwän, Russian: Юкон, romanizedYukon) is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. From its source in British Columbia, Canada, it flows through Canada's territory of Yukon (itself named after the river). The lower half of the river continues westwards through the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres (1,980 mi)[10][11] long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. The average flow is 6,400–7,000 m3/s (230,000–250,000 cu ft/s).[2] The total drainage area is 833,000 km2 (321,500 sq mi),[2] of which 323,800 km2 (125,000 sq mi) lies in Canada.[12] The total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta.

Yukon River
Canoeing the Yukon River.jpg
Canoeing the Yukon River
Yukon watershed.png
Location of the Yukon River and watershed
Native name
  • United States
  • Canada
Physical characteristics
SourceLlewellyn Glacier at Atlin Lake
 • locationAtlin District, British Columbia, Canada
 • coordinates59°10′N 133°50′W / 59.167°N 133.833°W / 59.167; -133.833
 • elevation669 m (2,195 ft)[1]
MouthBering Sea
 • location
Kusilvak, Alaska, U.S.
 • coordinates
62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62.59861°N 164.80000°W / 62.59861; -164.80000Coordinates: 62°35′55″N 164°48′00″W / 62.59861°N 164.80000°W / 62.59861; -164.80000
 • elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length3,190 km (1,980 mi)
Basin size833,232 km2 (321,713 sq mi) to 854,700 km2 (330,000 sq mi)[2]
 • average0.8 km (0.50 mi) Rampart to Tanana;[3] 820 m (2,690 ft) to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) (Pilot Station)[4]
 • average9.1 m (30 ft)-12.1 m (40 ft) (Rampart to Tanana);[3]
 • maximum40 m (130 ft) (Rampart);[3] 24.4 m (80 ft) (Pilot Station)[4]
 • locationPilot Station, Alaska, U.S.— (121 miles upstream of mouth; Basin size: 820,856 km2 (316,934 sq mi);[5] 831,386 km2 (321,000 sq mi)[2][6]
 • average(Period of data: 2001-2022) 6,840.3 m3/s (241,560 cu ft/s)[2]

(Period of data: 1971–2015) 6,576 m3/s (232,200 cu ft/s)[5]

(Period of data: 1977–2006) 6,428 m3/s (227,000 cu ft/s)[7]
 • minimum340 m3/s (12,000 cu ft/s)
 • maximum24,600 m3/s (870,000 cu ft/s) 34,000 m3/s (1,200,000 cu ft/s) (2005)[2]
 • locationYukon Delta, U.S., Alaska, Bering Sea
 • average
  • (Period of data: 1984–2018) 212 km3/a (6,700 m3/s)
  • (Period of data: 1951–2017) 214 km3/a (6,800 m3/s)[7]
  • (Period: 1980–2017) 206 km3/a (6,500 m3/s)[7] (Period: 1951–1979) 225 km3/a (7,100 m3/s)[7]
 • locationKaltag (450 miles upstream of mouth; Basin size: 767,000 km2 (296,000 sq mi)[2]
 • average6,040.2 m3/s (213,310 cu ft/s)[6] to 6,130.6 m3/s (216,500 cu ft/s)[2]
 • locationStevens Village (Basin size: 508,417 km2 (196,301 sq mi)[6]
 • average(Period of data: 1977-2022) 3,471.1 m3/s (122,580 cu ft/s)[2]
 • locationDawson (1,300 miles upstream of mouth; Basin size: 264,000 km2 (102,000 sq mi)[6]
 • average2,160 m3/s (76,000 cu ft/s)[6] to 2,319.1 m3/s (81,900 cu ft/s)[8]
Basin features
 • leftWhite River, Tanana River, Innoko River
 • rightTagish River, Takhini River, Teslin River, Big Salmon River, Pelly River, Stewart River, Klondike River, Birch Creek, Koyukuk River

The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park.[13][14] Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.

The Yukon River has a recent history of pollution from military installations, dumps, wastewater, and other sources.[15][failed verification][citation needed] However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, and water-quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey shows relatively good levels of turbidity, metals, and dissolved oxygen.[16] The Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers.[17]

The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data.


The name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River.[18][19] The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization.[20] In the 1840s, different tribes had different opinions as to the literal meaning of Yukon. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.[21] However, Yukkhana does not literally correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river.[22][23] Then, two years later, the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river.[18] White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich'in words that can be shortened to form Yukon.[19] Because the Holikachuks had been trading regularly with both the Gwich’ins and the Yup'iks,[24] the Holikachuks were in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuig-pak [River-big], which is the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence suggests that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han [White Water River] from Gwich'in, and erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuig-pak [River-big].

The Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk.

The following table lists the Indigenous names for the Yukon.

Literal meaning Native language Spelling in the
local alphabet
Spelling in a
standardized alphabet
IPA transcription
'big river' Yup'ik Kuigpak Kuigpak /kuix'pak/
Inupiaq Kuukpak Kuukpak /ku:k'pak/
'white water river' Gwich'in Yuukan or Ųųg Han Yuukan or Ųųk Han /ju:kan/ /ų:k han/
[citation needed] Deg Xinag Yeqin Yeqin /jəqɪn'/
Holikachuk Yooqin Yuuqin /ju:qɪn/
Denaakk'e Yookkene Yuuqene /ju:qʰənə/
Hän Tth’echù or Chuu k'onn Tth'echù or Chuu k'onn /tθʰ'etʃʰuʔ/ /tʃʰu: k'onn/
Southern Tutchone Chu Nìikwän Chu Nìikwen /tʃʰu ni:kʷʰən/


Map of the Yukon River watershed

The generally accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia. Others suggest that the source is Lake Lindeman at the northern end of the Chilkoot Trail. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake (via the Atlin River), as eventually does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake then flows into Marsh Lake (via the Tagish River). The Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should really be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua. The upper end of the Yukon River was originally known as the Lewes River until it was established that it actually was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kusawa Lake (into the Takhini River) and Kluane Lake (into the Kluane and then White River).

The river passes through the communities of Whitehorse, Carmacks, (just before the Five Finger Rapids) and Dawson City in Yukon, and crossing Alaska into Eagle, Circle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Rampart, Tanana, Ruby, Galena, Nulato, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Marshall, Pilot Station, St. Marys (which is accessible from the Yukon at Pitkas Point), and Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels, sprawling across the delta. There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk, Emmonak, and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with roughly 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights.


The bridge across the Yukon River at Carmacks on the Klondike Highway
The E. L. Patton Yukon River Bridge carries the Dalton Highway over the Yukon north of Fairbanks.

Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks.


Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river, listed from upstream to downstream:

A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer; it is replaced by an ice bridge over the frozen river during the winter. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, although they are currently on hold because bids came in much higher than budgeted.

There are also two pedestrian-only bridges in Whitehorse, as well as a dam across the river and a hydroelectric generating station. The construction of the dam flooded the White Horse Rapids, which gave the city its name, and created Schwatka Lake.

Transportation is also performed along the river in summer by barge, enabling heavy goods, oil, and vehicles to be transported to communities along the Yukon, Tanana, Innoko, and Koyukuk rivers. This service is performed by Ruby Marine and reaches Tanana on the Yukon River and Nenana on the Tanana River.[25]

Geography and ecologyEdit

Some of the upper slopes of this watershed (e.g. Nulato Hills) are forested by Black Spruce.[26] This locale near the Seward Peninsula represents the near westernmost limit of the Black Spruce, Picea mariana,[27] one of the most widespread conifers in northern North America.

The river flows into several parklands and refuges including:

Crossing the Lake Laberge by canoe


Yukon at Pilot Station (121 miles upstream of mouth) multiannual average discharge, 1975-10-01 to 2022-09-30:

Year cfs m3/s km3
1976 218,300 6,182 195
1977 204,100 5,779 182
1978 185,300 5,247 166
1979 224,200 6,349 200
1980 236,900 6,708 212
1981 229,600 6,502 205
1982 240,800 6,819 215
1983 218,900 6,199 196
1984 231,900 6,567 207
1985 239,200 6,773 214
1986 231,400 6,553 207
1987 223,800 6,337 200
1988 218,700 6,193 195
1989 225,500 6,385 202
1990 235,400 6,666 210
1991 249,800 7,074 223
1992 239,500 6,782 214
1993 240,400 6,807 215
1994 253,700 7,184 227
1995 218,300 6,182 195
1996 209,700 5,938 187
1997 - - -
1998 - - -
1999 - - -
2000 - - -
1976 to 1996 227,400 6,439 203
2001 249,500 7,067 223
2002 210,400 5,958 188
2003 236,500 6,697 211
2004 211,800 5,998 189
2005 254,600 7,209 228
2006 252,300 7,144 226
2007 213,600 6,048 191
2008 231,600 6,558 207
2009 231,900 6,567 207
2010 205,600 5,822 184
2011 227,000 6,428 203
2012 247,700 7,014 221
2013 231,700 6,561 207
2014 266,400 7,544 238
2015 229,400 6,499 205
2016 274,600 7,776 245
2017 214,900 6,085 192
2018 257,600 7,294 230
2019 233,300 6,606 208
2020 290,900 8,237 260
2021 262,200 7,425 234
2022 280,800 7,952 251
2001 to 2022 241,600 6,840 216
1976 to 2022 232,750 6,591 208



