Thai Airways International Public Co., ltd., trading as THAI (SET: THAI, Thai: บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)), formerly known as Thai International, is the flag carrier airline of Thailand. Formed in 1988, the airline has its corporate headquarters in Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak District, Bangkok, and primarily operates from Suvarnabhumi Airport. THAI is a founding member of the Star Alliance. The airline is the second-largest shareholder of the low-cost carrier Nok Air with a 13.28 per cent stake (2020), and it launched a regional carrier under the name Thai Smile in the middle of 2012 using new Airbus A320 aircraft.
|Founded||29 March 1960 |
(as Thai International)
|Frequent-flyer program||Royal Orchid Plus|
|Parent company||Thai Finance Ministry (47.86%)|
|Traded as||SET: THAI|
|Headquarters||Chatuchak, Bangkok, Thailand|
|Revenue||188,954 million baht (2019)|
|Net income||(12,042) million baht (2019)|
|Total assets||256,665 million baht (2019)|
|Employees||22,054 (2018); 1,438 pilots (2018)|
Thai operate from its main hub at Suvarnabhumi Airport and secondary hub at Phuket International Airport, the airline and its subsidiaries fly to over 101 destinations in 37 countries, using a fleet of 95 aircraft, that consist of wide-body aircraft from both Boeing and Airbus, while the subsidiary Thai Smile operates narrow body aircraft. As of 2013, services between Bangkok and Los Angeles were served via Incheon International Airport near Seoul. However, it ended its service to the US on 25 October 2015. Thai's route network is dominated by flights to Europe, East Asia, and South/Southwest Asia, though the airline serves five cities in Oceania. Thai was the first Asia-Pacific airline to serve London Heathrow Airport. Among Asia-Pacific carriers, the company has one of the largest passenger operations in Europe. As of 2020, the longest route Thai operates is the Bangkok Suvarnabhumi to London Heathrow Airport (5,933m). As of the end of 2019, 1,438 of its 22,054 employees were pilots.:80
Beginnings as Thai InternationalEdit
Thai International was founded in 1960 as a joint venture between Scandinavian Airlines (SAS), which held a 30 percent share of the new company valued at two million Thai baht, and Thailand's domestic carrier, Thai Airways Company (Thai: เดินอากาศไทย). The purpose of the joint venture was to create an international component for the domestic carrier Thai Airways Company. SAS provided operational, managerial, and marketing expertise, with training aimed at building a fully independent national airline in the shortest possible time. Thai nationals were gradually able to assume full managerial responsibility and the number of expatriate staff duly decreased, with expatriates accounting for less than one percent of staff based in Thailand in 1987.
The carrier's first revenue flight was on 1 May 1960, with flights to nine overseas Asian destinations from Bangkok.
The airline's first intercontinental services using Douglas DC-8s started in 1971 to Australia, and then to Europe the following year. A number of the larger Douglas DC-10 wide-body tri-jets was acquired in the late-1970s. Services to North America commenced in 1980.
On 1 April 1977, after 17 years of capital participation by SAS, the Thai government bought out the remaining 15 percent of SAS-owned shares and Thai became a state owned enterprise of the Thai government. As of 22 May 2020, the Thai Ministry of Finance is no longer the majority shareholder, having reduced its holding to 47.86 percent from 51.03 percent.
1980s and 1990s: merger with Thai Airways CompanyEdit
On 1 April 1988, then-Prime Minister Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda, merged the international and domestic operations of the two companies to form the present company, Thai Airways International, to have a single national carrier. On 25 June 1991, the reconfigured company listed its shares on the Stock Exchange of Thailand and offered them to the public. The Thai public offering of shares is the largest ever undertaken in the country.
In 1997 Thai Airways planned a privatization program, the first in Thai history.
The genesis of Thai's later financial difficulties has been attributed to actions taken in the 1990s when Thai Airways began "buying every type of plane that was being manufactured." Different models meant that the airline had to train an army of technicians to keep differing airframes and engines from both General Electric and Rolls-Royce airworthy, significantly inflating maintenance costs.
2000s: Airline brand renewal and financial difficultiesEdit
In the first decade of the 21st century, Thai Airways continued its route network expansion with new services to Chengdu, Busan, Chennai, Xiamen, Milan, Moscow, Islamabad, Hyderabad, Johannesburg, and Oslo.
Using the Airbus A340-500 fleet it acquired in 2005, Thai commenced non-stop flights between Bangkok and New York, its first non-stop service to North America. The airline later converted an existing one-stop service (via Tokyo) to Los Angeles into a non-stop flight using the same aircraft type. Citing very high fuel costs, Thai discontinued the New York service in July 2008, even though the airline had been able to fill 80 percent of the seats. The service to Los Angeles was again reverted to one-stop service via Seoul on 1 May 2012, leaving the airline without a non-stop service between Thailand and North America. The A340s used were phased out, replaced by the Boeing 777-200ER for the Bangkok–Seoul–Los-Angeles route. Although the previous A340 used for non-stop services was not subject to ETOPS, the phasing in of the 777 with one-stop service (with the 330 minute rule) will be indefinite for years to come; the airline has no plans to pursue newer North America destinations (e.g., Houston) or purchase the Boeing 747-8 for trans-Pacific routes since is operating the Airbus A380.
