Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Stephen Kevin Bannon (born November 27, 1953) is an American media executive, political activist, and former investment banker, who is executive chairman of Breitbart News. He served as the White House Chief Strategist (a newly created position) in the administration of US President Donald Trump during the first seven months of Trump's term.[2][3] In this capacity, he attended the Principals Committee of the U.S. National Security Council from January 28, 2017,[4] to April 5, 2017.[5][6]

Steve Bannon
Steve Bannon by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Senior Counselor to the President
In office
January 20, 2017 – August 18, 2017
President Donald Trump
Preceded by John Podesta (2015)
Succeeded by Kellyanne Conway
Dina Powell
Personal details
Born Stephen Kevin Bannon
(1953-11-27) November 27, 1953 (age 64)
Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Cathleen Houff Jordan
(divorced)
Mary Piccard (1995–1997)
Diane Clohesy (divorced 2009)
Children 3
Education Virginia Tech (BA)
Georgetown University (MA)
Harvard University (MBA)
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1976–1983
Rank Lieutenant (O-3)[1][a]

On August 17, 2016, in the later months of the campaign, Bannon joined Trump's 2016 presidential bid, taking the position of chief executive officer.[7][8] Prior to taking a leave of absence in August 2016, he had been executive chair of Breitbart News, a far-right[i] news, opinion, and commentary website[18][19] which he described in 2016 as "the platform for the alt-right".[I] Bannon left his position in the Trump administration on August 18, 2017; he then rejoined Breitbart News. Since leaving the White House, Bannon has "declared war" on what he describes as the establishment Republican party, and supported insurgent candidates in Republican primaries. He actively supported Roy Moore in both the Republican primary and general election of the 2017 United States Senate election in Alabama. Following Moore's loss in Republican Alabama, Bannon's reputation as a skilled political strategist has been questioned by commentators on the Left and the Right.

Bannon was an officer in the United States Navy for seven years in the late 1970s and early 1980s, serving on the destroyer USS Paul F. Foster as well as at the Pentagon. After his military service, he worked at Goldman Sachs as an investment banker in the Mergers and Acquisitions department. When he left the company, Bannon held the position of vice president. In 1993, he became acting director of the Earth-science research project Biosphere 2. In the 1990s, he became an executive producer in the Hollywood film and media industry; he produced 18 films between 1991 and 2016.

A self-described economic nationalist, Bannon advocates for reductions in immigration,[27] restrictions on free trade with China and Mexico,[28][29] and an increased federal income tax for those earning incomes of over $5 million a year.[30] Bannon is a skeptic of military intervention abroad and has opposed proposals for the expansion of U.S. involvement in Afghanistan,[31] Syria,[32] and Venezuela.[33] He has been described by some as a white nationalist, although he rejects the description.[34]

Contents

Early life and education

Stephen Kevin Bannon was born on November 27, 1953, in Norfolk, Virginia, to Doris (née Herr), a homemaker and Martin Bannon, who worked as an AT&T telephone lineman, later in middle management.[35][36] His working class, Irish Catholic family was pro-Kennedy, pro-union Democrat.[37][38] Bannon attended Benedictine College Preparatory, a private, Catholic, military high school in Richmond, Virginia graduating in 1971.[39]

After graduation from high school, Bannon attended Virginia Tech and served as the president of the student government association.[40] During the summers, when Bannon was attending Virginia Tech, he took a job working at a local junk yard, often coming home so dirty his mother made him rinse off with a hose before being allowed into the house.[41]

Bannon graduated from Virginia Tech in 1976 with a bachelor's degree in urban planning. In 1983, he earned a master's degree in national security studies from Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.[42] In 1985,[45] Bannon earned a Master of Business Administration degree with honors[46] from Harvard Business School.[47]

Service as naval officer

Bannon was an officer in the United States Navy for seven years in the late 1970s and early 1980s, serving on the destroyer USS Paul F. Foster as a surface warfare officer in the Pacific Fleet and, afterwards stateside as a special assistant to the Chief of Naval Operations at the Pentagon.[48] Bannon's job at the Pentagon was, among other things, handling messages between senior officers and writing reports about the state of the Navy fleet worldwide.[49] While at the Pentagon, Bannon attended Georgetown University at night and obtained his master's degree in national security studies.[41]

In 1980, Bannon was deployed to the Persian Gulf to assist with Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis. The failure of the mission marked a turning point in his political world-view from largely apolitical to strongly Reaganite, which was further reinforced by the September 11 attacks.[50][51] Bannon has stated that, "I wasn’t political until I got into the service and saw how badly Jimmy Carter f---ed things up. I became a huge Reagan admirer. Still am. But what turned me against the whole establishment was coming back from running companies in Asia in 2008 and seeing that Bush had f---ed up as badly as Carter. The whole country was a disaster."[52]

Upon his departure he was ranked as a lieutenant (O-3).[1][a]

Business career

Investment banking

After his military service, Bannon worked at Goldman Sachs as an investment banker in the Mergers and Acquisitions Department.[54] In 1987, Bannon relocated from New York to Los Angeles, to assist Goldman to expand their presence in the entertainment industry.[39] He stayed at this position with Goldman in Los Angeles for two years, leaving with the title of vice president.[55][b]

In 1990, Bannon and several colleagues from Goldman Sachs launched Bannon & Co., a boutique investment bank specializing in media. In one of Bannon & Co.'s transactions, the firm represented Westinghouse Electric which wanted to sell Castle Rock Entertainment.[46] Bannon negotiated a sale of Castle Rock to CNN, which was owned by Ted Turner at the time.[57] Instead of a full adviser’s fee, Bannon & Co. accepted a financial stake in five television shows, including Seinfeld, which was in its third season. Bannon still receives cash residuals each time Seinfeld is aired.[57] Société Générale purchased Bannon & Co. in 1998.[46]

Earth science

In 1993, while still managing Bannon & Co., Bannon became acting director of the Earth-science research project Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona. Under Bannon, the closed-system experiment project shifted emphasis from researching human space exploration and colonization toward the scientific study of earth's environment, pollution and climate change. He left the project in 1995.[58][59]

Entertainment and media

 
Bannon in 2010

In the 1990s, Bannon ventured into the entertainment and media industry. He became an executive producer in the Hollywood film and media industry. Bannon produced 18 films,[36] from the 1991 Sean Penn drama The Indian Runner to Julie Taymor's 1999 film Titus. Bannon became a partner with entertainment industry executive Jeff Kwatinetz at film and television management company The Firm, Inc. 2002–2003.[46][60]

In 2004, Bannon made a documentary about Ronald Reagan titled In the Face of Evil. Through the making and screening of this film, Bannon was introduced to Reagan's War author Peter Schweizer and publisher Andrew Breitbart, who would later describe him as the Leni Riefenstahl of the Tea Party movement.[46] He was involved in the financing and production of a number of films, including Fire from the Heartland: The Awakening of the Conservative Woman, The Undefeated, and Occupy Unmasked.