The Yukon River is home to one of the longest salmon runs in the world. Each year Chinook, coho, and chum salmon return to their terminal streams in Alaska, the Yukon Territory, and British Columbia. The Chinook have the longest journey, with an estimated 35–50% bound for Canada. As salmon do not eat during their spawning migration, Yukon River salmon must have great reserves of fat and energy to fuel their thousands-mile-long journey. As a result, Yukon River salmon are noted for their especially rich and oily meat.

The villages along the Yukon have historically relied on and continue to rely on salmon for their cultural, subsistence, and commercial needs. Salmon are traditionally dried, smoked, and frozen for both human and sled dog consumption. Common methods of fishing on the Yukon include set gillnets, drift nets, dip nets, and fish wheels. The preference of certain gear is largely dependent on the river's varied characteristics in different areas. Some parts of the river do not have eddies to make set-nets successful, whereas in other places the tributaries are small enough to make drifting impractical.

Over the last 20 years salmon recruitment, the number of returning adults, has taken several shocks. The late 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s have been marked by radically reduced runs for various salmon species. The United States Department of Commerce issued a Federal Disaster Declaration for the 2008 and 2009 Commercial Chinook Yukon River fisheries, calling for the complete closure of commercial fishing along with restrictions on subsistence fishing. The root cause of these poor returns remains debated, with questions about the effects of climate change on ocean food-supply & disease prevalence in returning adults, the methods of fishing used on the river, and the effects of the Bering Sea Pollock trawl fleet on food supply and salmon bycatch.[28][29] In 2010, the Alaska Department of Fish & Game's Board of Fisheries issued the first-ever restriction for net mesh size on the Yukon, reducing it to 7.5 inches (190 mm).[30]

Various organizations are involved to protect healthy salmon runs into the future. The Yukon River Drainage Fisheries Association was formed in 1990 by a consensus of fishers representing the entire drainage in response to recent disaster years. Its organizational goals include giving voice to the village fishers that have traditionally managed these resources, enabling communication between fishers and fishery managers, and helping to preserve the ecological integrity of salmon runs and local cultures' Traditional Ecological Knowledge[31]

In March 2001, the U.S. & Canadian governments passed the Yukon River Salmon Agreement to better manage an internationally shared resource and ensure that more Canadian-originated salmon return across the border.[32] The agreement is implemented through the Yukon River Panel, an international body of 12 members, equal-parts American and Canadian, that advises managers of Yukon River fisheries concerning restoration, conservation, and coordinated management.[33]

Tribal organizations such as the Association of Village Council Presidents (AVCP), Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG), and Tanana Chiefs Conference (TCC) work to sustain Yukon River salmon to promote healthy people, cultures, and communities.


Yukon River near Carmacks

Yukon TerritoryEdit

The Yukon River, as seen from the Midnight Dome in Dawson City, Yukon


Anabranches near the junction of the Yukon River and the Koyukuk River in Alaska, August 24, 1941

List of major tributariesEdit

The main river and tributaries are (sorted in order from the mouth heading upstream):