In 2006, Thai moved its hub to the new Suvarnabhumi Airport. Coinciding with the arrival of new aircraft in the mid-2000s, as well as its new hub in Bangkok, the airline launched a brand renewal by introducing new aircraft livery, new aircraft seating, and revamped ground and air services.
During the late-2000s, Thai's growth was hampered by a combination of internal and external factors, including a spike in fuel prices, domestic political conflict in Thailand, and the global economic crisis of the late-2000s. In 2008, after achieving profitability for the previous 40 years, Thai recorded a loss for the first time in its history of around 21 billion baht (US$675 million). The airline blamed high fuel costs and Thailand's political turmoil. As of Q2 2009, after a series of restructuring initiatives, including a two-year deferral of its Airbus A380 deliveries, the carrier returned to a net profit of 2.5 billion baht.
Thai's need for reform became evident in the first decade of the 21st century, but reforms, when they came, were invariably cut short. Thai's problems were threefold: ineffective leadership at the top; inexperienced boards; and a coddled union. Piyasvasti Amranand took Thai's helm in October 2009 after serving as energy minister. At Thai, he is still regarded as a true reformer, imposing salary cuts for senior executives as part of his drive to reduce costs. He was voted out by the board in 2012 for what may have been political reasons. The board of directors was, after the 2014 Thai coup d'état, packed with military brass. Five civilian members were purged and replaced with five Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) generals, as was the board's chairman. The appointments ended Thai's policy of only appointing technocrats to the board. Three RTAF generals remain on the 2020 board; they have no experience running listed companies or restructuring loss-making airlines. Concomitantly, employees at Thai enjoyed an overprotected status. Salary increases based on length of employment led to senior captains earning more than the CEO.
2010s: Fleet renewal and expansionEdit
While celebrating its fiftieth anniversary in 2010, Thai, led by its president, Piyasvasti Amranand, drafted new plans for the airline's future, including aircraft fleet renewal and an upgrade of existing services. Thai placed orders for a number of aircraft, including the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350, and it launched a refurbishment of its Boeing 747 and 777 cabins. Mindful of rising fuel costs, the airline phased-out its most inefficient aircraft, including its Airbus A340-500s. The airline took delivery of its first Airbus A380 aircraft in the second half of 2012, intending to eventually deploy the aircraft on its core European routes.
THAI resumed network expansion with the resumption of flights to Brussels, in addition to a new non-stop flight from Stockholm and Copenhagen to Phuket. At the same time, the Greek debt crisis caused Thai to suspend its services to Athens.
As part of THAI's broader growth strategy in the region, THAI launched a regional carrier with light-premium services, Thai Smile, which operates the narrow-bodied Airbus A320-200 on regional and domestic routes. The new airline began commercial operations in July 2012, after its first A320s were received.
Thai expects to be the first carrier in Asia to fly commercial flights using biofuels. The carrier launched the initiative with experimental flights in December 2011 as part of its Corporate Social Responsibility program, otherwise known as "Travel Green". Thai hopes to stimulate sustained biofuel production in Thailand by working with Thai government agencies and regional corporate partners, such as PTT Public Company Limited. The effort aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in regional air travel as well as position Thailand to be the "bio hub" of Asia.
In April 2015, after an audit of the Thai Department of Civil Aviation, Thailand was downgraded from Category 1 to Category 2 due to negative audit results from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). On 1 December 2015, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announced their reassessment of the safety rating for Thailand, downgrading it from a Category 1 to Category 2 country. The FAA stated, "U.S. and Thai aviation officials have a long-standing cooperative relationship and both our countries work continuously to meet the challenge of ensuring aviation safety. A Category 2 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) rating means that the country either lacks laws or regulations necessary to oversee air carriers in accordance with minimum international standards, or its civil aviation authority—a body equivalent to the FAA for aviation safety matters—is deficient in one or more areas, such as technical expertise, trained personnel, record-keeping, or inspection procedures. With a Category 2 rating, Thailand's air carriers can continue existing routes to the United States but they won't be allowed to establish new routes to the United States."
The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) declined to blacklist any Thai carriers following a review of certain carriers in November 2015. Thai later received third country operator (TCO) certification from the EU, effective 15 December 2015, authorizing the carrier to continue flying to the EU for the foreseeable future.
In July 2015, Thai announced the planned cancellation of service to Los Angeles after 25 October 2015, marking the end of US service.
