Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership

The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), initially abbreviated as TPP11 or TPP-11,[1][2][3] is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. It evolved from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which was never ratified due to the withdrawal of the United States. The eleven members have combined economies representing 13.4 percent of global gross domestic product, at approximately US$13.5 trillion, making the CPTPP one of the world's largest free trade areas by GDP, along with the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the European single market,[4] and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. The United Kingdom and the present members formally signed an accession protocol on 16 July 2023, and will join the agreement when it has been ratified by all parties, or after 15 months if the UK and a majority of CPTPP parties have ratified it.[5][6]

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership
As of July 2023:
  Parties
  Accession Protocol Signatory
  Formal applicants
  Expressed interest
TypeTrade agreement
Signed8 March 2018
LocationSantiago, Chile
Sealed23 January 2018
Effective30 December 2018
Condition60 days after ratification by 50% of the signatories, or after six signatories have ratified
Parties
DepositaryGovernment of New Zealand
Languages

The TPP had been signed on 4 February 2016 but never entered into force, as the U.S. withdrew from the agreement soon after the election of president Donald Trump.[7] All other TPP signatories agreed in May 2017 to revive the agreement,[8][9] with Shinzo Abe's administration in Japan widely reported as taking the leading role in place of the U.S.[10][11] In January 2018, the CPTPP was created as a succeeding agreement, retaining two-thirds of its predecessor's provisions; 22 measures favored by the U.S. but contested by other signatories were suspended, while the threshold for enactment was lowered so as not to require U.S. accession.[12][13]

The formal signing ceremony was held on 8 March 2018 in Santiago, Chile.[14][15] The agreement specifies that its provisions enter into effect 60 days after ratification by at least half the signatories (six of the eleven participating countries).[12] On 31 October 2018, Australia was the sixth nation to ratify the agreement; it subsequently came into force for the initial six ratifying countries on 30 December 2018.[16]

The chapter on state-owned enterprises (SOEs) requires signatories to share information about SOEs with each other, with the intent of engaging with the issue of state intervention in markets. It includes the most detailed standards for intellectual property of any trade agreement, as well as protections against intellectual property theft against corporations operating abroad.[13]

The e-commerce chapter of the CPTPP mandates, that signatories adopt or at the very least maintain laws for consumer protection with the aim to fight fraud and deceptive commercial activities. Signatories are suppose to work together, to encourage cross border e-commerce in the Asia-Pacific.[17]

Negotiations

edit

During the round of negotiations held concurrently with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum in Vietnam in November 2017, the Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau refused to sign the agreement in principle, stating reservations about the provisions on culture and automotives. Media outlets in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, which strongly supported quick movement on a deal, strongly criticized what they portrayed as Canadian sabotage.[18]

Canada insisted that cultural and language rights, specifically related to its French-speaking minority, be protected.[19]

However, Canada's major reservation was a conflict between the percentage of a vehicle that must originate in a CPTPP member nation to enter tariff-free, which was 45% under the original TPP language and 62.5% under the NAFTA agreement. Japan, which is a major automobile part exporter, strongly supported lower requirements.[18] In January 2018, Canada announced that it would sign the CPTPP after obtaining binding side letters on culture with every other CPTPP member country, as well as bilateral agreements with Japan, Malaysia, and Australia related to non-tariff barriers. Canada's Auto Parts Manufacturers' Association sharply criticized increasing the percentages of automobile parts that may be imported tariff-free, noting that the United States was moving in the opposite direction by demanding stricter importation standards in the NAFTA renegotiation, later USMCA.[19]

In February 2019, Canada's Jim Carr, Minister of International Trade Diversification, delivered a keynote address at a seminar concerning CPTPP - Expanding Your Business Horizons, reaching out to businesses stating the utilisation of the agreement provides a bridge that will enable people, goods and services to be shared more easily.[20]

The final text of CPTPP was mostly identical to the original TPP, except for some provisions advanced by the US under the TPP, but not supported by the other members. In the intellectual property chapter, copyright and patent terms were shortened relative to TPP, and standards for digital IP protections were eliminated. Provisions allowing use of investor–state dispute settlements for investment agreements and authorizations were also rescinded.[13]

Legislative process

edit

Ratifications

edit

On 28 June 2018, Mexico became the first country to finish its domestic ratification procedure of the CPTPP, with President Enrique Peña Nieto stating, "With this new generation agreement, Mexico diversifies its economic relations with the world and demonstrates its commitment to openness and free trade".[21][22]

On 6 July 2018, Japan became the second country to ratify the agreement.[23][24]

On 19 July 2018, Singapore became the third country to ratify the agreement and deposit its instrument of ratification.[25][26]

On 17 October 2018, the Australian Federal Parliament passed relevant legislation through the Senate.[27] The official ratification was deposited on 31 October 2018. This two-week gap made Australia the sixth signatory to deposit its ratification of the agreement, and it came into force 60 days later.[28]

On 25 October 2018, New Zealand ratified the CPTPP, increasing the number of countries that had formally ratified the agreement to four.[29]

Also on 25 October 2018, Canada passed and was granted royal assent on the enabling legislation.[30] The official ratification was deposited on 29 October 2018.[31][32][33]

On 2 November 2018, the CPTPP and related documents were submitted to the National Assembly of Vietnam for ratification.[34] On 12 November 2018, the National Assembly passed a resolution unanimously ratifying the CPTPP.[35] The Vietnamese government officially notified New Zealand of its ratification on 15 November 2018.[36]

On 14 July 2021, the CPTPP was approved by the Congress of the Republic of Peru. The official ratification was deposited on 21 July 2021.[37]

On 30 September 2022, Malaysia ratified the CPTPP and deposited its instrument of ratification.[38][39]

On 17 April 2019, the CPTPP was approved by the Chamber of Deputies of Chile. The final round of approval in the Senate was scheduled for November 2019, after being approved by its Commission of Constitution.[40] However, due to a series of massive protests against the government of Sebastián Piñera, the ratification process was paused. Only in 2022, the ratification process was resumed after a new Congress and a new President were elected. Despite the public opposition of Gabriel Boric to the treaty before his election as President, the new administration did not interfere in the voting. The CPTPP was approved in the Senate with 27 votes in favor (mainly from the right-wing opposition and some center-left politicians) and 10 against, mostly by members of the ruling coalition.[41] The treaty was deposited on 23 December, once several side letters were negotiated with the other signatories in specific topics considered harmful by the Chilean government.[42] On 23 February 2023, Boric ratified Chile's entry to TPP-11.[43]