Bannon persuaded Goldman Sachs to invest, in 2006, in a company known as Internet Gaming Entertainment.[61] Following a lawsuit, the company rebranded as Affinity Media and Bannon took over as CEO. From 2007 through 2011, Bannon was the chair and CEO of Affinity Media.[62][63]

In 2007, Bannon wrote an eight-page treatment for a new documentary called Destroying the Great Satan: The Rise of Islamic Facism (sic) in America. The outline states that "although driven by the “best intentions,” institutions such as the media, the Jewish community and government agencies were appeasing jihadists aiming to create an Islamic republic".[64] In 2011, Bannon spoke at the "Liberty Restoration Foundation" in Orlando, Florida about the Economic Crisis of 2008, the Troubled Assets Relief Program and their impact in the origins of the Tea Party movement, while also discussing his films Generation Zero and The Undefeated.[65]

Bannon was executive chair and co-founder of the Government Accountability Institute, a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization, where he helped orchestrate the publication of Breitbart News senior editor-at-large[66] Peter Schweizer's book Clinton Cash,[46][67] from its founding in 2012 until he left in August 2016.[68] For the years 2012 through 2015, he received between $81,000 and $100,000 each year; the organization reported that he worked an average of 30 hours per week for the organization.[68] He has also worked as vice president of Cambridge Analytica's board, a data-analytics firm owned largely by the Mercer family;[69] the family that is also co-owners of Breitbart News.[70]

In 2015, Bannon was ranked No. 19 on Mediaite's list of the "25 Most Influential in Political News Media 2015".[71]

Bannon also hosted a radio show (Breitbart News Daily) on the SiriusXM Patriot satellite radio channel.[72]

Breitbart News

Bannon was a founding member of the board of Breitbart News,[73] an online right-wing news, opinion and commentary website. Philip Elliott and Zeke J. Miller of Time, say the site has "pushed racist, sexist, xenophobic and anti-Semitic material into the vein of the alternative right".[18] Bannon rebuts that Breitbart's ideological mix includes libertarians, Zionists, the conservative gay community, same-sex marriage opponents, economic nationalists, populists, as well as alt-right, the alt-right consisting of a very small proportion overall. Conceding the alt-right holds views with "racial and anti-Semitic overtones," Bannon says he has zero tolerance for such views.[74]

In March 2012, after founder Andrew Breitbart's death, Bannon became executive chair of Breitbart News LLC, the parent company of Breitbart News.[75][76][77] Under his leadership, Breitbart took a more alt-right and nationalistic approach toward its agenda.[78] In 2016, Bannon declared the website "the platform for the alt-right".[20] Speaking about his role at Breitbart, Bannon said: "We think of ourselves as virulently anti-establishment, particularly 'anti-' the permanent political class."[79]

On August 18, 2017, Breitbart announced that Bannon would return as executive chairman following his White House employment.[80]

Political career

Donald Trump campaign

On August 17, 2016, Bannon was appointed chief executive of Donald Trump's presidential campaign.[81] Bannon left Breitbart, as well as the Government Accountability Institute[68] and Cambridge Analytica,[82] to take the job. Shortly after he assumed the chief executive role, the chairman of the Trump campaign, Paul Manafort, was dismissed.[76][83][84][85][75]

 
A placard criticizing Bannon at an anti-Trump protest

On November 13, following Donald Trump's election victory, Bannon was appointed chief strategist and senior counselor to the President-elect.[86] His appointment drew opposition from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), the Council on American–Islamic Relations, the Southern Poverty Law Center, Democrat Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, and some Republican strategists, because of statements in Breitbart News that were alleged to be racist or antisemitic.[7][8][87][88][89]

Ben Shapiro,[89][90][91] David Horowitz,[92] Pamela Geller,[93] Bernard Marcus of the Republican Jewish Coalition,[94] Morton Klein[95] and the Zionist Organization of America,[94] and Rabbi Shmuley Boteach[96] defended Bannon against the allegations of antisemitism. Alan Dershowitz first defended Bannon and said there was no evidence he was antisemitic,[97][98] but in a later piece stated that Bannon had made bigoted statements against Muslims, women, and others.[99] The ADL said "we are not aware of any anti-Semitic statements from Bannon.[100] Shapiro, who previously worked as an editor-at-large at Breitbart, said that he has no evidence of Bannon being racist or an antisemite, but that he was "happy to pander to those people and make common cause with them in order to transform conservatism into European far-right nationalist populism".[101] Bannon had referred to Front National politician Marion Maréchal-Le Pen as "the new rising star".[102]

On November 15, 2016, U.S. Representative David Cicilline of Rhode Island released a letter to Trump signed by 169 Democratic House Representatives urging him to rescind his appointment of Bannon. The letter stated that appointing Bannon "sends a disturbing message about what kind of president Donald Trump wants to be",[103][104][105] because his "ties to the White Nationalist movement have been well documented"; it went on to present several examples of Breitbart News' alleged xenophobia.[106] Bannon denied being a white nationalist and claimed, rather, that he is an "economic nationalist."[107]

On November 18, during his first interview not conducted by Breitbart Media since the 2016 presidential election, Bannon remarked on some criticisms made about him, saying that "Darkness is good: Dick Cheney. Darth Vader. Satan. That's power. It only helps us when they get it wrong. When they're blind to who we are and what we're doing."[108][109] The quote was published widely in the media.[108][110][111][112]

In an interview with The New York Times in late November, Trump responded to the controversy over Bannon's appointment, saying "I’ve known Steve Bannon a long time. If I thought he was a racist, or alt-right, or any of the things that we can, you know, the terms we can use, I wouldn’t even think about hiring him."[113]

Trump administration

 
Bannon and other advisors watching Trump sign an executive order
 
White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon shakes hands with WH Chief of Staff Reince Priebus at 2017 CPAC

Several days after Donald Trump's inauguration, Bannon told an American newspaper, “The media should be embarrassed and humiliated and keep its mouth shut and just listen for a while. I want you to quote this: the media here is the opposition party. They don't understand this country. They still do not understand why Donald Trump is the president of the United States.”[114]

Breitbart editor Julia Hahn followed Bannon to the White House, where she was appointed as Bannon's aide, as well as Special Assistant to President Trump.[115]

Bannon, along with Stephen Miller, was involved in the creation of Executive Order 13769, which resulted in restricted U.S. travel and immigration by individuals from seven countries, suspension of the United States Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) for 120 days, and indefinite suspension of the entry of Syrians to the United States.[116][117] According to The Economist, a British news magazine, Bannon and Miller "see Mr [Vladimir] Putin as a fellow nationalist and crusader against cosmopolitanism."[118]

At the end of January 2017, in a departure from the previous format of the National Security Council (NSC), the holder of Bannon's position, along with that of the Chief of Staff, were designated by presidential memorandum as regular attendees to the NSC's Principals Committee, a Cabinet-level senior interagency forum for considering national security issues.[4][119] The enacted arrangement was criticised by several members of previous administrations and was called "stone cold crazy" by Susan E. Rice, Barack Obama's last national security adviser.[120] In response, White House spokesman Sean Spicer pointed to Bannon's seven years experience as a Navy officer in justifying his presence on the Committee.[121]

'Bannon Says Corporatist Global Media Opposed to Economic Nationalist Agenda' video from Voice of America, recorded at the Conservative Political Action Conference 2017

In February 2017, Bannon appeared on the cover of Time, on which he was labeled "the Great Manipulator".[122] The headline used for the associated article was "Is Steve Bannon the Second Most Powerful Man in the World?", alluding to Bannon's perceived influence in the White House.[123] In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter in the aftermath of the 2016 election, Bannon analogized his influence to that of "Thomas Cromwell in the court of the Tudors".[124][125][126]

Bannon was removed from his NSC role in early April 2017 in a reorganization by U.S. National Security Advisor H. R. McMaster, who Bannon had helped select.[5] Some White House officials said Bannon's main purpose of serving on the committee was as a check against former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn, who had resigned in February 2017 for misleading the vice president about a conversation with the Russian ambassador to the United States.[127][6] Hence, with Flynn gone, Bannon was no longer needed.[5] Bannon reportedly opposed his removal from the council and threatened to quit if president Trump went forward with it, although Republican megadonor Rebekah Mercer urged him to stay.[69] The White House said Bannon had not attempted to leave, and Bannon said any indication that he threatened resignation was "total nonsense".[128] Bannon had only attended one NSC meeting.[129]