In June 2016, as a result of its restructuring plan, Thai announced it would commence thrice-weekly Tehran service. The service ended on 28 February 2018 and resumed Moscow service from October and November 2016 respectively. The airline also considered a return to the US using Boeing 787-9 by 2017. However, Charamporn Jothikastira, THAI president, turned down the possibility of returning to Los Angeles or New York City due to losses in the past. Instead, Thai considered other cities such as San Francisco and Seattle. While Thai Smile, its subsidiary, is planning for new regional routes such as Cebu, Medan, Surabaya, Chandigarh, Shantou and Tianjin.
In August 2016, Thai introduced a new route network management system. Following implementation, flight schedules were synchronized, allowing international passengers to transit via Bangkok more conveniently. Thai planned to adjust 13 route schedules mainly in Japan, Australia, and India. The routes that have been announced are Perth and Brisbane.
In the fourth quarter of 2016, Thai Smile vowed to resume its suspended routes and Thai's terminated regional routes to Da Nang, Kota Kinabalu, Luang Prabang and Mandalay. Also the airline has considered launching new services to Hangzhou and Zhengzhou.
Rolls-Royce engine procurementEdit
In January 2017, a four year investigation by the UK's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) determined that aircraft engine-maker Rolls-Royce had paid bribes to Thai Airways employees and government employees in Thailand to secure orders for the Rolls-Royce T800 engine for its Boeing 777-200s. Rolls-Royce admitted to the charge and agreed to pay penalties. The illicit payments of US$36.38M took place between 1991 and 2005. Bribes were paid in three tranches:
- 1 June 1991 – 30 June 1992: Rolls-Royce paid US$18.8M
- 1 March 1992 – 31 March 1997: Rolls-Royce paid US$10.38M
- 1 April 2004 – 28 February 2005: Rolls-Royce paid US$7.2M
The government rejected calls for Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha to use his Section 44 powers to cut through red tape in the investigation of the Rolls-Royce bribery scandal. Response from the Thai government's National Anti-Corruption Commission to information provided by the SFO, is said to be "tepid" and "...could be more embarrassing than the scandal itself."
As of October 2019, Thai's accumulated debt amounted to more than 100 billion baht, prompting a deputy transport minister to question "...how serious the airline's executives were in dealing with the worsening financial situation." Thai reported a net loss of 4.68 billion baht in the third quarter of 2019 and a 10.91 billion baht net loss for the first nine months of 2019. Thai's president lamented that, "...such losses were normal for airlines amid fierce competition and price dumping to win customers," a statement contradicted by the performance of other airlines in the region such as VietJet Air.
For calendar year 2017, Thai posted revenues of 190,535 million baht, net income of (2,072) million baht, and total assets of 280,775 million baht. In the first half of 2018, Thai reported a net loss of 381 million baht.
|Turnover (m baht)||202,606||163,875||184,270||194,342||216,743||207,711||203,889||192,591||181,446||191,946|
|Net profit / loss (m baht)||−21,379||7,344||14,744||−10,197||6,229||−12,047||−15,612||−13,068||15||−2,072|
|Passenger change year-on-year||1.2%||1.7%||1.3%||12.1%||4.3%||11.2%||11.%||4.7%||10.3%|
|Passenger load factor (%)||68.2||65.8||73.6||70.4||76.6||74.1||68.9||72.9||73.4||79.2|
|Aircraft (at year end)||89||91||90||89||95||100||102||95||95||100|
At the commencement of 2014, Thai was subject to a rumor that the company would declare bankruptcy in May 2014. Listed on the Thai stock exchange, the company was formerly a state enterprise—until 22 May 2020—in which the finance ministry held a stake of up to 51 per cent. In a statement to the media, Chokchai Panyayong, the airways' senior executive vice-president and acting president, stated: "Thai has never once defaulted. Despite its loss in the third quarter of last year, the company still has high liquidity and has a clear plan for debt repayment." He further explained that the carrier's loss of 6.35 billion baht in the third quarter of last year was the result of the company's unsuccessful plan to attract more customers. Thai's financial loss for 2014 was reported to be at 15.6 billion baht (US$479 million), 3.6 billion baht higher than the previous year. Thai blamed declining tourist arrivals from North Asia owing to political unrest in Thailand during the year, but capacity figures from Flightglobal's Innovata Network Data service suggest that Europe was probably an even bigger drain on the bottom line during the year.
2018 recovery planEdit
Thai's new management team has set itself the goal of returning to "sustainable profitability" by 2022 as well as joining the ranks of the world's top five airlines. The centerpiece of its turnaround plan is its proposed 100 billion baht purchase of 23 new aircraft. THAI's chairman pointed to its aging fleet as being expensive to maintain. THAI's 89 aircraft have an average age of 9.3 years compared with competitor Singapore Airlines average age of 7.6 years. Thai's chairman said the company has not yet determined "...what aircraft and type we need to buy because we have yet to finalize financing."