On 13 May 2023, Brunei ratified the CPTPP and deposited its instrument of ratification.[44]

On 16 July 2023, the United Kingdom became the first non-original signatory and European country to sign the CPTPP agreement. The UK formally signed the accession protocol on 16 July 2023.[6] The UK ratified the terms of its accession on 17 May 2024.[45] Additionally all current CPTPP members must ratify the UK's application.[46]

  • On 15 December 2023, Japan fully ratified the UK's accession and notified New Zealand.[47]
  • On 23 January 2024, Singapore fully ratified the UK's accession and notified New Zealand.[48][49]
  • On 17 April 2024, Chile fully ratified the UK's accession and notified New Zealand.[50]
  • On 17 May 2024, the United Kingdom fully ratified its own accession and notified New Zealand.[45]
  • On 4 June 2024, New Zealand fully ratified the UK's accession.[51]
  • On 25 June 2024, Vietnam ratified the UK's accession.[52]

Entry into force

edit

The agreement came into effect 60 days after ratification and deposit of accession documents by at least half the signatories (six of the eleven signatories).[12] Australia was the sixth country to ratify the agreement, which was deposited with New Zealand on 31 October 2018, and consequently the agreement came into force between Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Singapore on 30 December 2018.[16]

On 1 January 2019, Australia, Canada, Mexico, New Zealand, and Singapore implemented a second round of tariff cuts. Japan's second tariff cut took place on 1 April 2019.[33]

On 15 November 2018, Vietnam deposited the accession documents, and the agreement entered into force in Vietnam on 14 January 2019.[33][36][53]

On 21 July 2021, Peru deposited the accession documents, and the agreement entered into force in Peru on 19 September 2021.[37]

On 30 September 2022, Malaysia deposited the accession documents, and the agreement entered into force in Malaysia on 29 November 2022.[54]

On 23 December 2022, Chile deposited the accession documents, and the agreement entered into force in Chile on 21 February 2023.[43]

On 13 May 2023, Brunei deposited the accession documents, and the agreement entered into force in Brunei on 12 July 2023.[55]

Summary

edit

An overview of the legislative process in selected states is shown below:

Signatory Signature[14] Institution Conclusion date     AB Deposited Effective Ref.
  Mexico 8 March 2018 Senate 24 April 2018 73 24 28 June 2018 30 December 2018 [21][22]
Presidential Assent 23 May 2018 Granted
  Japan 8 March 2018 House of Representatives 18 May 2018 Majority approval (Standing vote) 6 July 2018 30 December 2018 [23][56][57]
House of Councillors 13 June 2018 168 69
  Singapore 8 March 2018 No parliamentary approval required 19 July 2018 30 December 2018 [25][16]
  New Zealand 8 March 2018 House of Representatives 24 October 2018 111 8 25 October 2018 30 December 2018 [58][29]
Royal assent 25 October 2018 Granted
  Canada 8 March 2018 House of Commons 16 October 2018 236 44 1 29 October 2018 30 December 2018 [31][32]
[30][33]
Senate 25 October 2018 Majority approval (Voice vote)
Royal assent 25 October 2018 Granted
  Australia 8 March 2018 House of Representatives 19 September 2018 Majority approval (Standing vote) 31 October 2018 30 December 2018 [59][60][28]
[61][62]
Senate 17 October 2018 33 15
Royal assent 19 October 2018 Granted
  Vietnam 8 March 2018 National Assembly 12 November 2018 469 0 16 15 November 2018 14 January 2019 [36][63][64]
  Peru 8 March 2018 Congress 14 July 2021 97 0 9 21 July 2021 19 September 2021 [37][65]
  Malaysia 8 March 2018 Cabinet of Malaysia 30 September 2022 29 November 2022 [66][67]
[39][38]
  Chile 8 March 2018 Chamber of Deputies 17 April 2019 77 68 2 23 December 2022 21 February 2023 [68][69]
[70][71]
Senate 11 October 2022 27 10 1
  Brunei 8 March 2018 No parliamentary approval required 13 May 2023 12 July 2023 [44][55]

The following country has signed an accession protocol to accede to CPTPP.

Signatory Application Negotiations Signature Institution Passed     AB Deposited Effective Ref.
  United Kingdom 1 February 2021 Opened 2 June 2021 16 July 2023 House of Lords 23 January 2024 Majority approval (Voice vote) 17 May 2024 [72][73][74]
[75][45]
Concluded 31 March 2023 House of Commons 19 March 2024 Majority approval (Voice vote)
Royal assent 20 March 2024 Granted

CPTPP Commission

edit

The CPTPP Commission is the decision-making body of the CPTPP, which was established when the CPTPP entered into force on 30 December 2018.[76] The official languages of CPTPP are English, French, and Spanish; English is used prevailing in the case of conflict or divergence.[77] The CPTPP commission in 2024 is chaired by Canada.[78]

CPTPP Commission meetings
No. Year Dates Country City Host leader
1 2019 19 January   Japan Tokyo Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
2 2019 9 October   New Zealand Auckland Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern
3 2020 5 August   Mexico Virtual meeting President Andrés Manuel López Obrador
4 2021 2 June   Japan Virtual meeting Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga
5 2021 1 September   Japan Virtual meeting Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga
6 2022 8 October   Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
7 2023 16 July   New Zealand Auckland Prime Minister Chris Hipkins
8 2024 TBD   Canada TBD Prime Minister of Canada

1st CPTPP Commission (2019)
Representatives from the eleven CPTPP signatories participated in the 1st CPTPP Commission meeting held in Tokyo on 19 January 2019,[79] which decided:

  • A decision about the chairing and administrative arrangements for the commission and special transitional arrangements for 2019;[80]
  • A decision to establish the accession process for interested economies to join the CPTPP;[80] Annex[81]
  • A decision to create rules of procedure and a code of conduct for disputes involving Parties to the;[82] Annex;[83] Annex I[84]
  • A decision to create a code of conduct for investor-State dispute settlement.;[85] Annex[86]* Members of the CPTPP Commission also issued a joint ministerial statement on 19 January 2019.[87]