It has been reported that he has intentionally published stories to undermine H.R. McMaster. Bannon has allegedly done this by leaking information to the alternative media, including alt-right writer Mike Cernovich.[130][131] It has been also reported that the Trump administration retroactively granted Bannon a blanket exemption from federal ethics rules that would allow him to communicate with editors at Breitbart News,[132] which according to former Breitbart consultant Kurt Bardella would be proof of the administration's intent to allow him to continue being "the de facto editorial director of Breitbart".[133]

Bannon's employment in the White House ended on August 18, 2017 less than a week after Charlottesville's Unite the Right rally which degenerated into violence and acrimony. Whereas members of both political parties condemned the hatred and violence of white nationalists, neo-Nazis and alt-right activists, The New York Times noted that Trump "was the only national political figure to spread blame for the 'hatred, bigotry and violence' that resulted in the death of one person to 'many sides'".[134] The decision was reported to have come from "White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon".[135] The NAACP released a statement saying that while they "acknowledge and appreciate President Trump's disavowment of the hatred which has resulted in a loss of life today", they called on Trump "to take the tangible step to remove Steve Bannon – a well-known white supremacist leader – from his team of advisers". The statement further described Bannon as a "symbol of white nationalism" who "energizes that sentiment" through his current position within the White House.[136][137]

In an interview with Sara A. Carter of Circa News, Bannon stated that he was not fired but rather submitted his two-weeks resignation on August 4, 2017.[138] He reminded The Weekly Standard that he'd joined then-presidential candidate Trump's campaign on August 14, 2016, and said he'd "always planned on spending one year," but that he stayed a few more days due to the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.[139] Other sources state that White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly asked Bannon on August 18, 2017, to submit his immediate resignation in lieu of being fired. In an official statement, White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders said, “... John Kelly and Steve Bannon have mutually agreed today would be Steve's last day. We are grateful for his service and wish him the best.”[140][141][142] The same day, Breitbart News announced that Bannon would return to the site as executive chairman.[80] Several weeks after his departure it was reported that Trump still called Bannon, using his personal cell phone and only calling when chief of staff Kelly is not around,[143] and The Washington Post reported in October 2017 that Trump and Bannon remained in regular contact.[144]

Post-Trump Administration activities

After leaving the Trump Administration, the media widely reported Bannon's efforts to unseat incumbent Republican members of Congress he deems to be insufficiently supportive of Trump's agenda.[145][146][147] Bannon received credit for helping Roy Moore defeat incumbent Senator Luther Strange in the September Republican primary for the 2017 special Alabama Senate election, despite Trump's having endorsed Strange.[148] In October he said he plans to sponsor primary challenges against six of the seven incumbent Republican senators in the 2018 elections. He says he has two requirements for a candidate to earn his support: they must pledge to vote against Mitch McConnell as Senate Majority Leader and to end the Senate filibuster.[149] Following Moore's loss in Republican Alabama, Bannon's reputation as a political strategist has been questioned by commentators on the Left and the Right.[citation needed]

Political beliefs

Individual issues

Bannon has advocated reductions in immigration,[27] and restrictions on free trade, particularly with China and Mexico.[28][29] He is in favor of raising federal income taxes to 44% for those earning incomes over $5 million a year as a way to pay for middle class tax cuts.[30] He also supports significantly increasing spending on infrastructure, describing himself as "the guy pushing a trillion-dollar infrastructure plan".[150] Bannon is opposed to government bailouts, describing them as "socialism for the very wealthy".[151] He generally believes in reducing the size of the federal bureaucracy, declaring at the Conservative Political Action Conference he favored the "deconstruction of the administrative state".[152] However, he does support increased regulation of internet companies like Facebook and Google, which he regards as akin to utilities in the modern age.[153] He opposed the merger between Time-Warner and AT&T on antitrust grounds.[154] He was a strong opponent of the Paris climate agreement within the administration, successfully persuading the President to withdraw from it.[155]

He is generally skeptical of military intervention abroad, opposing proposals for the expansion of U.S. involvement in the War in Afghanistan,[31] the Syrian Civil War,[32] and the crisis in Venezuela.[33] As White House Chief Strategist, Bannon had reportedly opposed the 2017 Shayrat missile strike, but was overruled by Senior Advisor to the President Jared Kushner.[156] In Afghanistan, he supported a proposal by Erik Prince for the deployment of private military contractors instead of the U.S. military.[157] He believes "there is no military solution" to the 2017 North Korea crisis.[28] Bannon has described U.S. allies in Europe, the Persian Gulf, the South China Sea, the Straight of Malacca, as well as South Korea and Japan, as having become "protectorates of the United States" that do not "make an effort to defend [themselves]", and believe NATO members should pay a minimum of 2% of GDP on defense.[158] He also supports repairing United States-Russia relations and opposes upgrading the U.S. nuclear arsenal.[159] However, he strongly favors U.S. withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal,[160] and was supportive of the approach taken by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman during the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis[161] and the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge.[162]

Bannon reportedly speaks often with Trump donor Sheldon Adelson, and has been alarmed at a push for a renewed Middle East peace process.[163] He has described Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas as a "terrorist".[164]

Bannon is supportive of several foreign right-wing movements such as the French National Front, the Dutch Party for Freedom, Alternative for Germany, and the Freedom Party of Austria,[165] as well as the Hindu nationalist government of Narendra Modi in India.[166] Although Bannon initially favored the British National Party and the English Defence League in the United Kingdom,[167] he later backed the UK Independence Party (UKIP),[165] and met with Jacob Rees-Mogg, a prospective candidate for the leadership of the country's Conservative Party.[168] Nigel Farage, the former leader of UKIP, once presented Bannon with a portrait of Bannon dressed as Napoleon Bonaparte.[169] Bannon believes that the aforementioned movements, along with Japan's Shinzo Abe, Hungary's Viktor Orban, Russia's Vladimir Putin, China's Xi Jinping, and similar political figures in Poland, Egypt, the Philippines, and South Korea are part of a global shift towards nationalism.[170]

Overview and influences

Bannon's political and economic views have been described by others as nationalist,[171] right-wing populist,[172] and paleoconservative.[173] He self-identifies as a conservative.[83][174][175] He rejects allegations that he is a white nationalist,[34] calling white nationalists "losers", a "fringe element", and a "collection of clowns",[28] and describing white supremacist Richard Spencer as a "self promoting freak" and a "goober".[176] Trump has previously referred to Bannon as "more of a libertarian than anything else",[177] although some libertarian commentators have disputed this claim.[178]

Bannon often describes himself as an economic nationalist, criticizing crony capitalism, Austrian economics, and the Objectivist capitalism of Ayn Rand, which he believes seeks to "make people commodities, and to objectify people."[34][179][180][181] However, he has also stated that he generally considers himself a free market capitalist, believing it to be "the underpinnings of our society", while noting that he believes America is "more than an economy".[158]

Bannon's strategic thinking has been influenced by Neil Howe's and William Strauss's Fourth Turning theory, which proposes that "populism, nationalism and state-run authoritarianism would soon be on the rise, not just in America but around the world. [...Once one strips] away the extraneous accidents and technology, you are left with only a limited number of social moods, which tend to recur in a fixed order. [...] Forests need periodic fires; rivers need periodic floods. Societies, too."[182] The book is said to have been a major influence on Bannon's film Generation Zero.[183]