Thai's recovery plans include teaming up with state enterprises Airports of Thailand PCL (AOT) and Krung Thai Bank (KTB) to help drive the carrier to profitability. The team's "first task" is to deliver more tourists to 55 "second-tier" provinces. The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) will assist the team by creating a new campaign, "More Local", to drive tourism to less visited corners of the nation. AOT, which operates Thailand's six international airports, will invest 220 billion baht in infrastructure to increase airport capacity from 2018's 80 million passengers to 185 million in ten years. KTB's contribution to the effort consists of creating new payment solutions for tourists and ramping up travel promotions.
Political interference, corruption and abuse of authority have been persistent issues in Thai's management. Speaking at the World Economic Forum on East Asia, former president Piyasvasti Amranand, who had been abruptly dismissed in May 2012, cited Thai's procurement of A340-500s (three of which had since been grounded) as examples of mismanagement influenced by corruption and political meddling, resulting in operational losses.
At an extraordinary board meeting held on 27 March 2020, Chakkrit Parapuntakul, Second Vice Chairman, was appointed as acting president of Thai Airways effective 11 April 2020.
2020 Debt RestructuringEdit
The Thai government stepped in to provide THAI with a 50bn baht loan guarantee in May 2020 and reaffirmed the airline's status as a state enterprise. The move was taken in the absence of a "get well" plan. A rehabilitation plan is expected to be submitted before the end of May 2020. A week later, the bailout loan was withdrawn and the cabinet replaced it with a plan have Thai file with the Central Bankruptcy Court for debt restructuring. As of May 2020, the airline is 240bn baht in debt. Its main creditors are the state-owned Krungthai and Government Savings Banks. The 50bn baht loan it had sought from the government would have kept it afloat for only five months. An 80bn baht capital infusion would have been needed later.
Thai Airways lost its state enterprise status on 22 May 2020 when the Finance Ministry sold off a 3.17% stake in Thai to the Vayupak 1 Fund, thus reducing its former majority shareholding to 47.86%. Thai has appealed to the government for help to forestall the seizure of its aircraft by foreign creditors. The airline sought government help because it has contracts and legal obligations that can only be resolved by the state. These issues must be dealt with before Thai enters debt rehabilitation. Concurrently, investigators are looking into anomalies in Thai ticket sales in 2019. The Transport Ministry reported that Thai ticket sales and freight revenues totalled 140bn baht in 2019, yet Thai had 25.4m passengers at an average ticket price of 6,081 baht, a total of 154.5bn baht. A senior prosecutor, Wanchai Roujanavong, had earlier warned that, "...the proposed rehabilitation of Thai Airways International [is] the opening of a Pandora's Box, which will expose extensive corruption in the ailing national flag carrier which has hitherto been hidden from the public."
On September 14th 2020, the Central Bankruptcy Court has given approval for THAI to enter rehabilitation.
On 20 August 2020, Deputy Transport Minister Thaworn Senneam announced some Thai Airways employees became unusually rich from the 2003-2004 Airbus A340 plane procurement deal and other mismanaged projects, according to a police-led investigation team set up by the Ministry of Transport. The team is forwarding its findings to the National Anti-Corruption Commission and has been informed by the Council of State that it must shut down due to a technicality. On 28 August, Thaworn Senneam announced the findings of a House panel which found evidence of bribes of a minimum of 5%, or 2.6 billion baht, on contracts in payments to officials, politicians, and THAI executives. Thaworn alleged that Rolls-Royce paid 245 million baht in bribes through middlemen, and irregular expenses and overtime payments to staff and senior management, with excessive payments to executives costing. On September 1, the Transport Ministry formally submitted the findings of the probe into alleged irregularities to the Finance Ministry, Prime Minister's Office, and National Anti Corruption Commission for further action.
- Air Canada
- Air India
- Air Macau
- Air New Zealand
- All Nippon Airways
- Asiana Airlines
- Austrian Airlines
- Bangkok Airways
- Brussels Airlines
- China Southern Airlines
- El Al
- EVA Air
- Garuda Indonesia
- Gulf Air
- Japan Airlines
- Lao Airlines
- Malaysia Airlines
- Oman Air
- Pakistan International Airlines
- Royal Brunei Airlines
- Scandinavian Airlines
- Swiss International Air Lines
- TAP Air Portugal
- Thai Smile (Subsidiary)
- Turkish Airlines
Aircraft maintenance centresEdit
Thai maintains three maintenance centres, at U-Tapao International Airport, Don Mueang International Airport, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. The centers service aircraft belonging to other airlines in addition to Thai aircraft.
Thai Technical is certified internationally by the Federal Aviation Administration, the Joint Aviation Authorities, the European Aviation Safety Agency Part-145 Maintenance Organisation, and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau for facilities at Don Mueang International Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport. It has also received its Requalifier Identification Certificate from the United States Department of Transportation for its operations at U-Tapao International Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport.
Thai initiated a program entitled "The Most Hygienic In-Cabin Environment Program" with an emphasis on air quality, surface cleanliness, and food safety. The program includes removal of all in-flight disposable materials after flights, sterilization and fumigation of all cabin equipment, and inspection of the air-circulation system. A special audit process is also carried out for the cleaning and sanitization of aircraft systems by a team of specialists. These measures are applied to the entire Thai fleet.