2nd CPTPP Commission (2019)
The 2nd CPTPP Commission meeting was held on 9 October 2019 in Auckland, New Zealand. Alongside the commission, the following Committees met for the first time in Auckland: Trade in Goods; Rules of Origin; Agricultural Trade; Technical Barriers to Trade; Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures; Small and Medium Sized Enterprises; State Owned Enterprises; Development; Cooperation and Capacity Building; Competitiveness and Business Facilitation; Environment; and the Labour Council. The Commission adopted two formal decisions, (i) on its Rules of Procedure under Article 27.4 and (ii) to establish a Roster of Panel Chairs as provided for under Article 28.11.[88][89]

3rd CPTPP Commission (2020)
The 3rd CPTPP Commission meeting was held virtually and hosted by Mexico on 5 August 2020.[90]

4th CPTPP Commission (2021)
The 4th CPTPP Commission meeting was held virtually and hosted by Japan on 2 June 2021. The Commission decided to move forward with the application of the United Kingdom as an aspirant economy.[91]

5th CPTPP Commission (2021)
The 5th CPTPP Commission meeting was held virtually and hosted by Japan on 1 September 2021.[92] The Commission decided to establish a Committee on Electronic Commerce composed of government representatives of each Party.

6th CPTPP Commission (2022)
The 6th CPTPP Commission meeting was held on 8 October 2022 and hosted by Singapore.[93]

7th CPTPP Commission (2023)
The 7th CPTPP Commission meeting was held on 16 July 2023 in New Zealand. The commission decided to establish a Committee on Customs Administration and Trade Facilitation.[94] The meeting included the formal signing of the accession of the United Kingdom.[95]

8th CPTPP Commission (2024)
The 8th CPTPP Commission meeting will be hosted by Canada in 2024.[78]

Enlargement

edit

CPTPP rules require all eleven signatories to agree to the admission of additional members.[96] Article 34 of CPTPP states that "any State or separate customs territory that is a member of APEC, and any other State or separate customs territory as the Parties may agree" are eligible accede to the agreement.[97][98]

Current Status

Country Status Application Negotiations opened Negotiations concluded Signature Accession Ref.
  United Kingdom Awaiting accession ratification since 16 July 2023 1 February 2021 2 June 2021 31 March 2023 16 July 2023 [99][100]
  China Formal application submitted 16 September 2021 [101][102]
  Taiwan Formal application submitted
under the name of "The Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (TPKM)."
22 September 2021 [103][104][105]
  Ecuador Formal application submitted 29 December 2021 [106][107]
  Costa Rica Formal application submitted 11 August 2022 [108][109]
  Uruguay Formal application submitted 1 December 2022 [110][111]
  Ukraine Formal application submitted 5 May 2023 [112][113]

Current signatories

edit

United Kingdom

edit
 
  CPTPP Signatories
  United Kingdom
  Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories

In January 2018, the government of the United Kingdom stated that it was exploring membership of the CPTPP to stimulate exports after Brexit and had held informal discussions with several of the members.[114] In October 2018, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said he would welcome the United Kingdom joining the partnership post-Brexit.[115] Liz Truss, the UK Secretary of State for Trade, expressed in a joint Daily Telegraph article with Simon Birmingham, David Parker, and Chan Chun Sing, the trade ministers of Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore, the intent of the United Kingdom to join the CPTPP.[116]

On 1 February 2021, the United Kingdom formally applied to join CPTPP.[117] The UK is the first non-founding country to apply to join the CPTPP. If successful, Britain would become the second-largest CPTPP economy, after Japan.[118] Japan had expressed support for the UK's potential entry into CPTPP in 2018,[119] and as 4th CPTPP Commission (2021) chair, Japan's minister in charge of negotiations on the trade pact, Yasutoshi Nishimura, expressed hope on Twitter that Britain will "demonstrate its strong determination to fully comply with high-standard obligations" of the free trade accord, and mentioned that "I believe that the UK's accession request will have a great potential to expand the high-standard rules beyond the Asia-Pacific."[120]

In June 2021, the CPTPP agreed to open accession talks. A working group was established to discuss tariffs and rules governing investment and trade, led by Japan.[121]

As of 31 March 2023, the United Kingdom was set to join the CPTPP, as the 11 members had reached an agreement to Britain's accession.[107][122][123] Each of the existing member nations will need to ratify the UK's addition to the partnership before it takes effect.[46]

On 31 March 2023, the UK government announced it had secured an extension mechanism, which could extend the whole agreement to any Crown Dependency or British Overseas Territory.[124] On the same day, Guernsey and Jersey confirmed their intentions to participate in CPTPP.[125][126] In May 2023, a UK government spokesman confirmed that "the deal will cover goods trade between the Crown Dependencies and CPTPP countries, with a mechanism to include trade in services in future."[127]

The United Kingdom formally signed the CPTPP trade deal during the ministerial meeting of members in New Zealand on 16 July 2023[128][6] All CPTPP members must ratify the UK's accession.

Applicants

edit

China

edit

In May 2020, China's Premier Li Keqiang said that China was willing to consider joining CPTPP.[129] Meanwhile, China's leader Xi Jinping said at an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in November 2020 that China would "actively consider" joining CPTPP.

In December 2020, Japan Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi has said that "TPP-11 sets high standards for regulations on e-commerce, intellectual property and state-owned enterprises", suggesting the amount of government intervention in the Chinese economy will not meet CPTPP requirements.[130]

China's application to CPTPP is unlikely to gain traction. Although not a member of CPTPP, the U.S. can exercise the "poison pill" within the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement that prevents Canada and Mexico from voting in favor of the Chinese application.[131]

On 16 September 2021, China formally applied to join CPTPP.[102] Reactions from CPTPP members after the Chinese application:

Japan Economy Minister Yasutoshi Nishimura was quoted by Reuters: "Japan believes that it's necessary to determine whether China, which submitted a request to join the TPP-11, is ready to meet its extremely high standards"; indicating that Japan would not support the Chinese application under the current circumstances.[132]

Former Australian Trade Minister Dan Tehan indicated that Australia would oppose China's application until China halts trade strikes against Australian exports and resumes minister-to-minister contacts with the Australian government. Also, Australia has lodged disputes against China in the WTO on restrictions imposed by China on exports of barley and wine.[133]

Taiwan

edit

Taiwan applied to join CPTPP on 22 September 2021.[134]

It had previously expressed interest to join TPP in 2016.[135] After TPP's evolution to CPTPP in 2018, Taiwan indicated its will to continue efforts to join CPTPP.[136] In December 2020, the Taiwanese government stated that it would submit an application to join CPTPP following the conclusion of informal consultations with existing members.[137] In February 2021 again, Taiwan indicated its will to apply to join CPTPP at an appropriate time.[138] A few days after China submitted its request to join the CPTPP, Taiwan sent its own request to join the CPTPP, a move that has been one of the main policy objectives of Tsai Ing-wen's government.[139]