Basin size


Average discharge


Nanvaranak Slough 1,735 28.1
Archuelinguk 705 12.8
Andreafsky 193 5,369 91.4


362 2,906 51.7
Atchuelinguk 266 5,439 73.8
Reindeer 97 1,191 22
Talbiksok 1,857 26.5
Kako Creek 550 9.8
Innoko 805 36,517 335.5
Koserefski 897 13.1
Bonasila 201 3,108 43.7
Anvik 225 4,610 65
Khotol 137 2,331 40.1
Nulato 114 2,287 54.2
Koyukuk 805 81,326 770
Bear Creek 789 10.8
Kala Creek 893 13
Yuki 137 2,771 33.4
Melozitna 217 7,045 67.6
Big Creek 814 4.6
Nowitna 455 18,596 102.4
Blind 587 3.4
Boney Creek 788 3.9
Tozitna 134 4,248 28.2
Tanana 1,061 113,959 1,246
Hess Creek 80 3,082 15.6
Ray 69 1,751 14.2
Dall 129 3,714 17.6
Old Lost Creek 10.3
Hodzana 201 4,323 19.5
Beaver Creek 290 5,426 54.9
Hadweenzic 150 2,422 19.4
Birch Creek 241 13,064 127
Chandalar 328 24,165 141.8
Christian 225 8,827 67.8
Porcupine 916 116,431 623
Charley 142 4,377 22.7
Kandik 132 2,840 19.7
Nation 113 2,411 24.6
Tatonduk 110 15.6
Seventymile 93 7.5
Fortymile 97 16,602 79.4
Klondike 161 8,044 63.9
Indian 2,242 20.4
Sixtymile 137 3,719 25.4
Stewart 533 51,023 510
White 322 46,900 566
Pelly 608 48,174 412
Nordenskiöld 6,371 16
Little Salmon 3,626 9.7
Big Salmon 240 6,760 67.6
Teslin 393 35,014 331
Takhini 180 6,993 103.1
Atlin 6,812 110


In mediaEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Atlin Lake". Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "USGS".
  3. ^ a b c "Yukon River Panel".
  4. ^ a b "Yukon (Pilot) River".
  5. ^ a b Stadnyk, Tricia A.; Tefs, A.; Broesky, M.; Déry, S. J.; Myers, P. G.; Ridenour, N. A.; Koenig, K.; Vonderbank, L.; Gustafsson, D. (2021). "Changing freshwater contributions to the Arctic". Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 9. doi:10.1525/elementa.2020.00098. S2CID 236682638.
  6. ^ a b c d e "GRDC".
  7. ^ a b c d "River Discharge". Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Rivers Network".
  9. ^ Brabets, Timothy P; Wang, Bronwen; Meade, Robert H. (2000). "Environmental and Hydrologic Overview of the Yukon River Basin, Alaska and Canada" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  10. ^ a b Yukon River at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  11. ^ "". Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  12. ^ Walvoord, Michelle A.; Striegl, Robert G. (2007-06-28). "Increased groundwater to stream discharge from permafrost thawing in the Yukon River basin: Potential impacts on lateral export of carbon and nitrogen". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (12): L12402. doi:10.1029/2007GL030216. ISSN 0094-8276.
  13. ^ The Thirty Mile (Yukon River) National Heritage River Archived January 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, National Heritage Rivers System
  14. ^ Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park Archived October 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Parks Canada
  15. ^ "Earth Snapshot • Yukon River". Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  16. ^ "USGS Water Quality Samples – 1 sites found". Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  17. ^ "Arctic Great Rivers Observatory". Arctic Great Rivers. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  18. ^ a b "Dear Sir, I have great pleasure in informing you that I have at length after much trouble and difficulties, succeed[ed] in reaching the 'Youcon', or white water River, so named by the (Gwich'in) natives from the pale colour of its water. ..., I have the honour to Remain Your obt Servt, John Bell" Hudson's Bay Company Correspondence to George Simpson from John Bell (August 1, 1845), HBC Archives, D.5/14, fos. 212-215d, also quoted in, Coates, Kenneth S. & William R. Morrison (1988). Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon. Hurtig Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 0-88830-331-9. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  19. ^ a b In Gwich'in, adjectives, such as choo [big] and gąįį [white], follow the nouns that they modify. Thus, white water is chųų gąįį [water white]. White water river is chųų gąįį han [water white river]. Peter, Katherine (1979). Dinjii Zhuh Ginjik Nagwan Tr'iłtsąįį: Gwich'in Junior Dictionary (PDF). Univ. of Alaska. pp. ii (ą, į, ų are nasalized a, i, u), xii (adjectives follow nouns), 19 (nitsii or choo [big]), 88 (ocean = chųų choo [water big]), 105 (han [river]), 142 (chųų [water]), 144 (gąįį [white]). Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  20. ^ Gwich'in vowels may or may not be nasalized. A hook under a vowel, as in "ų," indicates that the vowel is nasalized. Peter (1979). Dinjii Zhuh Ginjik Nagwan Tr'iłtsąįį., at page ii (footnote). English, of course, has no nasalized vowels.
  21. ^ "[The Yukon] in the language of the Kang-ulit (Yup'ik) people is Kvikhpak; in the dialect of the downriver Inkilik (Holikachuk), Yukkhana; of those upriver (Koyukon), Yuna. All these terms mean the same thing in translation–'Big River.' I have kept the local names as a clearer indication of the different tribes along the river." Lt. Zagoskin's Note 63 (1848), translated in, Zagoskin, Lavrenty A.; Henry N. Michael, eds. (1967). Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels in Russian America, 1842-1844: The First Ethnographic and Geographic Investigations in the Yukon and Kuskokwim Valleys of Alaska. University of Toronto Press., at page 295. Zagoskin did not come into contact with the Gwich'in Indians and had no access to the information that Yukon means white water river in Gwich'in – the language from which the word came.
  22. ^ In Holikachuk, big river or big water would be xinmiksekh, xinchux, toomiksekh, or toochux. Kari, James; et al. (1978). Holikachuk Noun Dictionary (PDF). Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks. p. 19 (xin [river], too [water]). Retrieved 2017-10-16.; Zagoskin; Michael (1967). Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels., at page 309 (Inkilik proper [Holikachuk] tu [water], miksekh [large]); Hargus, Sharon (2008). Vowel quality and duration in Deg Xinag (PDF). Univ. of Washington. p. 29 (note 33: Holikachuk chux [big]). Retrieved 2017-10-16. Adjectives followed the nouns that they modified in Holikachuk.
  23. ^ Thirty-nine pages of cited "Sources," representing over a century of research, did not verify Zagoskin's report that Yukon means big river. Orth (1967). Dictionary of Alaska Place Names., at pp. 6-44 ("Sources of Names"), 1069 ("The Eskimo ... descriptively called it 'Kuikpak' meaning 'big river.' The Indian name 'Yukon' probably means the same thing."). Orth does not say "probably" when discussing Kuikpak's meaning. Orth's use of "probably" is limited to the discussion of Yukon's meaning, which indicates that Zagoskin's report that Yukon means big river was never verified. In addition, Orth's "Sources" do not even include the Hudson's Bay Company correspondence, which states that Yukon means white water river in Gwich'in. Nor do Orth's "Sources" include aboriginal dictionaries.
  24. ^ Lt. Zagoskin reported that: "The ... Inkilit [Holikachuk] ... live along the routes of communication between the Yukon and the coast and are occupied almost exclusively with buying up furs from the natives living along the Yunnaka (Koyukuk River, a Yukon tributary)." Zagoskin also reported that: "The Inkalik [Holikachuk] ..., who are chiefly occupied in trading both with their fellow tribesmen and with the neighboring tribes of Kang-ulit (Yup'ik), have adopted the way of life of the latter ..." Zagoskin; Michael (1967). Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels., at pp. 196-97, 244. Because they had adopted the Yup’ik (Eskimo) way of life, and because they were the ones trading upriver, the Holikachuk would have been "the Esquimaux" referred to in John Bell's 1845 report: "The Esquimaux to the westwards likewise ascends the 'Youcon' and carry on a trade with the natives, as well as with the Musquash [Gwich'in] Indians ... I have seen a large camp of the latter tribe on the Rat River on my return, who, had about a doz: of beat [hammered] Iron Kettles of Russian Manufacture which they bartered from the Esquimaux." See, Hudson's Bay Company Correspondence to Simpson from Bell (1845), HBC Archives, D.5/14, fos. 212, 213. For these reasons, the Holikachuk were in a position to conflate the meanings of the Gwich'in and Yup'ik names, and to furnish this conflated information to the Russian-American Company.
  25. ^ "Ruby Marine". Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  26. ^ Scott R. Robinson. 1988. Movement and Distribution of Western Arctic Caribou Herd across the Buckland Valley and Nulato Hills, U.S. Bureau of Land Management Open file Report 23, Alaska
  27. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Black Spruce: Picea mariana,, ed. Nicklas Stromberg, November, 2008 Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Thiessen, Mark. Feds declare fisheries disaster for Yukon River Archived December 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Retrieved 15 March 2010
  29. ^ Hopkins, Kyle. Pollock vs. salmon bycatch issue stirs waters at meeting Archived June 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 15 March 2010
  30. ^ Associated Press. Fisheries board restricts Yukon salmon gillnets Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 15 March 2010
  31. ^ Sea Grant Alaska. Yukon Fishermen Celebrate Ten Years. Arctic Science Journeys. Retrieved 15 March 2010
  32. ^ Yukon River Salmon Agreement., March 2001
  33. ^ Bylaws of the Yukon River Panel Society., November 2002
  34. ^ Alcinii, Daniele (June 26, 2015). "Nat Geo sets summer premieres for adventure series". Real Screen. Retrieved August 31, 2015.

External linksEdit