Thai was the first airline to install hospital-grade air-filter True HEPA, capable of intercepting up to 99.99 per cent of dust particles and microorganisms on every flight. The World Health Organization awarded the airline a plaque for the implementation of its in-cabin management system in 2004. It was the first award of its kind to be presented to a private organization.
Royal First Class (First Class)Edit
Thai's Royal First Class seats, manufactured by B/E Aerospace, were introduced with the arrival of the Airbus A340-600. These seats are also available on selected Boeing 747-400 aircraft. A new version of Royal First Class seating in a suite or enclosure configuration is available on Thai's Airbus A380-800 aircraft and select Boeing 747-400 aircraft since the 2012 refurbishment.
Royal Silk Class (Business Class)Edit
Thai's Royal Silk Class seats have been installed on all Thai aircraft. The angled shell design seats have 150 to 160 cm (58 to 62 in) of pitch and a width of 51 to 55 cm (20 to 21.5 in). Prior to refurbishment, Royal Silk seats on 777-300ERs are sold as premium economy class seats on Scandinavian routes and Moscow. A new set of Royal Silk seats are available on THAI's Airbus A380-800s, Boeing 777-300ERs, Boeing 787-8s, and Airbus A350-900s. After the delivery of the new 787-9s to THAI, the Zodiac Cirrus or Reverse Herringbone seats are now available on board the new aircraft.
Thai's Economy Class offers between 81 and 86 cm (32 and 34 in) seat pitch depending on the aircraft type. Personal screens with AVOD are present on the Airbus A380-800, Airbus A330-300, Airbus A350-900, Boeing 747-400, Boeing 777 (200ER, 300 and 300ER), Boeing 787-8/-9 aircraft.
Royal Orchid PlusEdit
Royal Orchid Plus is Thai's frequent flyer program. It has a membership of over two million people. There are two types of miles which can be accrued with a Royal Orchid Plus account: Eligible Qualifying Miles (EQM) on flights of THAI and its subsidiaries and codeshare and Star Alliance partners as well as Qualifying Miles (Q Miles) are the miles flown as well as the bonus miles earned from travel in particular classes of service on THAI and Star Alliance airlines. Royal Orchid Plus miles are earned based on the paid class of travel. There are four tiers in the Royal Orchid Plus program: Member, Silver, Gold and Platinum, depending on the Q Miles earned in one calendar year.
The current safety video is 5 minutes and 27 seconds long that was introduced back in 2018. Sueb Nakhasathien Foundation president Rungsit Kanjanavanit stated his belief that the video does not sufficiently reflect Thai culture.
Thai Airways signed a sponsorship agreement with English Football League (EFL). The new agreement will see Thai Airways have a digital and in-stadia presence at every one of the five EFL Finals that are held at Wembley Stadium throughout the 2017/18. As of 2020, Thai has been given a year extension on the partnership.  Thai Airways also has signed a sponsorship agreement with Australian Rugby Team Melbourne Rebels  and the Australian A-League soccer club Western Sydney Wanderers 
Accidents and incidentsEdit
- 30 June 1967: Thai Airways International Flight 601, a Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III (HS-TGI, Chiraprapa), crashed into harbour waters while on approach to Kai Tak Airport in a tropical rainstorm. 24 out of the 80 passengers and crew on board died.
- 9 July 1969: A Thai Airways International Sud Aviation Caravelle III (HS-TGK, Tepamart) landed with difficulty at Don Mueang International Airport during a thunderstorm; all 75 on board survived, but the aircraft was written off. The aircraft may have been caught by a downdraft.
- 10 May 1973: A Thai Airways International Douglas DC-8-33 (HS-TGU, Srisubhan) overran the runway on landing at Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu. All 100 passengers and 10 crew on board survived, but one person on the ground died.
- 15 April 1985: A Thai Airways International Boeing 737-200 (HS-TBB) lost both engines during an approach to runway 27 at Phuket International Airport. The aircraft radioed ATC at 3,400 feet that they nearly hit a mountain. The plane eventually crashed into a mountain at 800 feet. All 11 passengers and crew on board died.
- 26 October 1986: Thai Airways International Flight 620, an Airbus A300B4-600 (HS-TAE, Sukhothai) landed safely at Itami Airport, Japan after a grenade exploded on board at 33,000 feet (10,000 m) over Tosa Bay; all 239 passengers and crew on board survived. The aircraft was damaged by the explosion but was repaired and returned to service.
- 10 November 1990: Thai Airways International Flight 306, an Airbus A300-600 flying from Yangon to Don Mueang International Airport was the target of an attempted hijacking by individuals demanding to be taken to Kolkata.
- 31 July 1992: Thai Airways International Flight 311 from Bangkok, an Airbus A310-300 hit the side of a hill 37 kilometres (23 mi) north of Kathmandu while descending toward Tribhuvan International Airport. All 113 on board (99 passengers and 14 crew) died. The accident was caused by pilot error and loss of situation awareness in inclement weather.