Ecuador

edit

Ecuador filed its application to join the CPTPP trade pact on 29 December 2021 as the country moves to reduce its reliance on oil and diversify its economy through exports.[106][107]

Costa Rica

edit

Costa Rica filed its application to join the CPTPP trade pact on 11 August 2022.[108]

Uruguay

edit

Uruguay filed its application to join the CPTPP trade pact on 1 December 2022.[110] Uruguay's application received backlash from Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, of which make up the Mercosur trade bloc, particularly following President Lacelle Pou opening negotiations for a free trade agreement with China and signalling his willingness to cut deals with other countries. Paraguay’s Foreign Minister Julio Arriola responded by stating that "Mercosur member states should negotiate as a bloc and via consensus and we continue in that line,” citing the organization’s founding treaties.[140]

Ukraine

edit

On 1 May 2023, the Ukrainian government announced its intention for the accession of Ukraine to CPTPP.[141] Ukraine aims to accelerate its efforts to restore its economy severely damaged by the Russian invasion.[142] Canadian Trade Minister Mary Ng expressed support for Ukraine's application.[143] Ukraine submitted a formal request to join the trade bloc on 5 May 2023.[112][113]

Expressed interest

edit

Several countries have expressed interest in joining CPTPP since the revisions from TPP, including Colombia, Indonesia, Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand.[144]

Indonesia

edit

Indonesia initially showed the least interest of three linked ASEAN members to apply to CPTPP, however continued to monitor the developments of the trade bloc, with Indonesian ambassador to the US Rosan Roeslani leaving the door open but clarifying that Indonesia was not in the process of applying to CPTPP at that time.[145] In October 2023, it was reported that the primary reason for Indonesia's lack of interest in CPTPP was due to the government's policy of reducing imported goods in its public procurement in order to develop its domestic industry, which is incompatible with CPTPP requirements for members to eliminate over 98 percent of tariffs in the free trade area.[146] In December 2023, Chief Economic Affairs Minister Airlangga Hartarto heavily discussed CPTPP with British Trade Envoy to Indonesia, Richard Graham; this meeting occurred a few months after the UK signed the accession protocols to join CPTPP.[147] In April 2024, Hartarto conveyed Indonesia's interest in joining CPTPP to British Minister of State for Indo-Pacific Anne-Marie Trevelyan during a meeting in London; Trevelyan emphasised that the UK supported Indonesia's bids to join the OECD and CPTPP.[148] On 3 June 2024, Hartarto announced that Indonesia would apply to join CPTPP in 2024, as it would be a faster method to gain access to new markets, highlighting the UK and Mexico, than negotiating individual bilateral agreements.[149]

Philippines

edit

The Philippines' interest in the CPTPP has remained, but the consultative process and legal analysis of the terms necessary for accession have been drawn out.[145] The Philippines previously wanted to join the TPP in 2016 under Benigno Aquino, who said that the country stood to gain from becoming a member of the trade pact.[150] Philippine Ambassador to the U.S. Jose Manuel Romualdez later clarified that the US withdrawal from TPP pushed the Philippines' application to CPTPP down the agenda, yet China's interest in acceding to CPTPP has made the trade bloc more attractive for the Philippines.[145]

South Korea

edit

In January 2021, South Korea's Moon administration announced it would seek to join CPTPP.[151] The country will examine sanitary and phytosanitary measures, fisheries subsidies, digital trade and guidelines related to state-run enterprises to meet the requirements that CPTPP has suggested.[152] The South Korean government formally announced it will begin its application to join CPTPP in December 2021.[153]

Thailand

edit

In November 2021, a Thai government official stated that Thailand aimed to join talks on membership of CPTPP, which had been viewed as a method to boost the Thai economy, additionally it would increase the competitivity of Thai goods against rivals, notably Malaysia and Vietnam, in sectors such as agricultural and electronic industries.[154] Foreign Minister Don Pramudwinai was expected to submit a letter of intent for the country to apply to join the pact to the cabinet for its approval.[155] A campaign against joining the pact called "#NoCPTPP" which has gathered 400,000 signatures has demanded the prime minister to not consider joining the pact.[156] Thailand has remained interested in joining CPTPP as part of its free trade agreement strategy to expand its trade and investment opportunities with various partners around the world, however has not submitted a formal application.[157]

United States

edit

On 25 January 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump in an interview announced his interest in possibly rejoining the TPP if it were a "substantially better deal" for the United States. He had withdrawn the U.S. from the original agreement in January 2017.[158] On 12 April 2018, he told the White House National Economic Council Director Larry Kudlow and U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer to look into joining CPTPP.[159] U.S. Wheat Associates President Vince Peterson had said in December 2018 that American wheat exporters could face an "imminent collapse" in their 53% market share in Japan due to exclusion from CPTPP. Peterson added, "Our competitors in Australia and Canada will now benefit from those [CPTPP] provisions, as U.S. farmers watch helplessly." The National Cattlemen's Beef Association stated that exports of beef to Japan, America's largest export market, would be at a serious disadvantage to Australian exporters, whose tariffs on exports to Japan would be cut by 27.5% during the first year of CPTPP.[160][161]

In December 2020, a bipartisan group of U.S. policy experts, Richard L. Armitage and Joseph S. Nye Jr., called for Washington to join the CPTPP,[162][163] but this call was rejected by Secretary of Commerce Gina Raimondo when meeting Japanese government leaders on 15 November 2021. Raimondo stated that the Biden administration would not be joining CPTPP but instead planned to create a new trade framework as an alternative to CPTPP in the Indo-Pacific region.[164]

Responses

edit

Economist José Gabriel Palma [es] has criticized the treaty for severely restricting the sovereignty of the signatories.[165] Signatories are subject to international courts and have restrictions on what their state-owned enterprises can do.[166] According to Palma the treaty makes it difficult for countries to implement policies aimed to diversify exports thus becoming a so-called middle income trap.[165] Palma also accuses that the treaty is reinforcing unequal relations by being drafted to reflect the laws of the United States.[166]

