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Triangular tiling
Triangular tiling
Type Regular tiling
Vertex configuration 3.3.3.3.3.3 (or 36)
Triangular tiling vertfig.png
Face configuration V6.6.6 (or V63)
Schläfli symbol(s) {3,6}
{3[3]}
Wythoff symbol(s) 6 | 3 2
3 | 3 3
| 3 3 3
Coxeter diagram(s) CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch.png = CDel node h1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h.pngCDel split1.pngCDel branch hh.png
Symmetry p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Rotation symmetry p6, [6,3]+, (632)
p3, [3[3]]+, (333)
Dual Hexagonal tiling
Properties Vertex-transitive, edge-transitive, face-transitive

In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees. The triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of {3,6}.

Conway calls it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta (Δ). The triangular tiling can also be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille.

It is one of three regular tilings of the plane. The other two are the square tiling and the hexagonal tiling.

Uniform coloringsEdit

 
A 2-uniform triangular tiling, 4 colored triangles, related to the geodesic polyhedron as {3,6+}2,0.

There are 9 distinct uniform colorings of a triangular tiling. (Naming the colors by indices on the 6 triangles around a vertex: 111111, 111112, 111212, 111213, 111222, 112122, 121212, 121213, 121314) Three of them can be derived from others by repeating colors: 111212 and 111112 from 121213 by combining 1 and 3, while 111213 is reduced from 121314.[1]

There is one class of Archimedean colorings, 111112, (marked with a *) which is not 1-uniform, containing alternate rows of triangles where every third is colored. The example shown is 2-uniform, but there are infinitely many such Archimedean colorings that can be created by arbitrary horizontal shifts of the rows.

111111 121212 111222 112122 111112(*)
         
p6m (*632) p3m1 (*333) cmm (2*22) p2 (2222) p2 (2222)
121213 111212 111112 121314 111213
         
p31m (3*3) p3 (333)

A2 lattice and circle packingsEdit

 
The A*
2
lattice as three triangular tilings:     +     +    

The vertex arrangement of the triangular tiling is called an A2 lattice.[2] It is the 2-dimensional case of a simplectic honeycomb.

The A*
2
lattice (also called A3
2
) can be constructed by the union of all three A2 lattices, and equivalent to the A2 lattice.

    +     +     = dual of     =    

The vertices of the triangular tiling are the centers of the densest possible circle packing.[3] Every circle is in contact with 6 other circles in the packing (kissing number). The packing density is ​π12 or 90.69%. The voronoi cell of a triangular tiling is a hexagon, and so the voronoi tessellation, the hexagonal tiling, has a direct correspondence to the circle packings.

 

Geometric variationsEdit

Triangular tilings can be made with the equivalent {3,6} topology as the regular tiling (6 triangles around every vertex). With identical faces (face-transitivity) and vertex-transitivity, there are 5 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color.[4]

Related polyhedra and tilingsEdit

The planar tilings are related to polyhedra. Putting fewer triangles on a vertex leaves a gap and allows it to be folded into a pyramid. These can be expanded to Platonic solids: five, four and three triangles on a vertex define an icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron respectively.

This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols {3,n}, continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

It is also topologically related as a part of sequence of Catalan solids with face configuration Vn.6.6, and also continuing into the hyperbolic plane.

 
V3.6.6
 
V4.6.6
 
V5.6.6
 
V6.6.6
 
V7.6.6

Wythoff constructions from hexagonal and triangular tilingsEdit

Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling (or the dual triangular tiling).

Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. (The truncated triangular tiling is topologically identical to the hexagonal tiling.)

Related regular complex apeirogonsEdit

There are 4 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the triangular tiling. Regular complex apeirogons have vertices and edges, where edges can contain 2 or more vertices. Regular apeirogons p{q}r are constrained by: 1/p + 2/q + 1/r = 1. Edges have p vertices, and vertex figures are r-gonal.[5]

The first is made of 2-edges, and next two are triangular edges, and the last has overlapping hexagonal edges.

       
2{6}6 or     3{4}6 or     3{6}3 or     6{3}6 or    

Other triangular tilingsEdit

There are also three Laves tilings made of single type of triangles:

 
Kisrhombille
30°-60°-90° right triangles
 
Kisquadrille
45°-45°-90° right triangles
 
Kisdeltile
30°-30°-120° isosceles triangles

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Tilings and Patterns, p.102-107
  2. ^ http://www.math.rwth-aachen.de/~Gabriele.Nebe/LATTICES/A2.html
  3. ^ Order in Space: A design source book, Keith Critchlow, p.74-75, pattern 1
  4. ^ Tilings and Patterns, from list of 107 isohedral tilings, p.473-481
  5. ^ Coxeter, Regular Complex Polytopes, pp. 111-112, p. 136.
  • Coxeter, H.S.M. Regular Polytopes, (3rd edition, 1973), Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8 p. 296, Table II: Regular honeycombs
  • Grünbaum, Branko ; and Shephard, G. C. (1987). Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (Chapter 2.1: Regular and uniform tilings, p. 58-65, Chapter 2.9 Archimedean and Uniform colorings pp.102-107)
  • Williams, Robert (1979). The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. p35
  • John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 [1]

External linksEdit

Fundamental convex regular and uniform honeycombs in dimensions 2-9
          /   /  
{3[3]} δ3 3 3 Hexagonal
{3[4]} δ4 4 4
{3[5]} δ5 5 5 24-cell honeycomb
{3[6]} δ6 6 6
{3[7]} δ7 7 7 222
{3[8]} δ8 8 8 133331
{3[9]} δ9 9 9 152251521
{3[10]} δ10 10 10
{3[n]} δn n n 1k22k1k21