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Jiaozi (Chinese: 交子; pinyin: jiāozǐ) was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China. Numismatists regard it as the first paper money in history, a development of the Chinese Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE). Early Jiaozi notes did not have standard denominations but were denominated according to the needs of the purchaser and ranged from 500 wén to 5 guàn. The government office that issued these notes or the Jiaozi wu (Chinese: 交子務) demanded a payment or exchange fee (Chinese: 紙墨費) of 30 wén per guàn exchanged from coins to banknote. The Jiaozi were usually issued biannually.[1] In the region of Liang-Huai (Chinese: 兩淮) these banknotes were referred to as Huaijiao (淮交) and were introduced in 1136 but their circulation stopped quickly after their introduction. Generally the lower the denominations of the Jiaozi the more popular they became, and as the government did not regulate their production their existence eventually lead to inflation.

To combat counterfeiting, jiaozi were stamped with multiple banknote seals.[2]



The Jiaozi first came into usage in present-day Sichuan by a private merchant enterprise, these notes were issued to replace free much heavier iron cash coins (鐵錢) that circulated at the time. These early Jiaozi were issued in high denominations like 1000 qiàn which was equal to one thousand coins which weighed about twenty five kilograms at the time.

Privately issued Jiaozi notes contained the name of the issuing merchant company, serial numbers and seals marked with decorative patterns as a form of security. As denominations weren’t standard their nominal valua was annually added by the issuing company. During the first 5 years of circulation there were no standard designs or limitations for the Jiaozi but after 5 years the sixteen largest Sichuanese merchant companies founded the Paper Note Bank (Jiaozi hu 交子戶, or Jiaozi bu 交子鋪) which standardised the banknotes and even became a recognised form of currency by the local government with a standard exchange fee of 30 wén per string of cash in paper currency. As bankruptcy plagued several merchant companies the government decided to nationalise and manage the production of paper money and founded the Jiaozi wu (交子務) in 1023. The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.

Despite the fact that all Jiaozi could be freely exchanged into cash coins their high denomination limited their usage to large transactions. Rather than only being exchanged in coins Jiaozi were often redeemed in Dudie certificates (度牒, a tax exemption certificate for Buddhist monks and nuns), silver, and gold. Eventually the government of the Song dynasty decided on setting an expiration date of 2 years for each Jiaozi but was later raised to 3 years in 1199 after which they had to be either redeemed or replaced by newer models. The government officially restricted the amount of Jiaozi that could be in circulation to 1,255,340 mín, and were covered by only a fifth of that in copper cash coins. As these Jiaozi banknotes proved their usability private merchants became issuing their own notes in the north of the country and members of the military would receive their payment in paper money.

As these notes caused inflation Emperor Huizong decided in 1105 to replace the Jiaozi with a new form of banknote called the Qianyin (錢引). Despite this inflation kept growing and a nominal mín was only exchanged for a handful of cash coins. The root cause of this inflation was attributed to the fact that the Song government didn't back their paper money up with a sufficient number of coins so the Song decided to raise the amount of stocked coins in vain as it did not curve the inflation. Despite there only being around seven hundred thousand iron cash coins in circulation around 3.780.000 mín of banknotes were in circulation which rose to 4.140.000 mín, while an additional 5,300,000 mín in banknotes were issued in 1204 at which point between 400 and as low as 100 cash coins were accepted per 1 mín. Local governments such as the Sichuanese government had to sell off tax exemption certificates, silver, gold and titles of its offices because of the inflationary policies around paper money. One of the causes of inflation was the outflow of currency to the neighbouring Jin dynasty to the north, which is why iron cash coins were introduced in border regions such.[3][4] In 1192 the exchange rate between iron cash coins and Jiaozi banknotes was fixed at 770 wén per guàn by Emperor Guangzong, but inflation would still remain an issue despite these measures.

Long after being abolished the Jiaozi continued to circulate until in 1256 a currency reform replaced the leftover Jiaozi banknotes and remaining iron cash coins with the Huizi.[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Paper Money in Premodern China". 2000 ff. © Ulrich Theobald - - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. May 10, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  2. ^ "The first Chinese paper money, "jiaozi," was stamped with six different inks and multiple banknote seals". Brad Smithfield (The Vintage News). May 18, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  3. ^ .pdf Silver and the Transition to a Paper Money Standard in Song Dynasty (960-1276) China. Richard von Glahn (UCLA) (For presentation at the Von Gremp Workshop in Economic and Entrepreneurial History.) University of California, Los Angeles, 26 May 2010 Retrieved: 17 June 2017.
  4. ^ Robert M. Hartwell, “The Imperial Treasuries: Finance and Power in Sung China,” Bulletin of Sung-Yuan Studies 20 (1988).
  5. ^ "jiaozi 交子 and qianyin 錢引, early paper money". 2000 ff. © Ulrich Theobald - - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. May 10, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2018.


  • Cai Maoshui (蔡茂水) (1997). "Jiaozi (交子)" in Men Kui (門巋), Zhang Yanqin (張燕瑾), ed. Zhonghua guocui da cidian (中華國粹大辭典) (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 105. (in Mandarin Chinese)
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  • Sichuan baike quanshu bianzuan weiyuanhui 《四川百科全書》(編纂委員會), ed. (1997). Sichuan baike quanshu (四川百科全書)(Chengdu: Sichuan cishu chubanshe), 492. (in Mandarin Chinese)
  • Wang Songling (王松齡), ed. (1991). Shiyong Zhongguo lishi zhishi cidian (實用中國歷史知識辭典) (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 281. (in Mandarin Chinese)
  • Yao Enquan (姚恩權) (1993). "Jiaozi (交子)", in Shi Quanchang (石泉長), ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan (中華百科要覽) (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 85. (in Mandarin Chinese)
  • Zhou Fazeng 周發增, Chen Longtao 陳隆濤, Qi Jixiang (齊吉祥), ed. (1998). Zhongguo gudai zhengzhi zhidu shi cidian (中國古代政治制度史辭典) (Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue chubanshe), 366. (in Mandarin Chinese)

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