- 22 October 1994: A Thai Airways International Airbus A300B4-100 (HS-THO) was written off after it was struck by an out-of-control Thai Airways MD-11 (HS-TMD, Phra Nakhon) that was performing an engine run-up at Bangkok International Airport.
- 11 December 1998: Thai Airways International Flight 261, an A310-200 (HS-TIA, Phitsanulok), bound for Surat Thani from Bangkok, crashed into a rice paddy about 3 km (2 mi) from Surat Thani airport during its third landing attempt in heavy rain; 101 of 146 on board died.
- 3 March 2001: Thai Airways International Flight 114, a Boeing 737-400 (HS-TDC, Narathiwat), bound for Chiang Mai from Bangkok, was destroyed by an explosion of the center wing tank resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel-air mixture in the tank while the aircraft was parked at the gate in Bangkok. The source of the ignition energy for the explosion could not be determined with certainty, but the most likely source was an explosion originating at the center wing tank pump as a result of running the pump in the presence of metal shavings and a fuel-air mixture, although an assassination attempt was theorized. One crew member died.
- 8 September 2013: Thai Airways International Flight 679, an Airbus A330-300, (HS-TEF, Song Dao), arriving from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (CAN) had a runway excursion from runway 19L while landing at Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK), with extensive damage to the airplane and the runway. All passengers and crew were evacuated with no serious injuries. Preliminary investigation determined the cause of the incident to be the right landing gear collapsing as a result of a damaged bogie. In the aftermath of the accident, Thai Airways had the logos of the aircraft painted over in black, prompting widespread criticism of attempted cover-up. An airline official initially said that the practice was part of the "crisis communication rule" recommended by Star Alliance. This was denied by the group, and Thai Airways later clarified that the "de-identifying" of aircraft was its own practice and not Star Alliance policy. The controversy prompted discussion over the appropriateness and effectiveness of the practice as a brand-protection policy. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair and written off as a hull loss. The air frame has since been converted to a roadside attraction called Airways Land, featuring a cafe and event space, on Mittraphap Road in Sida District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province.
- 8 October 2018: Thai Airways International Flight 679, a Boeing 747-400 (HS-TGF, Sri Ubon) arriving from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (CAN), China, had a runway excursion from runway 19R while landing at Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK), with damage to the airplane. No injuries were reported. As of January 2020, the aircraft is being repaired at U-Tapao International Airport.
- "THAI sister airline launch set for 2012". Bangkok Post. 20 August 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- "Fly Smart with THAI Smile". THAI Smile. Archived from the original on 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- "NOK AIRLINES PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED; Major Shareholder". Stock Exchange of Thailand. Archived from the original on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
- Bewicke, Henry (2019-11-02). "Thai Airways Chairman Resigns – Here's What We Know". Simple Flying. Archived from the original on 2019-12-12. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
- "THAI : THAI AIRWAYS INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED". Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET). Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- Yuda, Masayuki (29 May 2020). "Thai Airways: pandemic delivers final blow to mismanaged carrier". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
- Kositchotethana, Boonsong (26 May 2015). "Carriers in Asia Pacific stuck in red". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Yukako, Ono. "Flag carrier back in black helped by cheap oil, forex gain in Q1". Archived from the original on 2015-06-04. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
- "Details of Shareholders and Board of Directors" (PDF). Thai Airways International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "Addresses and contact numbers". Thai Airways International. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- "THAI realigns plan for a better year". The Nation. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- "THAI Cancels Los Angeles / Rome Service from late-Oct 2015". Archived from the original on 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
- Annual Report 2018 Thai Airways International PCL (PDF). 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Sritama, Suchat (2018-12-20). "THAI pilots to get higher allowances". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- "Thai Airways Group | CAPA". centreforaviation.com. Retrieved 2020-05-31.[failed verification]
- "THAI Company Information: History". Thaiairways.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- McWhirter, Alex (28 October 2018). "Thai Airways celebrates 45 years in London". Business Traveller. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
- "Five tipped to lead THAI comeback". Bangkok Post. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Montlake, Simon (23 January 2012). "Privatization Plans For Thai Airline, Oil Firm Stir Debate". Forbes. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- Kurlantzick, Joshua (2006-07-02). "The Agony and Ecstasy of 18 Hours in the Air". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
- "Archived copy" ตลาดหลักทรัพย์แห่งประเทศไทย : ข้อมูลรายบริษัท/หลักทรัพย์. Stock Exchange of Thailand (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2010-09-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Stock Exchange of Thailand : Companies/Securities in Focus". Stock Exchange of Thailand. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "THAI Launches Biofuels Flight". eTravel Blackboard. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2011-12-27.
