List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

There are 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam recognized by the Vietnamese government.[1] Each ethnicity has their own language, traditions, and subculture. The largest ethnic groups are: Kinh 85.32%, Tay 1.92%, Tai 1.89%, Mường 1.51%, Hmong 1.45%, Khmer 1.37%, Nùng 1.13%, Dao 0.93%, Hoa 0.78%, with all others comprising the remaining 3.7% (2019 census).[2] The Vietnamese term for minority ethnic groups are người thiểu số and dân tộc ít người (minority people).

List of ethnic groupsEdit

The total population of Vietnam was 96,208,984 according to the 2019 census.[3][2]

Group People 2009
census
2019 census Distribution
(2009
Census)
Note
Total 85,846,997 96,208,984
1. Vietic Kinh 73,594,427 82,085,826 throughout Vietnam also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam
Chứt 6,022 7,513 Quảng Bình (5,095 people, comprising 84.6% of all Chứt in Vietnam) Cheut - related to the Kinh
Mường 1,268,963 1,452,095 Hòa Bình (479,197 people, comprising 63.3% of the province's population), Thanh Hóa (328,744 people, comprising 9.5% of the province's population), Phú Thọ (165,748 people, comprising 13.1% of the province's population), Sơn La (71,906 people, comprising 8.2% of the province's population), Ninh Bình (46,539 people) closest to the Kinh, the other main part of the Viet–Mường branch of the Vietic subfamily
Thổ 74,458 91,430 Nghệ An (59,579 people, comprising 80.0% of all Thổ in Vietnam), Thanh Hóa (9,652 people, comprising 13.0% of all Thổ in Vietnam) Tho - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
2. Austroasiatic (non-Vietic) Ba Na 227,716 286,910 Gia Lai (150,416 people, comprising 11.8% of the province's population and 66.1% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Kon Tum (53,997 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 23.7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Phú Yên (4,145 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 23.7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam) Bahnar
Brâu 397 525 Kon Tum (379 people, comprising 95.5% of all Brâu in Vietnam) Brau
Bru 74,506 94,598 Quảng Trị (55,079 people, comprising 73.9% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Quảng Bình (14,631 people, comprising 19.6% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Đăk Lăk (3,348 people) Bru
Chơ Ro 26,855 29,520 Đồng Nai (15,174 people, comprising 56.5% of all Chơ Ro in Vietnam), Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (7,632 people), Bình Thuận (3,375 people)
Co 33,817 40,442 Quảng Ngãi (28,110 people, comprising 83.1% of all Co), Quảng Nam (5,361 people)
Cờ Ho 166,112 200,800 Lâm Đồng (145,665 people, comprising 12.3% of the province's population and 87.7% of all Cơ Ho in Vietnam) Koho
Cơ Tu 61,588 74,173 Quảng Nam (45,715 people, comprising 74.2% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam), Thừa Thiên-Huế (14,629 people, comprising 23.8% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam)
Giẻ Triêng 50,962 63,322 Kon Tum (32,644 people, comprising 62.1% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (19,007 people, comprising 37.3% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam)
Hrê 127,420 149,460 Quảng Ngãi (115,268 people, comprising 90.5% of all Hrê in Vietnam) H're
Kháng 13,840 16,180 Sơn La (8,582 people, comprising 62.0% of all Kháng in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4,220 people, comprising 30.5% of all Kháng in Vietnam)
Khmer 1,260,640 1,319,652 Sóc Trăng (397,014 people, comprising 30.7% of the province's population and 31.5% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Trà Vinh (317,203 people, comprising 31.6% of the province's population and 25.2% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Kiên Giang (210,899 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 16.7% of all Khmer in Vietnam), An Giang (90,271 people), Bạc Liêu (70,667 people), Cà Mau (29,845 people) each comprising less than 10% of all Khmer in Vietnam) Khmer
Khơ Mú 72,929 90,612 Nghệ An (35,670 people, comprising 48.9% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Điện Biên (16,200 people, comprising 22.2% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Sơn La (12,576 people), Lai Châu (6,102 people) Khmu
Mạ 41,405 50,322 Lâm Đồng (31,869 people, comprising 77.0% of all Mạ in Vietnam), Đắk Nông (6,456 people), Đồng Nai (2,436 people)
Mảng 3,700 4,650 Lai Châu (3,631 people, comprising 98.1% of all Mảng in Vietnam)
Mnông 102,741 127,334 Đăk Lăk (40,344 people, comprising 39.3% of all M’Nông in Vietnam), Đăk Nông (39,964 people, comprising 38.9% of all M’Nông in Vietnam) Mnong
Ơ Đu 376 428 Nghệ An (340 people, comprising 90.4% of all Ơ Đu in Vietnam)
Rơ Măm 436 639 Kon Tum (419 people, comprising 96.1% of all Rơ Măm in Vietnam)
Tà Ôi 43,886 52,356 Thừa Thiên-Huế (29,558 people, comprising 67.4% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam), Quảng Trị (13,961 people, comprising 31.8% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam) Ta Oi
Xinh Mun 23,278 29,503 Sơn La (21,288 people, comprising 91.5% of all Xinh Mun in Vietnam), Điện Biên (1,926 people) Xinh-mun
Xơ Đăng 169,501 212,277 Kon Tum (104,759 people, comprising 24.4% of the province's population and 61,8% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (37,900 people, comprising 22.4% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Ngãi (17,713 people) Sedang, Xo Dang