A former practitioner of Zen meditation, and a nominal orthodox Roman Catholic,[184] Bannon's political thinking has been influenced by the politics of American populism exemplified by Andrew Jackson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Clay, James K. Polk, Theodore Roosevelt, and Trump; by Pope Pius XI’s socio-political philosophy of subsidiarity, as expressed in the 1931 papal encyclical, Quadragesimo anno; and by René Guénon's Traditionalism, extolling the social efficacy of "primordial" faith traditions such as Vedanta, Buddhism, Sufism, and medieval Christianity. Bannon has also cited Alexander Dugin's variant of Traditionalism called Eurasianism.[170] Bannon has been described as a "policy intellectual".[185]

Lebanese-American author Nassim Nicholas Taleb, neoreactionary blogger Curtis Yarvin and conservative intellectual Michael Anton have been pointed out as three of the main influences in Steve Bannon's political thinking.[183][186] Political theorist and philosopher Edmund Burke has also been described as a major influence on Bannon's ideological outlook.[187] In a 2014 speech to a Vatican conference, Bannon made a passing reference to Julius Evola, a twentieth-century, Nazi-linked Italian writer who influenced Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism and promoted the Traditionalist School, described by a New York Times writer as "a worldview popular in far-right and alternative religious circles that believes progress and equality are poisonous illusions." Bannon's interest in the ideas of the Traditionalist School was driven by Evola's book Revolt Against the Modern World, and Guénon's books Man and his Becoming according to the Vedanta and The Crisis of the Modern World.[188] In March 2016, Bannon stated he appreciates "any piece that mentions Evola."[189] In referring to the associated views of Vladimir Putin, who is influenced by Evola follower Dugin, Bannon stated "We, the Judeo-Christian West, really have to look at what he's talking about as far as Traditionalism goes — particularly the sense of where it supports the underpinnings of nationalism."[190] He has likewise quoted French anti-Enlightenment writer Charles Maurras approvingly to a French diplomat.[191][192] Bannon has also repeatedly referenced the controversial 1973 French novel The Camp of the Saints, which depicts immigration destroying Western civilization.[193] He has embraced what BBC News describes as Savitri Devi's "account of history as a cyclical battle between good and evil".[194]

German film director Leni Riefenstahl, who produced propaganda films for the Nazi regime, is said to have influenced Bannon's filmmaking techniques, with Bannon describing himself as the "Riefenstahl of the GOP".[195]

Personal life

Bannon has been married and divorced three times. He has three adult daughters.

His first marriage was to Cathleen Suzanne Houff.[196] Bannon and Houff had a daughter, Maureen, in 1988 and subsequently divorced.[197][87]

Bannon's second marriage was to Mary Louise Piccard, a former investment banker, in April 1995. Their twin daughters were born three days after the wedding. Piccard filed for dissolution of their marriage in 1997.[198][199]

Bannon was charged with misdemeanor domestic violence, battery and dissuading a witness in early January 1996 after Piccard accused Bannon of domestic abuse. The charges were later dropped when his now ex-wife did not appear in court.[200] In an article in The New York Times Piccard stated her absence was due to threats made to her by Bannon and his lawyer:

Mr. Bannon, she said, told her that "if I went to court he and his attorney would make sure that I would be the one who was guilty" ... Mr. Bannon’s lawyer, she said, "threatened me," telling her that if Mr. Bannon went to jail, she "would have no money and no way to support the children." ... Mr. Bannon’s lawyer ... denied pressuring her not to testify.[201]

Piccard and Bannon divorced in 1997. During the divorce proceedings, Piccard alleged that Bannon had made antisemitic remarks about choice of schools, saying that he did not want to send his children to The Archer School for Girls because there were too many Jews at the school and Jews raise their children to be "whiny brats." Bannon's spokesperson denied the accusation noting that he had chosen to send both his children to the Archer School.[200][202][203][204][205]

Bannon's third marriage was to Diane Clohesy; they divorced in 2009.[206]

Filmography

Bannon has been a producer, writer or director on the following films and documentaries:

Year Title Credited as Notes
1991 The Indian Runner[207] executive producer
1999 Titus[208] co-executive producer
2004 In the Face of Evil: Reagan's War in Word and Deed[209] director, co-producer, writer based on the 2003 book Reagan's War by Peter Schweizer
2005 Cochise County USA: Cries from the Border executive producer
2006 Border War: The Battle Over Illegal Immigration executive producer
2007 Tradition Never Graduates: A Season Inside Notre Dame Football executive producer
2009 The Chaos Experiment executive producer
2010 Generation Zero[210] director, producer, writer based on the 1997 book The Fourth Turning by William Strauss and Neil Howe[citation needed]
Battle for America[211] director, producer, writer
Fire from the Heartland: The Awakening of the Conservative Woman[211] director, producer, writer
2011 Still Point in a Turning World: Ronald Reagan and His Ranch[212][213] director, writer
The Undefeated[211][214] director, producer, writer about Sarah Palin
2012 Occupy Unmasked[215] director, writer
The Hope & The Change[216] director, producer, writer
District of Corruption director, producer
2013 Sweetwater[217] executive producer
2014 Rickover: The Birth of Nuclear Power executive producer
2016 Clinton Cash producer, writer based on the same-titled Peter Schweizer book Clinton Cash
Torchbearer director, producer, writer features Duck Dynasty patriarch Phil Robertson[218]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Bannon was erroneously referred to as a captain, but a correction was given.[53]
  2. ^ Bannon was erroneously referred to as a "managing partner."[56]

