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Identitarian movement

Lambda, the symbol of the Identitarian movement/Identitarianism used primarily in Europe by Generation Identity and occasionally other countries, intended to commemorate the Battle of Thermopylae[1]

The Identitarian movement or Identitarianism is a post-WWII European far-right[2] political ideology asserting the right of peoples of European descent to culture and territory which are claimed to belong exclusively to people defined as "European". Originating in France and building on ontological ideas of modern German philosophy, its ideology was formulated from the 1960s onward by essayists such as Alain de Benoist, Dominique Venner, Guillaume Faye and Renaud Camus, considered the movement's intellectual leaders. The Identitarian Movement has been classified by the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in 2019 as right-wing extremist.[3]

While on occasion condemning racism and promoting ethnopluralist society, it argues that particular modes of being are customary to particular groups of people, mainly based on ideas of thinkers of the German Conservative Revolution,[4] in some instances influenced by Nazi theories,[5][6] through the guidance of European New Right leaders.[7][6]

Some identitarians explicitly espouse ideas of xenophobia and racialism, but most limit their public statements to more docile language. Some among them promote the creation of white ethno-states, to the exclusion of migrants and non-white residents.[8][9]

The movement is most notable in Europe, and although rooted in Western Europe, it has spread more rapidly to Eastern Europe through conscious efforts of the likes of Faye. It also has adherents among North American, Australian, and New Zealander[14] white nationalists.[17] The United States–based Southern Poverty Law Center considers many of these organisations to be hate groups.[18]

OriginEdit

Although the extent of the influence is debated by scholars,[19] the identitarian ideology derives from the Nouvelle Droite,[7][20] a French far-right philosophical movement created in the 1960s to adapt traditionalist, ethnopluralist and illiberal politics to the European post-WWII context and to distance itself from earlier forms of far-right like fascism and Nazism, mainly through a project of Pan-European nationalism.[21][22]

The Nouvelle Droite, has been widely described as a neo-fascist attempt to legitimise far-right ideas in the political spectrum,[23][24] and to recycle Nazi ideas. According to political scientist Stéphane François, the later accusation, "though relevant in certain ways, [remains] incomplete, as it (purposely) [shuns] other references, most notably the primordial relationship to the German Conservative Revolution."[5] The original prominence of the original French nucleus gradually decreased, as a nebula of similar movements grouped under the term "European New Right" began to emerge across the continent.[25] Among them was the Neue Rechte of Armin Mohler, also largely inspired by the Conservative Revolution of the Weimar Republic,[26] and another ideological source for the Identitarian movement.[6] Consequently, connections have been suggested between the worldview of Martin Sellner, one the biggest figures of the movement,[27] and the theories of Martin Heidegger and Carl Schmitt.[28] Leading Identitarian Daniel Friberg has claimed influences from Ernst Jünger and Julius Evola.[29]

Nouvelle Droite figures de Benoist and Faye aimed at imitating, through their think tank GRECE, the Marxist meta-politics and tactics of cultural hegemony, agitprop and entryism which, according to them, had allowed left-wing movements to gain cultural and academical dominance from the second part of the 20th century onwards.[30] The movement is hostile to multiculturalism and liberalism, and although not necessarily supremacist, it is racialist as it identifies Europeans as a race.[23] Dominique Venner and his magazine Europe-Action, the latter deemed the "embryonic form" of the Nouvelle Droite,[31] are also cited as conducive to the emergence of the identitarian movement, by redefining nationalism on the "white nation" rather than the "nation state".[20][32]

In the early 21th century, their ideas influenced youth movements in France through groups such as Jeunesses Identitaires (founded in 2002) and Bloc Identitaire (2003). The French movements exported their ideas to other European nations, turning themselves into a pan-European movement of loosely connected identitarian groups.[33][34] In the 2000s and 2010s, thinkers led by Renaud Camus,[35] Guillaume Faye[36] and members of the Carrefour de l'Horloge[37][38] introduced the great replacement and remigration as defining concepts in the movement.[39][40][41]

IdeologyEdit

Identitarianism can be defined by its opposition to globalisation, multiculturalism, Islam and extra-European immigration; and its defence of traditions, pan-European nationalism and cultural homogeneity inside the nations of Europe.[21] Historian Joe Mulhall describes the essence of the Identitarian movement as "a reaction against the ‘68ers [baby-boomers] and their perceived left-liberal dominance of society."[42] Inspired by the meta-politics of Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci and the Nouvelle Droite, they do not seek direct electoral results but rather to influence the wider political debate in society.[27][7] In 2010, Daniel Friberg established the publishing house Arktos Media, which has grown since that date as the "uncontested global leader in the publication of English-language Nouvelle Droite literature."[43]