In the case of Chile, Palma holds the treaty is redundant regarding the possibilities of trade as Chile already has trade treaties with ten of its members.[166] On the contrary, economist Klaus Schmidt–Hebbel consider that the CPTPP "deepening" of already existing trade relations of Chile is a point in favour of it.[167] In the view of Schmidt-Hebbel approving the treaty is important for the post-Covid economic recovery of Chile and wholly in line with the economic policies of Chile since the 1990s.[167]

Before renaming to CPTPP, there are also concerns regarding intellectual property-related terms, as they will likely drop the Antragsdelikt requirements on defining copyright violations, which could affect several fanart communities like Pixiv or Deviantart.[168] In 2016, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said that Doujinshis will be safe even TPP came into force.[169]

In mid November 2021 the Waitangi Tribunal, a standing commission of inquiry established in 1975 to investigate the New Zealand Crown's breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi, found that the Crown had failed to meet its Treaty obligations to protect Māori interests as part of the CPTPP but acknowledged that several major changes occurred in the negotiation process.[170] While the Tribunal was satisfied that the Crown's engagement with Māori over the CPTPP and secrecy had been resolved through negotiation, it ruled there were significant risks to Māori in the e-commerce provisions of the CPTPP and data sovereignty.[171] Following an earlier 2016 Tribunal ruling, a Māori advisory committee called Te Taumata had been established while a second body known as Ngā Toki Whakarururanga was established as a result of the mediation agreement.[170]