Breitbart called far right

Breitbart associated with alt-right

References

  1. ^ a b 98th United States Congress. Congressional Record. United States Government Printing Office. p. S1796.  [verification needed]
  2. ^ Caldwell, Christopher (February 25, 2017). "What Does Steve Bannon Want?". New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2017. 
  3. ^ Dawsey, Josh (August 18, 2017). "Bannon out as White House chief strategist". Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Phippen, J. Weston (January 29, 2017). "Trump Gives Stephen Bannon Access to the National Security Council". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 29, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Diamond, Jeremy (April 5, 2017). "Bannon bumped from National Security Council". CNN. Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Steve Bannon removed from National Security Council in reorganization". CNBC. April 5, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b "Trump picks Priebus as White House chief of staff, Bannon as top adviser". CNN. 
  8. ^ a b "Steve Bannon and the alt-right: a primer". CBS News. 
  9. ^ Usborne, David (November 16, 2016). "Plans by far-right news website to launch in France thrills nationalist party of Le Pen". The Independent. 
  10. ^ Jamieson, Amber (November 23, 2016). "Trump disavows the white nationalist 'alt-right' but defends Steve Bannon hire". The Guardian. 
  11. ^ Todd, Deborah (November 23, 2016). "AppNexus bans Breitbart from ad exchange, citing hate speech". Reuters. 
  12. ^ "Breitbart plans global domination after helping send Donald Trump to White House". The Independent. November 16, 2016. 
  13. ^ Memoli, Michael (November 14, 2016). "Top House Republican says skeptics should give Bannon a chance in the White House". LA Times. 
  14. ^ MacLellan, Lila (November 18, 2016). "The trouble with using the term "alt-right"". Quartz. 
  15. ^ Bartolotta, Devin (October 26, 2016). "UMD Censors Far-Right Journalist; He Says". CBS Baltimore. 
  16. ^ Morris, David (October 30, 2016). "Trump's Digital Team Orchestrating "Three Major Voter Suppression Operations"". Fortune. 
  17. ^ Colvin, Jill (November 13, 2016). "Trump puts flame-throwing outsider on the inside". Associated Press. 
  18. ^ a b c Elliott, Philip; Miller, Zeke (November 18, 2016). "Inside Donald Trump's Chaotic Transition". Time. Retrieved November 20, 2016. 
  19. ^ Gidda, Mirren (November 16, 2016). "President Barack Obama Warns Against 'Us and Them' Nationalism". Newsweek. Retrieved November 20, 2016. 
  20. ^ a b Posner, Sarah (August 22, 2016). "How Donald Trump's New Campaign Chief Created an Online Haven for White Nationalists". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 20, 2016. 'We're [i.e., Breitbart News is] the platform for the alt-right,' Bannon told me proudly when I interviewed him at the Republican National Convention (RNC) in July. 
  21. ^ See, e.g.:
    • Eli Stokols (October 13, 2016). "Trump fires up the alt-right". Politico. ... the unmistakable imprint of Breitbart News, the 'alt-right' website... 
    • Staff (October 1, 2016). "The rise of the alt-right". The Week. Another major alt-right platform is Breitbart.com, a right-wing news site... 
    • Will Rahn (August 19, 2016). "Steve Bannon and the alt-right: a primer". CBS News. Bannon's Breitbart distinguished itself from the rest of the conservative media in two significant ways this cycle... The second was through their embrace of the alt-right... 
  22. ^ Josh Hafner (August 26, 2016). "For the Record: For Trump, everything's going to be alt-right". USA Today. Breitbart News, declared 'the platform for the alt-right' last month by then-chair, Steve Bannon. 
  23. ^ Callum Borchers (November 15, 2016). "'Can you name one white nationalist article at Breitbart?' Challenge accepted!". The Washington Post. 
  24. ^ Jessica Taylor (November 20, 2016). "Energized By Trump's Win, White Nationalists Gather To 'Change The World'". National Public Radio. 
  25. ^ Joe Sterling (November 17, 2016). "White nationalism, a term once on the fringes, now front and center". CNN. 
  26. ^ David Corn and AJ Vicens (November 18, 2016). "Here's Evidence Steve Bannon Joined a Facebook Group That Posts Racist Rants and Obama Death Threats". Mother Jones. This Facebook group is for an outfit called Vigilant Patriots, which claims its goals are defending and upholding the Constitution and preserving "our history and culture." As of Friday morning, it listed nearly 3,600 members, including Stephen Bannon, who apparently joined the group seven years ago. 
  27. ^ a b "Trump's go-to man Bannon takes hardline view on immigration". January 31, 2017 – via Reuters. 
  28. ^ a b c d Levin, Sam. "Steve Bannon brands far right 'losers' and contradicts Trump in surprise interview" The Guardian. August 17, 2017. August 17, 2017.
  29. ^ a b "Trump decides against Steve Bannon's plan to rip up long-standing NAFTA free-trade deal". April 27, 2017. 
  30. ^ a b "Bannon Calls for 44% Tax on Incomes Above $5 Million". July 26, 2017 – via www.bloomberg.com. 
  31. ^ a b "Kelly gives McMaster cover in West Wing battles". Politico. August 3, 2017. 
  32. ^ a b "Trump Said No to Troops in Syria. His Aides Aren't So Sure". Bloomberg. April 13, 2017. 
  33. ^ a b Landler, Mark (August 17, 2017). "Bannon's Dovish Side Emerges as He Contradicts Trump on North Korea" – via NYTimes.com. 
  34. ^ a b c Nelson, Louis (November 18, 2016). "Steve Bannon hails Trump's 'economic nationalist' agenda". Politico. 
  35. ^ "Combative, Populist Steve Bannon Found His Man in Donald Trump". The New York Times. November 27, 2016. 
  36. ^ a b "What I Learned Binge-Watching Steve Bannon's Documentaries". Politico. 
  37. ^ "Steve Bannon: Who is Donald Trump's chief strategist and why is he so feared?". Telegraph.co.uk. November 14, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  38. ^ Smith, Reiss (November 14, 2016). "Who is Steve Bannon? Meet Donald Trump's controversial chief strategist". Daily Express. express.co.uk. Retrieved January 31, 2017. 
  39. ^ a b Bruck, Connie (May 1, 2017). "How Hollywood Remembers Steve Bannon". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  40. ^ Von Drehle, David (February 13, 2017). "The second most powerful man in the world?". Time. p. 29. (Subscription required (help)). 
  41. ^ a b Viser, Matt (November 26, 2016). "Harvard classmates barely recognize the Bannon of today". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 24, 2017. 
  42. ^ Keane, James (2017-11-17). "Steve Bannon: St. Ignatius helped me get sober". America Magazine. 
  43. ^ Parker, Claire E. (November 29, 2016). "Harvard Affiliates, Boston Residents to Protest Bannon's Visit". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved March 29, 2017. Bannon graduated from the Harvard Business School in 1985. 
  44. ^ "A look at Steve Bannon and his years at Harvard Business School". The Boston Globe. Boston.com. November 26, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  45. ^ Per a Harvard Crimson article,[43] but note that some places mistakenly claim Bannon graduated in 1983, which was his *first* year at Harvard,[44] according to the Boston Globe.
  46. ^ a b c d e f Green, Joshua (October 8, 2015). "This Man Is the Most Dangerous Political Operative in America". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2017. 
  47. ^ "Stephen K. Bannon". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  48. ^ "Trump's controversial new adviser promoted conservatism even in the Navy". militarytimes.com. 
  49. ^ Kennedy, Douglas (March 30, 2017). "Fox News Exclusive: The making of Steve Bannon, from young Navy man to White House power player". 
  50. ^ Kranish, Michael; Whitlock, Craig (February 10, 2017). "How Bannon's Navy service during the Iran hostage crisis shaped his views". Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Bannon's War". PBS. May 23, 2017. 
  52. ^ Joshua Green (October 8, 2015). "This Man Is the Most Dangerous Political Operative in America". Bloomberg. 
  53. ^ "Vice President Pence on the Supreme Court fight, the travel ban and Bannon's sway". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original (Interview) on February 3, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017. 
