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The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 (Russian: ГШ-23) is a twin-barreled 23 mm autocannon developed in the Soviet Union, primarily for military aircraft use. It entered service in 1965, replacing the earlier Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 cannon.

GSh-23
GSh-23L cannon.jpg
GSh-23L
TypeAutocannon
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1965-present
Used bySee Users
Production history
DesignerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
Designed1960s
ManufacturerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
VariantsGSh-23L
Specifications
MassGSh-23: 49.2 kg (108 lb)
GSh-23L: 50 kg (110 lb)
LengthGSh-23: 1,387 mm (4 ft 7 in)
GSh-23L: 1,537 mm (5 ft 1 in)
Barrel length1,000 mm (3 ft 3 in)

Cartridge23x115 mm
Caliber23mm
Barrels2
ActionGast principle
Rate of fire3,400-3,600 rounds/min (alleged)[citation needed]
Muzzle velocity715 m/s (2,350 ft/s)
GSh-23 displayed in the Egyptian Military museum

The GSh-23 works on the Gast Gun principle developed by German engineer Karl Gast of the Vorwerk company in 1916. It is a twin-barreled weapon in which the firing action of one barrel operates the mechanism of the other. It provides a much faster rate of fire for lower mechanical wear than a single-barrel weapon.

Although it cannot match the sustained rate of fire of an electric Gatling gun like the M61 Vulcan GAU, because it doesn't need to spool up, its initial rate of fire can be higher. It requires no external power source to operate, but is instead powered by the recoiling of the floating barrels, somewhat like the action of the German MG-42. The Gast principle has been little used in the West, but was popular in the former Soviet Union on a variety of weapons.

The cannon comes in a basic GSh-23 variant, and the more popular GSh-23L (ГШ-23Л), differing mostly in adding a muzzle brake, lowering recoil force. This cannon was standard fit on late-model MiG-21 fighters (M, SM, MF, SMT, bis), all variants of the MiG-23, the SOKO J-22 Orao, the HAL Tejas and IAR 93, and the tail turrets of the Tupolev Tu-22M bomber and some late-model Tu-95s. In that application, it had the unusual ability to fire infrared flares and chaff rounds, allowing it to function as both a weapon and a dispenser of anti-missile countermeasures. It is also mounted on late small series Mi-24VP helicopters (in the NPPU-23 movable mounting) and Polish W-3WA Sokół helicopter in fixed mounting. The cannon was also used on cargo aircraft; specifically, Russian/Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft were designed to accommodate twin Gsh-23L's in a tail turret.[1] An Il-76M with just such a configuration could be seen at the 2002 Ivanovo airshow.[2]

Some 2nd generation MiG-21 models could carry the GSh-23L in an under-fuselage gondola designated the GP-9, carrying the cannon and 200 rounds of ammunition; this was replaced by a more streamlined semi-conformal installation in later variants. There are also several gun pods available for mounting on external hardpoints: UPK-23 for air-to-air use, with one or two fixed GSh-23 guns and 200-400 rounds of ammunition, and SPPU-22 pods with traversable barrels for strafing, from 0° to −30° and carried 280 rounds of ammunition in each (they were most often carried by the Su-17/-20/-22 as well as the Su-25/-39 in pairs).

VariantsEdit

  • Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23L, is a modernized air-cooled version with a muzzle brake added to reduce recoil. Used on NPPU-23 helicopter turret.[3][4]
  • Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23V, is a water-cooled version of GSh-23L. Used on NPPU-23 helicopter turret.[5]

UsersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "OKB-144 OKB-004 1/144 Ilyushin Il-76TD Soviet four-engined heavy commercial and military freighter. Model kits, Military and Technical Books and Magazines on www.Aviapress.com". Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  2. ^ "WWW.FOXBAT.RU ==". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  3. ^ http://weaponsystems.net/weaponsystem/II04%20-%20GSh-23.html
  4. ^ "Mil Mi-24 Hind Gunship - Alexander Mladenov - Google Książki".
  5. ^ "Russian Gunship Helicopters - Yefim Gordon - Google Książki".
  6. ^ "OFT develops Gen-X weapons". www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  7. ^ "cal. 23mm AIRCRAFT GUN GSh 23 TYPE". umcugir.ro. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  8. ^ "Su-25 M1 Frogfoot". redstar.gr.