See also

edit

Bilateral FTAs

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ "大筋合意に至ったTPP11 包括的及び先進的な環太平洋パートナーシップ協定" (PDF) (in Japanese). Mizuho Research Institute. 13 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  2. ^ Jennings, Ralph (13 March 2018). "How An Australia-Canada-Japan Led TPP-11 Trade Deal Compares To China's Alternative". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2 June 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  3. ^ Blanco, Daniel (5 June 2024). "Se alcanza acuerdo en texto final del TPP11" (in Spanish). El Financiero. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  4. ^ Torrey, Zachary (3 February 2018). "TPP 2.0: The Deal Without the US". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Protocol on the Accession of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade New Zealand. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  6. ^ a b c "'A significant milestone for UK trade': Britain signs deal to join £12trn Indo-Pacific trading block". Sky News. 16 July 2023. Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  7. ^ Riley, Charles (23 January 2017). "Trump's decision to kill TPP leaves door open for China". CNN Business. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  8. ^ Jegarajah, Sri; Dale, Craig; Shaffer, Leslie (21 May 2017). "TPP nations agree to pursue trade deal without US". CNBC. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Saving the Trans-Pacific Partnership: What are the TPP's prospects after the US withdrawal?". The Straits Times. 21 May 2017. Archived from the original on 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  10. ^ Goodman, Matthew P. (8 July 2022). "Shinzo Abe's Legacy as Champion of the Global Economic Order". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022.
  11. ^ Funabashi, Yoichi (22 February 2018). "In America's absence, Japan takes the lead on Asian free trade". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Dwyer, Colin (8 March 2018). "The TPP Is Dead. Long Live The Trans-Pacific Trade Deal". NPR. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  13. ^ a b c Goodman, Matthew P. (8 March 2018). "From TPP to CPTPP". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  14. ^ a b AP Staff (8 March 2018). "11 nations to sign Pacific trade pact as US plans tariffs". New York Daily News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  15. ^ Swick, Brenda C.; Augruso, Dylan E. (19 January 2018). "Canada Reaches Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement". The National Law Review. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  16. ^ a b c Greenfield, Charlotte (31 October 2018). "Countering global protectionism, Pacific trade pact nears takeoff". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2024.
  17. ^ Sanjay Kathuria; Arti Grover; Viviana Maria Eugenia Perego; Aaditya Mattoo; Pritam Banerje (2019). "Unleashing E-Commerce for South Asian Integration". World Bank Publications. p. 57. ISBN 9781464815195.
  18. ^ a b Tasker, John Paul (11 November 2017). "'We weren't ready' to close deal: Trudeau defends Canada's actions on TPP". CBC News. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Canada reaches deal on revised Trans-Pacific Partnership". CBC News. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Minister Carr calls on Manitoba businesses to expand their horizons with the help of the CPTPP". Government of Canada. 13 February 2019. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  21. ^ a b O'Boyle, Michael (25 April 2018). "Mexico's senate ratifies sweeping Asia-Pacific trade deal". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  22. ^ a b Parker, Hon D. (28 June 2018). "CPTPP law in the House as Mexico first to ratify". Beehive New Zealand. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Press Releases: Notification of Completion of Domestic Procedures for the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP11 Agreement)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 6 July 2018. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  24. ^ Parker, Hon D. (6 July 2018). "Japan, world's third largest economy, ratifies CPTPP". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 22 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  25. ^ a b "CPTPP". Ministry of Trade and Industry Singapore. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  26. ^ Parker, Hon D. (19 July 2018). "Singapore becomes third nation to ratify CPTPP". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 22 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Australia becomes fourth signatory country to ratify CPTPP". VietnamPlus. 17 October 2018. Archived from the original on 5 June 2024. Retrieved 5 June 2024.
  28. ^ a b Morrison, Scott; Birmingham, Simon (31 October 2018). "Australia ratifies the TPP-11". Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  29. ^ a b Parker, Hon D. (25 October 2018). "New Zealand ratifies CPTPP during trade minister's trip to Ottawa and Washington". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  30. ^ a b "House Government Bill (C-79)". Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  31. ^ a b "Statement by Minister Carr on Canada's Ratification of Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership". Government of Canada. 29 October 2018. Archived from the original on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  32. ^ a b McGregor, Janyce (29 October 2018). "Canada ratifies, Pacific Rim trade deal set to take effect by end of year". CBC News. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d "Timeline of discussions". Government of Canada. 20 February 2018. Archived from the original on 31 May 2024. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Trans-Pacific trade agreement submitted to NA for approval". Voice of Vietnam. 2 November 2018. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2024.
  35. ^ "NA ratifies CPTPP trade deal". Voice of Vietnam. 12 November 2018. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2024.
  36. ^ a b c Parker, Hon D. (15 November 2018). "Viet Nam seventh nation to ratify CPTPP". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  37. ^ a b c "Pleno aprueba Tratado Integral y Progresista de Asociación Transpacífico". Congreso. 14 July 2021. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  38. ^ a b "Malaysia Ratifies The CPTPP" (PDF). Malaysia Ministry Of International Trade And Industry. 5 October 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  39. ^ a b "Malaysia ratifies the CPTPP". Bernama. 10 May 2022. Archived from the original on 8 October 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  40. ^ "Comisiones concluyen el análisis del TPP11 y pasa a Sala - Senado - República de Chile". Republica da Chile Senado (in Spanish). 17 October 2019. Archived from the original on 24 September 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  41. ^ Paranhos, Simona; Reyes, Carlos (11 October 2022). "Senado aprueba TPP11, con votos en contra de parlamentarios oficialistas" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Archived from the original on 11 October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  42. ^ Espina, Raúl (12 October 2020). "El último gallito del Gobierno con el TPP11 después de su aprobación en el Senado" (in Spanish). El Mostrador. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  43. ^ a b Portes, Ignacio (23 February 2023). "Chile formally joins TPP-11 multilateral trade alliance". The Brazilian Report. Archived from the original on 19 March 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  44. ^ a b Sato, Fumika (16 May 2023). "Brunei becomes 11th nation to ratify CPTPP trade deal". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 16 May 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  45. ^ a b c Hands, Greg (17 May 2024). "Businesses set to benefit as UK concludes tax agreement with Peru and ratifies deal to join major Indo-Pacific trade bloc". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 17 May 2024. Retrieved 17 May 2024.
  46. ^ a b "Britain set to join trans-Pacific trade pact". CBC News. 30 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  47. ^ Longbottom, Julia [@JuliaLongbottom] (15 December 2023). "12月15日、英国の #CPTPP 加入に関して、日本が全ての国内手続きを完了したことを、協定の寄託国であるニュージーランドに通報しました。駐日英国大使として、日本が加盟国の中で最初に手続きを終えたことを、大変嬉しく思います。" (Tweet). Retrieved 15 December 2023 – via Twitter.
  48. ^ "Singapore becomes second country to ratify UK membership to CPTPP". GOV.UK. 23 January 2024. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  49. ^ "Singapore ratifies UK's accession to transpacific free trade pact". The Business Times Singapore. 23 January 2024. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  50. ^ @biztradegovuk (17 April 2024). "NEWS: Chile is the latest country to ratify the UK's accession to CPTPP" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 29 April 2024. Retrieved 29 April 2024 – via Twitter.
  51. ^ McClay, Todd [@toddmcclaymp] (4 June 2024). "New Zealand has ratified the UK's accession to CPTPP" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 June 2024 – via Twitter.
  52. ^ "National Assembly ratifies UK's CPTPP accession". vietnamnews.vn. Retrieved 23 July 2024.
  53. ^ Elms, Deborah Kay (23 January 2019). "The Unsexy Challenge of CPTPP". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  54. ^ Chung, Hailey (6 October 2022). "CPTPP will come into effect for Malaysia on Nov 29, says Azmin". The Edge Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 June 2024. Retrieved 6 June 2024.
  55. ^ a b "CPTPP member countries are 100% operational". World Nation News. 13 July 2023. Archived from the original on 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  56. ^ "Japan's lower house passes TPP-11, pushing related trade bills". The Japan Agri News. 30 May 2018. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  57. ^ "Japanese Senate Ratifies CPTPP Protocol". House of Councillors Sangiin. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  58. ^ "Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (CPTPP) Amendment Bill". New Zealand Parliament. 24 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  59. ^ Birmingham, Simon (19 September 2018). "Landmark TPP-11 passes through House of Representatives". Ministry for Trade, Tourism and Investment. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  60. ^ Customs Tariff Amendment (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership Implementation) Bill 2018 Australian Parliament