  54. ^ Primack, Dan (August 17, 2016). "Another Goldman Sachs Alum Joins Donald Trump's Campaign". Fortune. Retrieved August 22, 2016. 
  55. ^ Primack, Dan (November 14, 2016). "Steve Bannon Wasn't a "Managing Partner" at Goldman Sachs". Retrieved February 8, 2017. 
  56. ^ Sims, Alexandra (November 14, 2016). "Donald Trump's chief strategist Steve Bannon not anti-Semitic as he worked for Goldman Sachs, says Newt Gingrich". The Independent. Retrieved February 20, 2017. 
  57. ^ a b Craw, Victoria (February 8, 2017). "Steve Bannon is still making money from 'Seinfeld' reruns". New York Post. New York. Retrieved April 5, 2017. 
  58. ^ Murphy, Tim (August 26, 2016). "Trump's Campaign CEO Ran a Secretive Sci-Fi Project in the Arizona Desert". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 28, 2016. 
  59. ^ Kennedy, Bud (August 25, 2016). "Long before Breitbart, Trump CEO Bannon ran Ed Bass' Biosphere 2". Star-Telegram. Retrieved August 28, 2016. 
  60. ^ "Steve Bannon's Former Hollywood Partner Breaks Silence: "He's Not a Racist" (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  61. ^ Dibbell, Julian (November 24, 2008). "The Decline and Fall of an Ultra Rich Online Gaming Empire". WIRED. Retrieved January 25, 2017. 
  62. ^ Lapowsky, Issie. "Trump's Campaign CEO's Little Known World of Warcraft Career". WIRED. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  63. ^ "25 October 2011 presentation to the Liberty Restoration Foundation, Orlando, Florida". 
  64. ^ Gold, Matea. "Bannon film outline warned U.S. could turn into ‘Islamic States of America’. The Washington Post. February 3, 2017.
  65. ^ Dulis, Ezra. "2011: Steve Bannon Predicts the Media Smear Campaign Against Him", Breitbart.com. November 18, 2016.
  66. ^ Borchers, Callum. "Why an anti-Clinton book from Breitbart got the FBI's attention". 
  67. ^ "Team". g-a-i.org. Government Accountability Institute. Retrieved August 17, 2016. 
  68. ^ a b c O'Harrow Jr., Robert (November 23, 2016). "Trump adviser received salary from charity while steering Breitbart News". Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2017. 
  69. ^ a b "Megadonor urged Bannon not to resign Bannon had only attended one NSC meeting". Politico. 
  70. ^ Gold, Hadas (February 25, 2017). "Breitbart reveals owners: CEO Larry Solov, the Mercer family and Susie Breitbart". 
  71. ^ "Mediaite's 25 Most Influential in Political News Media 2015". Mediaite. December 29, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  72. ^ Mahoney, Bill (May 21, 2015). "Conservative nonprofit plans to expand statewide presence". Politico. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  73. ^ Bond, Paul (March 19, 2012). "Breitbart News Names Executives Who Will Run Company in Wake of Founder's Death". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 23, 2016. 
  74. ^ "Steve Bannon: 'Zero Tolerance' for Anti-Semitic, Racist Elements of the Alt-Right". Breitbart. November 19, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  75. ^ a b Costa, Robert; DelReal, Jose A.; Johnson, Jenna (August 17, 2016). "Trump shakes up campaign, demotes top adviser". Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2016. 
  76. ^ a b Hagey, Keach (March 19, 2012). "Breitbart to announce new management". Politico. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  77. ^ Bobic, Igor (August 18, 2016). "Trump Campaign CEO Steve Bannon Failed to Properly Pay Taxes For Several Years". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  78. ^ Colvin, Jill; Hennessey, Kathleen (November 13, 2016). "Trump puts flame-throwing outsider on the inside". The Associated Press. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  79. ^ Farhi, Paul (January 27, 2016). "How Breitbart has become a dominant voice in conservative media". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2016. 
  80. ^ a b Horsley, Scott; Parks, Miles (August 18, 2017). "Steve Bannon, Out As Chief White House Strategist, Heads Back To Breitbart". NPR. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  81. ^ Martin, Jonathan; Rutenberg, Jim; Haberman, Maggie (August 17, 2016). "Donald Trump Appoints Media Firebrand to Run Campaign". The New York Times.
  82. ^ "Data Firm Says 'Secret Sauce' Aided Trump; Many Scoff". The New York Times. 
  83. ^ a b Ulmer, James (June 26, 2005). "On the Right Side of the Theater Aisle". New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2015. If established Hollywood conservatives welcome the energy of this new group, some nonetheless fear that it is heading down the wrong path ... Even the outspoken Mr. Bannon thinks that little will be gained if conservative ideology moves too far in front of conservative art. 'We have the money, we have the ideas,' he said. 'What we don't have – and what the left has in spades – are great filmmakers.' 
  84. ^ Martin, Jonathan; Rutenberg, Jim; Haberman, Maggie (August 17, 2016). "Donald Trump Appoints Media Firebrand to Run Campaign". New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2016. 
  85. ^ Kaufman, Leslie (February 16, 2014). "Breitbart News Network Plans Global Expansion". New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  86. ^ Haberman, Michael D. Shear, Maggie; Rappeport, Alan (November 13, 2016). "Donald Trump Picks Reince Priebus as Chief of Staff and Stephen Bannon as Strategist". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  87. ^ a b Ferrechio, Susan. "Reid spokesman: 'White supremacist' Bannon snags White House post". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  88. ^ "Trump draws sharp rebuke, concerns over newly appointed chief White House strategist Stephen Bannon". 
  89. ^ a b Shear, Michael D.; Haberman, Maggie (November 14, 2016). "Critics See Stephen Bannon, Trump's Pick for Strategist, as Voice of Racism". The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  90. ^ "Analysis: Breitbart's Steve Bannon leads the 'alt right' to the White House". NBC News. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  91. ^ "Steve Bannon Is Not a Nazi—But Let's Be Honest about What He Represents". National Review. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  92. ^ Jewish Writer Says Trump’s Appointee, Bannon ‘Doesn’t Have An Anti-Semitic Bone in His Body’ By Hana Levi Julian, Jewish Press, November 15, 2016
  93. ^ Amid Antisemitism Controversy, Senior Trump Adviser Stephen Bannon to Attend Major Pro-Israel Group’s Gala Dinner November 15, 2016, Algemeiner
  94. ^ a b Republican Jewish Coalition Defends Trump’s Appointment Of Bannon By Allegra Kirkland, Talking Points Memo, November 15, 2016,
  95. ^ Bannon and Breitbart: Friends of Israel, not anti-Semites November 16, 2016, Times of Israel
  96. ^ 'America's rabbi' rises to defend Steve ′Bannon Rabbi Shmuley Boteach, Contributor, The Hill, 11/15/16
  97. ^ "Alan Dershowitz: 'No evidence' Bannon is antisemitic". 
  98. ^ Dershowitz defends Steve Bannon against anti-Semitism claims Yoni Hersch, Yisrael Hayom, Thursday November 17, 2016
  99. ^ Alan M. Dershowitz (November 17, 2016). "Opinion: Bannon's not an Anti-Semite. But he is an anti-Muslim, anti-women bigot". Haaretz. Retrieved November 17, 2016. 
  100. ^ ADL states Trump appt. Bannon not known anti-Semite, while ADL CEO pledges to register as Muslim Ynet, Gahl Becker and Reuters, 19.11.16
  101. ^ Shapiro, Ben. "3 Thoughts on Steve Bannon As White House 'Chief Strategist'". The Daily Wire. 
  102. ^ Dickey, Asawin Suebsaeng (November 13, 2016). "Steve Bannon's Dream: A Worldwide Ultra-Right". The Daily Beast. 
  103. ^ Prignano, Christina (November 16, 2016). "More than 150 House members urge Trump to rescind Bannon appointment". Boston Globe. Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  104. ^ McCaskill, Nolan D. (November 15, 2016). "Democrats demand that Trump rescind Bannon appointment". Politico. Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  105. ^ Tempera, Jacqueline (November 15, 2016). "R.I. delegation taking lead in holding Trump accountable". Providence Journal. Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  106. ^ "Cicilline's letter to Donald Trump" (PDF). 