- "AN ICAO DOWNGRADE: IMPLICATIONS AND ISSUES FOR THAI AVIATION" (PDF). Watson Farley & Williams. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- "Press Release – FAA Announces Revised Safety Rating for the Kingdom of Thailand". FAA. 2015-12-01. Archived from the original on 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
- "Thai Airways secures 11 European destinations". Bangkok Post. 2015-12-20. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
- "SUSPEND FLIGHT OPERATION ON BANGKOK – TEHRAN ROUTE". Thai Airways. 2018-01-30. Archived from the original on 2020-01-13. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
- Mahitthirook, Amornrat (17 June 2016). "THAI returning to Tehran and Moscow". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 6 August 2016.[permanent dead link]
- Mahitthirook, Amornrat (25 July 2016). "THAI to relaunch direct flights to US". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- Sritama, Suchat (26 July 2016). "Thai Airways plans to resume direct flights to US next year". The Nation. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- ‘ไทยสมายล์’รุกบินต่างประเทศปั้นรายได้สิ้นปีหมื่นล้าน [Thai Smile revenue exceeds 10 million] (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- "Archived copy" "การบินไทย" ไต่ระดับแผนฟื้นฟู ปรับระบบไอทีอุดรูรั่ว – ใช้ Big Data เสริมความปลอดภัย ดันรายได้โตขั้นต่ำ 6% (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2016-07-28. Retrieved 2016-08-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Thai NW16 Australia Schedule Changes". Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
- ไทยสมายล์ เปิดเส้นทางบินใหม่ สู่ 4 เมืองสำคัญแดนภารตะ [Thai Smile launches 4 new destinations]. Thai Rath (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2016-09-25. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
- "Archived copy" สายการบินแห่เพิ่มเที่ยวบินรับไฮซีซันอีสานบน (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2016-10-17. Retrieved 2016-12-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Thai Smile proposing Kota Kinabalu launch in Mar 2017". Archived from the original on 2016-12-09. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
- "Thai Smile adds Luang Prabang service from Jan 2017". Archived from the original on 2016-12-10. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
- "Archived copy" 2 แอร์ไลน์เล็งเปิดรูตใหม่สู่จีน รุกทัวร์คุณภาพ/‘ททท.เฉินตู’ ผนึกเสฉวนฯบินอู่ตะเภา (in Thai). Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Jindalertudomdee, Praphan; Phromkaew, Natthapat (2017-01-21). "PTT under scrutiny over 'bribes from Rolls-Royce'". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Watt, Holly; Pegg, David; Evans, Rob (17 January 2017). "Rolls-Royce apologises in court after settling bribery case". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "No S44 for Rolls-Royce bribe cases". Bangkok Post. 29 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "What you need to know about Article 44 of Thailand's interim constitution". The Straits Times. 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "We are losing the fight against graft" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 29 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Hongtong, Thodsapol (11 October 2019). "THAI told to revamp rehab plan". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Hongtong, Thodsapol (16 November 2019). "THAI boss insists big losses 'normal'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
- "THAI liquidity support to be wrapped up next week". Bangkok Post. Reuters. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- Chantanusornsiri, WIchit (2019-05-06). "Sepo nursing 5 enterprises back to health". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
- "Financial Info". THAI. Archived from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Sritama, Suchat; Chanthanusornsiri, Wichit (21 September 2018). "Government prods Thai Airways about plane buys". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Thai Airways International Public Company Limited : Annual Report 2009" (PDF). Thai Airways International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 16 Feb 2016.
- "Thai Airways International Public Company Limited : Annual Report 2011" (PDF). Thai Airways International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Thai Airways International Public Company Limited : Annual Report 2014". Thai Airways International. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Submission of financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017" (PDF). Stock Exchange of Thailand. 26 February 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Amornrat Mahitthirook (8 January 2014). "THAI dismisses rumours of impending bankruptcy". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 9 Jan 2014.
- Nguyen, Anuchit (30 March 2015). "Thai Airways Sees 2015 Loss Before Returning to Profit on Revamp". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Waldron, Greg (2015-05-13). "ANALYSIS: Thai's fighting retreat from Europe". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Sritama, Suchat (21 September 2018). "High-level team seeks to reverse THAI's fortunes". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- Kositchotethana, Boonsong (22 July 2010). "Thai making progress in cleaning up own house". Bangkok Post.
- Nivatpumin, Chiratas (31 May 2012). "Corruption, red tape holding back growth". Bangkok Post.
- "Appointment of Acting President..." (Stock Exchange Notification). Thai Airways International. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Theparat, Chatrudee; Chantanusornsiri, Wichit (30 April 2020). "SEPC to throw THAI lifeline". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- "THAI's woes a vicious cycle" (Opinion). Bangkok Post. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- "THAI AIRWAYS UNION OPPOSES PRIVATIZATION UNDER BAILOUT PLANS". Khaosod English. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- Bangprapa, Mongkol (12 May 2020). "PM says THAI plan not yet on cabinet agenda". Bangkok Post. Reuters. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
- "Cabinet approves plan for THAI bankruptcy court restructuring". Bangkok Post. Reuters. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Rojanaphruk, Pravit (15 May 2020). "OPINION: SHOULD TAXPAYERS BAIL THAI AIRWAYS AGAIN?" (Opinion). Khaosod English. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
- Chantanusornsiri, Wichit; Theparat, Chatrudee (5 June 2020). "More help for Thai Airways". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- "Mr. Wanchai Roujanavong" (PDF). ASEAN Commission on the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Women and Children. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- "Proposed rehabilitation of THAI will expose a Pandora's Box of corruption". Thai PBS World. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
- "Panel submits probe results on THAI debt". Retrieved 2020-09-02.