X’Tiêng 85,436 100,752 Bình Phước (81,708 people, comprising 95.6% of all Xtiêng in Vietnam) Stieng
3. Tai–Kadai,
Tai
Bố Y 2,273 3,232 Lào Cai (1,398 people, comprising 61.5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam), Hà Giang (808 people, comprising 35.5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam) Bouyei
Giáy 58,617 67,858 Lào Cai (28,606 people, comprising 48.8% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Hà Giang (15,157 people, comprising 25.9% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Lai Châu (11,334 people), Yên Bái (2,329 people)
Lao 14,928 17,532 Lai Châu (5,760 people, comprising 38.6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4,564 people, comprising 30.6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Sơn La (3,380 people, comprising 22.6% of all Lào in Vietnam)
Lự 5,601 6,757 Lai Châu (5,487 people, comprising 98.0% of all Lự in Vietnam) Lu
Nùng 968,800 1,083,298 Lạng Sơn (314,295 people, comprising 42.9% of the province's population and 32.4% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Cao Bằng (157.607 people, comprising 31.1% of the province's population and 16.3% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (76,354 people)
Sán Chay 169,410 201,398 Tuyên Quang (61,343 people, comprising 36.2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Thái Nguyên (32,483 people, comprising 19.2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (25,821 people), San Chay, Cao Lan
Tày 1,626,392 1,845,492 northern Vietnam Tay - The largest minority in Vietnam
Thái 1,550,423 1,820,950 northern Vietnam Including Tai Daeng, Tai Dón, Tai Dam and other minor groups
4. Tai-Kadai,
Kra
Cờ Lao 2,636 4,003 Hà Giang (2,301 people, comprising 87.3% of all Cờ Lao in Vietnam) Gelao
La Chí 13,158 15,126 Hà Giang (12,072 people, comprising 91.7% of all La Chí in Vietnam), Lào Cai (619 people), Tuyên Quang (100 people) Lachi
La Ha 8,177 10,157 Sơn La (8,107 people, comprising 99.1% of all La Ha in Vietnam) Laha
Pu Péo 687 903 Hà Giang (580 people, comprising 84.4% of all Pu Péo in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (48 people) Qabiao, Pubiao
5. Hmong–Mien Dao 751,067 891,151 northern Vietnam Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language
Hmong 1,068,189 1,393,547 northern Vietnam formerly known as Mèo, classified as Miao in China
Pà Thẻn 6,811 8,248 Hà Giang (5,771 people, comprising 84.7% of all Pà Thẻn in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (877 people) Pa-Hng
6. Malayo-Polynesian Chăm 161,729 178,948 Ninh Thuận (67,274 people, comprising 41.6% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (34,690 people, comprising 21.4% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Phú Yên (19,945 people), An Giang (14,209 people) Cham - Descendants of the Champa polities of Southern Vietnam
Chu Ru 19,314 23,242 Lâm Đồng (18,631 people, comprising 96.5% of all Chu Ru in Vietnam) Chru
Ê Đê 331,194 398,671 Đăk Lăk (298,534 people, comprising 17.2% of the province's population and 90.1% of all Ê Đê in Vietnam), Phú Yên (20,905 people) Rade
Gia Rai 411,275 513,930 Gia Lai (372,302 people, comprising 29.2% of the province's population and 90.5% of all Jrai in Vietnam), ngoài ra còn có ở Kon Tum (20,606 people), Đắk Lắk (16,129 people) Jarai
Ra Glai 122,245 146,613 Ninh Thuận (58,911 people, comprising 48.2% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Khánh Hòa (45,915 people, comprising 37.6% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (15,440 people) Roglai
7. Sino-Tibetan languages, Chinese languages Hoa 823,071 749,466 Hồ Chí Minh City (414,045 people, comprising 50.3% of all Hoa in Vietnam), Đồng Nai (95,162 people), Sóc Trăng (64,910 people), Kiên Giang (29,850 people), Bạc Liêu (20,082 people), Bình Dương (18,783 people), Bắc Giang (18,539 people) Constitute those who have Chinese of Mandarin-speaking background. Not to be confused with the Ngái Hokkien, who are classified separately.
Ngái 1,035 1,649 Thái Nguyên (495 people, comprising 47.8% of all Ngái in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (157 people, comprising 15.2% of all Ngái in Vietnam) Hakka Chinese, classified separately from the Hoa
Sán Dìu 146,821 183,004 Thái Nguyên (44,131 people, comprising 30.1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Vĩnh Phúc (36,821 people, comprising 25.1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (27,283 people), Quảng Ninh (17,946 people), Tuyên Quang (12,565 people) San Diu, Yao that speak Cantonese, though some know Iu Mien
Cống 2,029 2,729 Lai Châu (1,134 people, comprising 55.9% of all Cống in Vietnam), Điện Biên (871 people, comprising 42.9% of all Cống in Vietnam) Phunoi
Hà Nhì 21,725 25,539 Lai Châu (13,752 people, comprising 63.3% of all Hà Nhì in Vietnam), Lào Cai (4,026 people), Điện Biên (3,786 people) Hani
La Hủ 9,651 12,113 Lai Châu (9,600 people, comprising 99.5% of all La Hủ in Vietnam) Lahu
Lô Lô 4,541 4,827 Cao Bằng (2,373 people, comprising 52.3% of all Lô Lô in Vietnam), Hà Giang (1,426 people), Lai Châu (617 people) Yi
Phù Lá 10,944 12,471 Lào Cai (8,926 people, comprising 81.6% of all Phù Lá in Vietnam), Yên Bái (942 people), Hà Giang (785 people), Điện Biên (206 people)
Si La 709 909 Lai Châu (530 people, comprising 74.8% of all Si La in Vietnam), Điện Biên (148 people, comprising 20.9% of all Si La in Vietnam)