  107. ^ CNN, Eric Bradner. "Bannon rejects white nationalism: 'I'm an economic nationalist'". 
  108. ^ a b "Steve Bannon: Darkness is Good". CNN Politics. November 19, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  109. ^ Michael Wolff (November 18, 2016). "Ringside With Steve Bannon at Trump Tower as the President-Elect's Strategist Plots "An Entirely New Political Movement" (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  110. ^ ""Dick Cheney. Darth Vader. Satan. That's power": Steve Bannon speaks out for first time since being named Donald Trump's top White House adviser". Salon. November 19, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016. 
  111. ^ "Steve Bannon Thinks "Darkness Is Good"". Fortune. November 20, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016. 
  112. ^ "Steve Bannon compares himself to Dick Cheney, Darth Vader and Satan". The Independent. November 19, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016. 
  113. ^ "Donald Trump's New York Times Interview: Full Transcript". The New York Times. November 23, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017. 
  114. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (January 26, 2017). "Trump Strategist Stephen Bannon Says Media Should 'Keep Its Mouth Shut'" – via NYTimes.com. 
  115. ^ Costa, Robert (January 23, 2017). "Trump's latest hire alarms allies of Ryan — and bolsters Bannon". Washington Post. 
  116. ^ Bennett, Brian (January 29, 2017). "Travel ban is the clearest sign yet of Trump advisors' intent to reshape the country". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 30, 2017. 
  117. ^ Evan Perez, Pamela Brown & Kevin Liptak (January 30, 2017). "Inside the confusion of the Trump executive order and travel ban". CNN. 
  118. ^ "Donald Trump's G20 speech owed a lot to Putin". The Economist. July 13, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  119. ^ "Trump puts Bannon on security council, dropping joint chiefs". BBC News. January 29, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017. 
  120. ^ Thrush, Glenn; Haberman, Maggie (January 29, 2017). "Bannon Is Given Security Role Usually Held for Generals". New York Times. 
  121. ^ Slack, Donovan (January 30, 2017). "White House defends Steve Bannon’s role on National Security Council". USA Today.
  122. ^ Von Drehle, David (February 13, 2017). "The second most powerful man in the world?". Time. pp. 24–31. (Subscription required (help)). 
  123. ^ Concha, Joe (February 2, 2017). "Time cover labels Bannon 'The Great Manipulator'". The Hill. 
  124. ^ Allen, Nick (November 18, 2016). "Steve Bannon claims to be the 'Thomas Cromwell in the court of Donald Trump'". The Daily Telegraph. Washington. Retrieved March 5, 2017. 
  125. ^ Heer, Jeet (February 2, 2017). "Steve Bannon Is Turning Trump Into an Ethno-Nationalist Ideologue". The New Republic. Retrieved March 5, 2017. 
  126. ^ Kilgore, Ed (February 1, 2017). "Steve Bannon Sees Himself As Thomas Cromwell. Will His Head End Up on a Spike?". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 5, 2017. 
  127. ^ "Michael Flynn Resigns as National Security Adviser". The New York Times. 
  128. ^ "Bannon reportedly threatened to leave White House after NSC shakeup". Fox News. April 6, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. 
  129. ^ Walker, Hunter (April 5, 2017). "Bannon removed from key National Security Council post". Yahoo. Retrieved April 8, 2017. 
  130. ^ "The Knives Are Out for Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 14, 2017. 
  131. ^ Evans, Garrett (May 10, 2017). "White House leakers have new target: H. R. McMaster". TheHill. Retrieved May 14, 2017. 
  132. ^ "White House Waivers May Have Violated Ethics Rules". The New York Times. 
  133. ^ "Ex-Breitbart employee: There's now a 'concrete paper trail' showing Steve Bannon still runs Breitbart". The Raw Story. 
  134. ^ Thrush, Glenn; Haberman, Maggie (August 12, 2017). "Trump's Remarks on Charlottesville Violence Are Criticized as Insufficient". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
  135. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Thrush, Glenn (August 14, 2017). "Bannon in Limbo as Trump Faces Growing Calls for the Strategist's Ouster". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  136. ^ "NAACP Condemns 'Unite The Right' Hate Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia". NAACP. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. 
  137. ^ "Black leaders speak on Charlottesville violence". amsterdamnews.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017. 
  138. ^ "Bannon said he has resigned from Trump's White House". circa.com. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  139. ^ Boyer, Peter J. (August 18, 2017). "Bannon: 'The Trump Presidency That We Fought For, and Won, Is Over.'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  140. ^ Haberman, Maggie (August 18, 2017). "Trump Tells Aides He Has Decided to Remove Stephen Bannon". New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  141. ^ Collins, Kaitlan; Diamond, Jeremy; Landers, Elizabeth (August 18, 2017). "Trump's chief strategist Steve Bannon fired". CNN. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  142. ^ Parker, Ashley; Rucker, Philip; Costa, Robert; Paletta, Damian (August 18, 2017). "Trump gets rid of White House chief strategist Stephen Bannon". Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  143. ^ Choi, David (September 2, 2017). "Trump reportedly calls Steve Bannon on his personal phone when John Kelly isn't around". Business Insider. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  144. ^ Parker, Ashley; Rucker, Philip (October 21, 2017). "'The President's Wingman': Absent in the West Wing, Bannon Stays Close to Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  145. ^ Tapper, Jake (September 11, 2017). "Source: Bannon and Allies Preparing Primary Challenges Against GOP Senators". CNN. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  146. ^ Bolton, Alexander (October 18, 2017). "Senate GOP Prepares for a War with Bannon". The Hill. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  147. ^ Blake, Aaron (October 10, 2017). "Why Steve Bannon's threat to primary almost every GOP senator should frighten Republicans". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  148. ^ Desiderio, Andrew (September 26, 2017). "Bannon Defeats Trump as Roy Moore Cruises to Victory in Alabama". The Daily Beast. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  149. ^ Relman, Eliza (October 15, 2017). "Steve Bannon is Orchestrating a 'Bloody Civil War' in the GOP in 2018". Business Insider. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  150. ^ "Ringside With Steve Bannon at Trump Tower as the President-Elect's Strategist Plots "An Entirely New Political Movement"". The Hollywood Reporter. November 18, 2016. 
  151. ^ Guilford, Gwynn; Sonnad, Nikhil (February 3, 2017). "What Steve Bannon really wants". Quartz. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  152. ^ Rucker, Philip; Costa, Robert (February 23, 2017). "Bannon vows a daily fight for 'deconstruction of the administrative state'". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  153. ^ Grim, Ryan (July 27, 2017). "Steve Bannon Wants Facebook and Google Regulated Like Utilities". The Intercept. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  154. ^ "CNN parent's $85B deal at little risk from Trump". Politico. June 7, 2017. 
  155. ^ Restuccia, Andrew; Dawsey, Josh (May 31, 2017). "How Bannon and Pruitt boxed in Trump on climate pact". Politico. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  156. ^ Racke, Will (April 7, 2017). "Bannon Lost To Kushner In Syria Strike Debate". Daily Caller. Retrieved April 17, 2017. 
  157. ^ "Erik Prince's Plan to Privatize the War in Afghanistan". The Atlantic. August 18, 2017. 
  158. ^ a b "This is what Steve Bannon told the California Republican Party convention". Los Angeles Times. October 21, 2017. 
  159. ^ "Bannon: Trump Sucks Up to Putin So He Can Help the Inner Cities". New York Magazine. September 11, 2017. 
  160. ^ "Trump considers ending Iran deal ahead of key deadline". Washington Examiner. September 18, 2017. 