- "Probe 'points to graft' in THAI A340 aircraft deal". bangkokpost.com. Bangkok Post Public Company Limited. Bangkok Post. 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
- "Mismanagement, graft sank THAI, says panel". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20130304191248/http://www.staralliance.com/en/about/airlines/. Retrieved 2020-21-09. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- "Profile on Thai Airways". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- Liu, Jim (4 October 2017). "El Al / THAI expands codeshare service from Oct 2017". Routesonline. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "AIRCRAFT". Thai Airways International Public Company Limited (THAI). Archived from the original on 2020-01-09. Retrieved 2020-01-12.
- "THAI's Technical Department Receives JAA Certificate". Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "LIST OF NON-BILATERAL EASA PART-145 APPROVED ORGANISATIONS" (PDF). European Aviation Safety Agency. 2012-06-29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- "Certificates". Technical Department, Thai Airways International. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- "THAIs Technical Department Receives Recognition from U.S. Department of Transportation". Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Technical Department, THAI Airways International Public Co., Ltd". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
- "THAI Company Information: THAI with ISO". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011.
- Thai Airways International Receives Plaque from WHO for Excellent In-Cabin Management of Hygienic Systems Archived 2012-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. Asiatraveltips.com (2005-01-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- "WHO HAS PRESENTED THAI AIRWAYS WITH A HYGIENE AWARD". Archived from the original on 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- "THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH PRESENTS PLAQUE TO THAI FOR GOOD MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH ON BOARD FLIGHTS". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.
- "Airline reviews and case studies : Aircraft Interiors International". www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com. Archived from the original on 2017-06-24. Retrieved 2017-07-22.
- "THAI Flight Information". www.seatguru.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2017-07-22.
- "Frequent Flyer : About Royal Orchid Plus". Thaiairways.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Codeshare Flights". Thai Airways International. Archived from the original on 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- "Thai Airways' safety instruction video 'lacks Thainess'". Bangkok Post. 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2020-07-06.
- https://www.efl.com/news/2017/november/thai-airways-to-become-an-official-supporter-of-the-efl/. Retrieved 2020-21-09. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- https://www.sportspromedia.com/news/efl-thai-airways-sponsorship-extension. Retrieved 2020-21-09. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- https://i.stuff.co.nz/sport/rugby/super-rugby/110413982/melbourne-rebels-to-keep-controversial-thai-airways-sponsorship. Retrieved 2020-21-09. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- https://sponsorship.sportbusiness.com/news/thai-airways-lands-a-leagues-wanderers-deal/. Retrieved 2020-21-09. Check date values in:
|accessdate=(help); Missing or empty
- Accident description for HS-TGK at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 February 2014.
- Harro Ranter (10 May 1973). "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-8-33 HS-TGU Kathmandu-Tribhuvan Airport (KTM)". Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-03-27. Retrieved 2019-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Accident description for HS-TAE at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 4 February 2014.
- Harro Ranter (10 November 1990). "ASN Aircraft accident Airbus A300 registration unknown Calcutta". Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-11. Retrieved 2006-04-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The Inconvenience Truth of Air Crash at Kathmandu. TG311 (ORIGINAL FROM DEVELOPER)".
- Accident description for HS-THO at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 4 February 2014.
- Asia Economic News Archived 2012-07-09 at Archive.today 14 December 1998
- "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 737-4D7 HS-TDC Bangkok International Airport (BKK) Archived 2011-03-17 at the Wayback Machine." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 14 June 2009.
- "Aircraft accident Airbus A330-321 HS-TEF Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK)". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- Busch, Simon; Thompson, Chuck (10 September 2013). "Thai Airways blacks out logos after accident". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- Dawson, Alan (14 September 2013). "THE BIG ISSUE: The great airline cover-up". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- "A crash course in PR: Rule No 1 – don't hide". Bangkok Post. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
- "HS-TEF Thai Airways International Airbus A330-321 - cn 066". Planespotters. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
- "Airways Land แดนเครื่องบิน แชะชิลล์ชิมริมถนน มิตรภาพ". Korat Daily. 26–30 April 2019. p. 8.
- "THAI 'jumbo' flight TG 679 skids off Suvarnabhumi runway while landing". The Nation. 9 October 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
- Boon, Tom (2018-10-09). "Breaking: Thai 747 Skids Off Runway In Bangkok". Simple Flying. Archived from the original on 2020-02-24. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
Media related to Thai Airways International at Wikimedia Commons