  61. ^ Coorey, Phillip (17 October 2018). "TPP passes the Senate, Australian exporters to win: PM Scott Morrison". Financial Review. Archived from the original on 31 August 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  62. ^ "Customs Amendment (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership Implementation) Bill 2018". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  63. ^ "National Assembly passes resolution ratifying CPTPP". Nhân Dân. 12 November 2018. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  64. ^ Vu, Khanh (12 November 2018). "Vietnam becomes seventh country to ratify Trans-Pacific trade pact". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  65. ^ "Peruvian Congress ratifies the Trans-Pacific Partnership Treaty". The Rio Times. 15 July 2021. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  66. ^ "Miti: Malaysia on track to ratify CPTPP". Malay Mail. 8 September 2021. Archived from the original on 8 September 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  67. ^ Ismail, Sharifah (20 December 2021). "CPTPP: An opportunity lost in 2021". Bernama. Archived from the original on 20 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  68. ^ Azzopardi, Tom (17 April 2019). "Chile's Lower House Ratifies Trans-Pacific Trade Deal". Bloomberg Law. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  69. ^ "CÁMARA APROBÓ ACUERDO TRANSPACÍFICO-11". Cámara de Diputados de la República de Chile (in Spanish). 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  70. ^ "Legislatura Sesión: 65 / 370 Martes 11 de Octubre de 2022 a las 20:32". Republica da Chile Senado. 11 October 2022. Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  71. ^ Wilson, José Miguel (26 September 2022). "TPP11: Senado votará este miércoles el tratado a pesar de resistencia oficialista". La Tercera (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 September 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  72. ^ Parker, George; Williams, Aime (31 January 2021). "UK applies to join trans-Pacific trade group". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2024.
  73. ^ Milligan, Ellen; Murray, Brendan (31 March 2023). "UK to Join Indo-Pacific Trade Bloc in Major Post-Brexit Pact". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 9 April 2024.
  74. ^ "Trade (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) Bill". UK Parliament. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 9 April 2024. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  75. ^ Frank-Keyes, Jessica (20 March 2024). "'Red-letter day': UK accession to CPTPP trade pact passes into law". City A.M. Archived from the original on 20 March 2024. Retrieved 20 March 2024.
  76. ^ "News First CPTPP Commission Meeting". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 21 January 2019. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  77. ^ "Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership Preamble" (PDF). Government of New Zealand. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  78. ^ a b "Canada's chairing of the CPTPP Commission in 2024". Government of Canada. 21 February 2024. Archived from the original on 11 April 2024. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  79. ^ "TPP Commission". Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  80. ^ a b "Decision by the Commission of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership regarding Administration for Implementation of the CPTPP" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  81. ^ "Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) Accession Process" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  82. ^ "Decision by the Commission of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership regarding SSDS Rules of Procedures for Panels" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  83. ^ "RULES OF PROCEDURE UNDER CHAPTER 28 (DISPUTE SETTLEMENT) OF THE COMPREHENSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE AGREEMENT FOR TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  84. ^ "ANNEX I CODE OF CONDUCT FOR STATE-STATE DISPUTE SETTLEMENT UNDER CHAPTER 28 (DISPUTE SETTLEMENT) OF THE COMPREHENSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE AGREEMENT FOR TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  85. ^ "Decision by the Commission of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership regarding ISDS Code of Conduct" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  86. ^ "CODE OF CONDUCT FOR INVESTOR-STATE DISPUTE SETTLEMENT UNDER CHAPTER 9 SECTION B (INVESTOR-STATE DISPUTE SETTLEMENT) OF THE COMPREHENSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE AGREEMENT FOR TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  87. ^ "Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership Ministerial Statement Tokyo, Japan, January 19, 2019" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 19 January 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  88. ^ "Commission Report" (PDF). New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 19 October 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  89. ^ "Concluding Joint Statement" (PDF). New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 19 October 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  90. ^ "Third CPTPP Commission Meeting". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  91. ^ "Decision by the Commission of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership regarding the United Kingdom's Formal Request to Commence the Accession Process" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 2 June 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  92. ^ "Decision by the Commission of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership regarding the Establishment of a Committee on Electronic Commerce" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 2 September 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  93. ^ "Sixth CPTPP Commission Meeting". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 8 October 2021. Archived from the original on 13 October 2022. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  94. ^ "CPTPP: Joint Ministerial Statement on the Occasion of the Seventh Commission Meeting" (PDF). GOV.UK. 17 July 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  95. ^ Crerar, Pippa (16 July 2023). "Kemi Badenoch signs treaty for UK to join Indo-Pacific trade bloc". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  96. ^ Kye-wan, Cho (5 February 2021). "As UK joins CPTPP hopefuls, S. Korea hurries to prepare application". The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  97. ^ "Consolidated TPP Text – Chapter 30 – Final Provisions". Government of Canada. 10 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 May 2024. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  98. ^ Stephens, Hugh; Kucharski, Jeff (15 November 2022). "The CPTPP Bids of China and Taiwan: Issues and Implications". Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on 15 November 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  99. ^ Colchester, Max (30 March 2023). "U.K. Joins Trans-Pacific Partnership as It Seeks to Diversify International Commerce". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  100. ^ Badenoch, Kemi (16 July 2023). "UK signs treaty to join vast Indo-Pacific trade group as new data shows major economic benefits". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  101. ^ "China applies to join key Asia-Pacific trade pact". BBC News. 17 September 2021. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2024.
  102. ^ a b MacSwann, Angus; Richardson, Alex; Porter, Mark (16 September 2021). "China officially applies to join CPTPP trade pact". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 September 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  103. ^ "台灣已申請加入CPTPP 王美花23日對外說明". Central News Agency (in Chinese). 22 September 2021. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  104. ^ Blanchard, Ben (22 September 2021). "Taiwan applies to join Pacific trade pact week after China". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  105. ^ Young, Audrey (23 September 2021). "Taiwan follows China and applies to join CPTPP trade pact". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2024. New Zealand's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade has confirmed it has received a formal request from the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu
  106. ^ a b "Ecuador applies to join CPTPP trade pact". NHK World-Japan. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  107. ^ a b c Miyamoto, Hidetake (29 December 2021). "Ecuador applies for CPTPP membership to diversify trade". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2024.
  108. ^ a b Murillo, Alavaro (11 August 2022). "Costa Rica seeks entry to trans-Pacific trade bloc". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  109. ^ "中米コスタリカがTPP加盟申請". Kyodo News (in Japanese). 17 August 2022. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  110. ^ a b "Uruguay presentó formalmente la solicitud de ingreso al Acuerdo Transpacífico". El País (in Spanish). 1 December 2022. Archived from the original on 7 January 2023. Retrieved 26 June 2024.
  111. ^ Miyamoto, Hidetake (1 December 2022). "Uruguay applies to join CPTPP in bid for Asian export boost". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 2 December 2022. Retrieved 26 June 2024.