  161. ^ "Bannon Backs Isolation of Qatar, Comparing Threat to North Korea". Bloomberg. October 23, 2017. 
  162. ^ "Steve Bannon Praised Reform Crackdown In Saudi Arabia". Breitbart News. November 5, 2017. 
  163. ^ Landler, Mark; Haberman, Maggie (May 5, 2017). "Mixed Signals From Trump Worry Pro-Israel Hard-Liners". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  164. ^ "Bannon boycotted Trump meet with 'terrorist' Abbas — report". Times of Israel. August 21, 2017. 
  165. ^ a b Suebsaeng, Asawin; Dickey, Christopher (November 13, 2016). "Steve Bannon's Dream: A Worldwide Ultra-Right". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 11, 2017. 
  166. ^ "Bannon linked Modi win to 'a global revolt'". The Hindu. November 17, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2017. 
  167. ^ "Breitbart's culture wars could yet come to Britain". Financial Times. September 19, 2017. 
  168. ^ "Jacob Rees-Mogg met Steve Bannon to discuss US-UK politics". The Guardian. December 1, 2017. 
  169. ^ Zhou, Naaman (July 10, 2017). "Steve Bannon as Napoleon: Trump strategist 'given portrait by Nigel Farage'". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  170. ^ a b Green, Joshua (July 17, 2017). "Inside the Secret, Strange Origins of Steve Bannon's Nationalist Fantasia". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  171. ^ "Trump pressured to dump nationalist wing". The Hill. August 15, 2017. 
  172. ^ "Sources: Trump dismisses Bannon". The Mercury News. August 18, 2017. 
  173. ^ "Considering Bannon". Chronicles Magazine. March 2, 2017. 
  174. ^ Mead, Rebecca (May 24, 2010). "Rage Machine". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 20, 2015. 
  175. ^ Phillip, Abby (March 6, 2014). "Conservatives to know at CPAC 2014". ABC News. Retrieved October 20, 2015. 
  176. ^ Green, Joshua. Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency. Penguin Books. p. 146. 
  177. ^ Giaritelli, Anna. "Trump: Bannon is 'alt-left'". 
  178. ^ "Steve Bannon Hates Libertarians Because *We're* Not Living in the Real World?". March 27, 2017. 
  179. ^ Caldwell, Christopher (February 25, 2017). "What Does Steve Bannon Want?". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  180. ^ Sunde, Joseph (November 17, 2016). "How Donald Trump's chief strategist thinks about capitalism and Christianity –". Blog.acton.org. Acton Institute PowerBlog. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  181. ^ Hains, Tim (February 1, 2017). "Steve Bannon in 2011: Planning A Revolt Against "Corrupt" And "Compromised Political Class" | Video". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  182. ^ Howe, Neil. "Where did Steve Bannon get his worldview? From my book". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  183. ^ a b Johnson, Eliana; Stokols, Eli (February 7, 2017). "What Steve Bannon Wants You to Read". Politico. 
  184. ^ "The Dalai Lama's planet". The Economist. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  185. ^ Christopher Caldwell (February 25, 2017). "What Does Steve Bannon Want?". Nytimes.com. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  186. ^ "Inside the Secret, Strange Origins of Steve Bannon's Nationalist Fantasia". Vanity Fair. 
  187. ^ Gwynn Guilford & Nikhil Sonnad (February 3, 2017). "Under the Banner of Bannon: What Bannon Really Wants". Quartz. 
  188. ^ Green, Joshua (2017). Devil's Bargain. Penguin. p. 206. 
  189. ^ "Here's How Breitbart And Milo Smuggled Nazi and White Nationalist Ideas Into The Mainstream". Buzzfeed. October 5, 2017. 
  190. ^ Horowitz, Jason (February 10, 2017). "Steve Bannon Cited Italian Thinker Who Inspired Fascists". New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2017. 
  191. ^ Levy, Pema (March 16, 2017). "Stephen Bannon Is a Fan of a French Philosopher... Who Was an Anti-Semite and a Nazi Supporter: Charles Maurras was sentenced to life in prison for complicity with the Nazis". Mother Jones. 
  192. ^ "Another Day, Another Report About Steve Bannon's Affection for Nazism". Slate. March 16, 2017. 
  193. ^ "The Bannon Canon: Books Favored by the Trump Adviser". Newsweek. 
  194. ^ "Savitri Devi: The mystical fascist being resurrected by the alt-right". BBC. October 28, 2017. 
  195. ^ "Stephen Bannon found inspiration in ancient thinkers, Ronald Reagan and Nazi propaganda". Los Angeles Times. December 9, 2016. 
  196. ^ Shane, Scott (November 27, 2016). "Combative, Populist Steve Bannon Found His Man in Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2017. 
  197. ^ Nelson, Tracy (October 3, 2009). "Set Up For Success". Army West Point Athletics. 
  198. ^ Finnegan, Michael; Pearce, Matt; Serna, Joseph (August 26, 2016). "Domestic violence allegations from 1996 surface against chief of Donald Trump's campaign". Los Angeles Times. 
  199. ^ "The Bannon Files: Divorce Records Reveal Marital Discord and Questionable Parenting". December 2, 2016. 
  200. ^ a b Twohey, Megan; Eder, Steve; Smither, Noah (August 25, 2016). "Donald Trump's Campaign Chief, Stephen Bannon, Faced Domestic Violence Charges in 1996". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2016. 
  201. ^ Eder, Megan Twohey, Steve; Smith, Noah (August 25, 2016). "Donald Trump's Campaign Chief, Stephen Bannon, Faced Domestic Violence Charges in 1996". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 22, 2016. 
  202. ^ "Trump campaign CEO once charged in domestic violence case". POLITICO. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  203. ^ Chuck, Elizabeth. "Trump Campaign CEO Steve Bannon Accused of Anti-Semitic Remarks by Ex-Wife". NBC News. Retrieved November 13, 2016. 
  204. ^ "New Trump campaign chief faces scrutiny over voter registration, anti-Semitism". Washington Post. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  205. ^ "Trump campaign CEO Stephen Bannon denies anti-Semitic remarks". The Guardian. Associated Press. Retrieved November 13, 2016. 
  206. ^ Swaine, Jon; Miami, Lauren Gambino Richard Luscombe in (November 13, 2016). "Trump campaign chief Steve Bannon is registered voter at vacant Florida home". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 26, 2017. 
  207. ^ Miller, Daniel (August 30, 2016). "Inside the Hollywood past of Stephen K. Bannon, Donald Trump's campaign chief". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 15, 2016. 
  208. ^ McCarthy, Todd (December 21, 1999). "Review: 'Titus'". Variety. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  209. ^ Martel, Ned (October 29, 2004). "Ronald Reagan, in Black and White". New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  210. ^ Weigel, David (October 1, 2010). "Blowing Up Stuff". Slate. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  211. ^ a b c Wardell, Gabe (July 15, 2011). "Director Stephen Bannon talks Sarah Palin's Undefeated". Creative Loafing. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  212. ^ "Still Point in a Turning World: Ronald Reagan and His Ranch". amazon.com. Amazon. Retrieved March 13, 2017. 
  213. ^ "History: 2011". yaf.org. Young America's Foundation. Retrieved March 13, 2017. Written and directed by Stephen K. Bannon 
  214. ^ O'Hare, Kate (July 17, 2011). "Sarah Palin documentary 'The Undefeated' to roll out to other cities". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  215. ^ Whipple, Kelsey (September 21, 2012). "The director of Occupy Unmasked talks facts, bias and the future of the movement". Denver Westward. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  216. ^ Bila, Jedidiah (August 27, 2012). "Obama voters reject 'hope and change' in new documentary". Fox News. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  217. ^ Hoffman, Bill (June 3, 2015). "Newsmax TV's 'Fire From the Heartland' Celebrates Conservative Women". Newsmax. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  218. ^ "You can learn a lot about Steve Bannon by watching the films he made". Chicago Tribune. 

External links

Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
John Podesta
as Counselor to the President
Senior Counselor to the President
2017
Served alongside: Kellyanne Conway, Dina Powell
Succeeded by
Kellyanne Conway
Dina Powell
New office White House Chief Strategist
2017
Vacant