OtherEdit

  1. Nguồn - possibly Mường group, officially classified as a Việt (Kinh) group by the government, Nguồn themselves identify with Việt ethnicity; their language is a member of the Viet–Muong branch of the Vietic sub-family
  2. Sui people (Người Thủy) - officially classified as Pa Then people.
  3. According to news from Dantri, an online newspaper in Vietnam, the Thừa Thiên-Huế People's Committee in September 2008 announced a plan to do more research in a new ethnic group in Vietnam. It is Pa Kô, also called Pa Cô, Pa Kô, Pa-Kô or Pa Kôh. This ethnic group settles mainly in A Lưới suburban district (Thừa Thiên-Huế) and mountainous area of Hướng Hóa (Quảng Trị).[4][5] At the present, however, they have been being classified in Tà Ôi ethnic group.

Many of the local ethnic groups residing in mountain areas are known collectively in the West as Montagnard or Degar. One distinctive feature of highland ethnic minority groups in Vietnam is that they are colorfully attired whether at home, in the farm, traveling or in their home town.

Foreign expatriate workers comprise a small portion of the population, some settling permanently or through marriage. Many are migrants from neighboring Asian countries like China, though some are from the west. Today, 2,700 Americans live in Vietnam. Moreover, some descend from the French and other Europeans from the colonial period. However, most European descendants left after Vietnam gained independence.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Các dân tộc Việt Nam (Ethnic groups in Vietnam). Portal of the Committee for Ethnic Problems, Hậu Giang prov., 2012. Retrieved 1 Apr 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Completed Results of the 2019 Vietnam Population and Housing Census" (PDF). General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  3. ^ 2009 Census: Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009, Tổng Cục Thống kê Việt Nam. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  4. ^ Việt Nam sẽ có dân tộc thứ 55?
  5. ^ Pa Kô được bổ sung vào danh mục các dân tộc Việt Nam Archived 2013-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ http://vietnamembassy-usa.org/relations/young-envoy-vietnam

Further readingEdit

  • Nguyễn Trọng Tấn; Viện khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học - Tạp chí dân tộc học. 2005. Tổng mục lục 30 năm tạp chí dân tộc học (1974 - 2004). Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội.

External linksEdit