  112. ^ a b Komiya, Kantaro; Craymer, Lucy (7 July 2023). "Ukraine asks to join CPTPP trade pact". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  113. ^ a b "Ukraine Submits Request to Join CPTPP Trade Pact". The Japan News. 7 July 2023. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  114. ^ Gregory, Julia (3 January 2018). "Britain exploring membership of the TPP to boost trade after Brexit". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 3 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  115. ^ McCurry, Justin (8 October 2018). "UK welcome to join Pacific trade pact after Brexit, says Japanese PM". The Guardian. Tokyo. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  116. ^ Truss, Liz (28 April 2020). "Enemies of free trade must not be allowed to use coronavirus to bring back protectionism". The Telegraph. London. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  117. ^ "Formal Request to Commence UK Accession Negotiations to CPTPP". GOV.UK. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  118. ^ David, Dharshini (30 January 2021). "UK applying to join Asia-Pacific free trade pact CPTPP". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  119. ^ "Brexit: Japan 'would welcome' UK to TPP says Abe". BBC News. 8 October 2018. Archived from the original on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  120. ^ "Britain to apply to join CPTPP Asia-Pacific free trade bloc". The Japan Times. 31 January 2021. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  121. ^ "UK begins process to join Asia-Pacific trade bloc". BBC News. 2 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  122. ^ Lanktree, Graham (29 March 2023). "Britain secures agreement to join Indo-Pacific trade bloc". Politico. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  123. ^ "Joint Ministerial Statement on the UK's accession process to the CPTPP" (PDF). Cabinet Secretariat. 31 March 2023. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  124. ^ "Conclusion of Negotiations on the Accession of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership". GOV.UK. 31 March 2023. Archived from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  125. ^ "Bailiwick of Guernsey to participate in UK's CPTPP free trade agreement". GOV.GG. 31 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  126. ^ "Jersey included in UK's agreement with the CPTPP". GOV.JE. 31 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  127. ^ Fernandez, John (31 March 2023). "Guernsey disappointed with UK's CPTTP deal delay". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 May 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  128. ^ Clinch, Matt (16 August 2023). "Britain signs deal to join £12 trillion Indo-Pacific trade bloc". CNBC. Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
  129. ^ Zhenhua, Lu (29 May 2020). "Premier Sends 'Powerful' Signal for China to Join Asia-Pacific's Largest Trade Pact". Caixin Global. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  130. ^ Kato, Masaya; Takeuchi, Kosuke (16 September 2021). "With eye on China, Japan refuses to ease TPP rules for new members". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 17 December 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  131. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon (17 September 2021). "Will China Actually Join the CPTPP". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  132. ^ "China applies to join Pacific trade pact to boost economic clout". Reuters. 16 September 2021. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  133. ^ "Australia to oppose China's bid to join trade pact until it halts strikes against exports". The Guardian. Australian Associated Press. 18 September 2021. Archived from the original on 18 September 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2024.
  134. ^ Liang, Pei-Chi; Liu, Kay. "Taiwan submits application to join CPTPP trade deal". Focus Taiwan (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 September 2021. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  135. ^ Tsai, Ing-wen (5 June 2016). "President Tsai meets delegation led by US Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman John McCain". Office of the President | Republic of China (Taiwan). Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  136. ^ Strong, Matthew (7 December 2018). "Taiwan will continue CPTPP efforts despite comments by Japan". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  137. ^ "Taiwan on track to apply to join trans-Pacific trade pact". The Japan Times. 14 December 2020. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2024.
  138. ^ Lin, Shirley (2 February 2021). "Taiwan will apply to join CPTPP at the right time: Foreign ministry". Radio Taiwan International. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  139. ^ Lin, Miaojung; Baschuk, Bryce; Wang, Cindy (22 September 2021). "Taiwan Applies to Join Pacific Trade Deal Just Days After China". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  140. ^ Parks, Ken (1 December 2022). "Mercosur Tensions Rise as Uruguay Seeks Trade Deal Outside Bloc". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 26 June 2024. Retrieved 26 June 2024.
  141. ^ Ministry of Economy of Ukraine (1 May 2023). "Ukraine's delegation to the negotiations on accession to Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership appointed". gov.ua. Archived from the original on 3 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  142. ^ "Ukraine planning to apply for membership in major Pacific trade pact". The Japan Times. 22 April 2023. Archived from the original on 22 April 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  143. ^ Shakil, Ismail; Scherer, Steve (26 May 2023). "Canada backs Ukraine's application to join trans-Pacific trade pact". Reuters. Ottawa. Archived from the original on 26 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  144. ^ "TPP countries to start accession talks for new members in 2019". The Japan Times. 19 July 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  145. ^ a b c Hayden, Shannon; Heine, Javiera (10 March 2022). "CPTPP: Can We Expect Additional Southeast Asian Members Soon?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  146. ^ Shofa, Jayanty (12 October 2023). "Indonesia Still Has No Plans to Join CPTPP Trade Pact". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  147. ^ Shofa, Jayanty (22 December 2023). "Indonesia Eyes CPTPP to Enter Latin American Market". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 22 December 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  148. ^ Saputra, Bayu; Adji, Raka (1 May 2024). "Indonesia expresses interest in joining CPTPP". Antara. Archived from the original on 1 May 2024. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  149. ^ Damayanti, Ismi; Sagami, Maki; Senga, Iyo (24 May 2024). "Indonesia to apply for CPTPP membership this year: minister". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 24 May 2024. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  150. ^ Canivel, Roy Stephen (25 March 2021). "PH wants to join mega free trade pact". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  151. ^ Wilson, Jeffrey; Channer, Hayley (22 February 2021). "Expanding the CPTPP: A form guide to prospective members". The Interpreter. Archived from the original on 21 February 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  152. ^ Park, Han-na (11 January 2021). "Seoul will actively pursue CPTPP: finance minister". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  153. ^ "South Korea to apply for CPTPP free trade pact membership". The Japan Times. 13 December 2021. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  154. ^ Thepgumpanat, Panarat (22 November 2021). "Thailand plans to join talks on trans-Pacific trade pact membership". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  155. ^ Arunmas, Phusadee (22 October 2022). "Minister to submit letter on CPTPP". Bangkok Post. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  156. ^ "เครือข่าย #NoCPTPP ออกจดหมายเปิดผนึก จี้นายกฯ ยุติถกร่วม CPTPP". Thai PBS (in Thai). 2 December 2021. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  157. ^ Singh, Akanksha (21 July 2023). "Thailand's FTA strategy to open up new markets". Thailand Business News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2023. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  158. ^ Pramuk, Jacob (25 January 2018). "Trump: I would reconsider a massive Pacific trade deal if it were 'substantially better'". CNBC. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  159. ^ Fabian, Jordan; Needham, Vicki (12 April 2018). "Trump to explore entering Pacific trade pact he once called 'a disaster'". The Hill. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  160. ^ Bevege, Alison (30 December 2018). "Pacific trade pact takes off with tariffs cut in six nations". Reuters. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  161. ^ "US farmers 'helpless' as TPP boosts Aust". SBS News. 29 December 2018. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  162. ^ "U.S. experts urge rejoining Pacific free trade deal amid China's rise". Kyodo News. 8 December 2020. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  163. ^ Armitage, Richard L.; Nye Jr., Joseph S.; Cha, Victor; Goodman, Matthew P.; Green, Michael K. (7 December 2020). "The U.S.-Japan Alliance in 2020 – An Equal Alliance with a Global Agenda". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 7 December 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  164. ^ "US will not join CPTPP, but pursue specific trade tie-ups with allies: Gina Raimondo". The Star. 17 November 2021. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  165. ^ a b Palma, José Gabriel (26 March 2019). "El TPP-11 y sus siete mentiras: de democracia protegida a corporaciones protegidas". Ciper (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  166. ^ a b c Palma, José Gabriel (26 January 2021). "Todo lo que siempre quiso saber sobre el TPP-11 (pero nunca se atrevió a preguntar)". Ciper (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  167. ^ a b Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus (31 March 2021). "Columna Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel: "Chile: mucho mejor con el TPP-11"". Universidad del Desarrollo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 March 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  168. ^ Spiegel13 (23 May 2015). "Governo japonês cita efeitos negativos do TPP na cultura doujin". Crunchyroll (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  169. ^ freakpool (12 April 2016). "[JAPAN] Prime Minister Shinzou Abe assures that Doujinshi will be safe under TPP". SoJapan. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022.
  170. ^ a b Dunlop, Māni (19 November 2021). "Waitangi Tribunal finds Crown failed to meet Treaty obligations in parts of CPTPP". RNZ. Archived from the original on 18 May 2024. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  171. ^ Ruru, Karanama (9 March 2024). "The Waitangi Tribunal, explained". Stuff. Archived from the original on 3 April 2024. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
edit