According to ethnographer Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, Identitarians advocate "an ostensibly non-hierarchical global separatism to create a “pluriversum,” where differences among peoples are preserved and celebrated."[7] Political scientist Jean-Yves Camus agrees and defines the movement as centered around the Nouvelle Droite concept of ethnopluralism (or "ethno-differentialism"): "each people and culture can only flourish on its territory of origin; ethnic and cultural mixing (métissage) is seen as a factor of decadence; multiculturalism as a pathogenic project, producing crime, loss of bearings and, ultimately, the possibility of an "ethnic war" on European lands, between "ethnic Europeans" and non-native Maghrebi Arabs, in any case Muslims." The idea of a future ethnic war among whites and immigrants is indeed central for some identitarian theorists, especially Guillaume Faye, who claimed that "the ethnic civil war, like a snake's baby that breaks the shell of its egg, [was] only in its very modest beginnings".[39][44] He had earlier preached "total ethnic war" between "original" Europeans and Muslims in The Colonization of Europe in 2000.[45] This vision, shared by Pierre Vial and his call to an "ethnic revolution" and a "war of liberation",[46][47] is opposed by other Identitarian leaders though, Alain de Benoist disavowing Faye's “strongly racist” ideas regarding Muslims after the publication of his 2000 book.[48][49]

The movement is strongly opposed to the politics and philosophy of Islam, which some critics describe as disguised islamophobia. Followers often protest what they see as an islamisation of Europe through mass immigration, claiming it is a threat to European culture and society.[50][51] This theory is connected to the ideas of the Great Replacement and remigration, the latter being a project of reversing growing multiculturalism through a forced mass deportation of non-European immigrants, often including their descendants, back to their supposed place of racial origin regardless of citizenship status.[52][53]

Identitarians dismiss the European Union as "corrupt" and "authoritarian", while at the same time defending a "European-level political body that can hold its own against superpowers like America and China." However, they do not share a common vision on liberalism, some seeing it as a part of Europe's identity "threatened by Muslims who do not respect women or gay people", while others like Daniel Friberg describe it as the “disease” that contributed to Muslim immigration in the first place.[27] An investigation led by political scientist Gudrun Hentges came to the conclusion that the identitarian movement is ideologically situated between the French National Front, the Nouvelle Droite, and neo-Nazism.[6]

By locationEdit

FranceEdit

The main identitarian youth movement is Génération Identitaire in France originally a youth wing of the Bloc Identitaire party before splitting off from the group and becoming its own organisation.

The association Terre et Peuple ("Land and People") represents the neo-völkisch leaning of the Identitarian movement in France.[46]

Al Jazeera English conducted an undercover investigation into the French branch, which aired on 10 December 2018. It captured GI activists punching a Muslim woman whilst saying "F*** Mecca" and one saying if ever he gets a terminal illness he will purchase a weapon and cause carnage, when asked by the undercover journalist who would be the target he replies "a mosque, whatever".[54] French prosecutors have launched an inquiry into the findings amidst calls for the group to be proscribed.[55]

Stéphane François estimated the size of the Identitarian movement in France to 1,500–2,000 in 2017.[56]

AustriaEdit

 
Austrian identitarians demonstrating in Vienna

The Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ) was founded in 2012. They have sometimes used the concept of a "War Against the '68ers"; i.e. people whose political identities are seen by Identitarians as stemming from the social changes of the 1960s, what would be called baby-boomer liberals in the US.[11]

On 27 April 2018 the IBÖ and the homes of its leaders were searched by the Austrian police, and investigations were started against Sellner on suspicion that a criminal organisation was being formed.[57][58] The court later ruled that the IBÖ was not a criminal organisation.[59][60]

GermanyEdit

The movement also appeared in Germany and converged with preexisting circles, centered on the magazine Blue Narcissus (Blaue Narzisse [de]) and its founder Felix Menzel [de], a martial artist and former German Karate Team Champion, who according to Gudrun Hentges – who worked for the official Federal Agency for Civic Education – belongs to the "elite of the movement".[61] It became a "registered association" in 2014.[62] Drawing upon thinkers of the Nouvelle Droite and the Conservative Revolution such as Oswald Spengler, Carl Schmitt or the contemporary Russian Aleksandr Dugin, it played a role in the rise of the PEGIDA marches in 2014/15.

 
Martin Sellner, one of the biggest figures in the Identitarian Movement.[27] (2019)

The identitarian movement has a close linkage to members of the German New Right,[63] e.g., to its prominent member Götz Kubitschek and his journal Sezession, for which the identitarian speaker Martin Sellner writes.

As their symbol, the European Identitarian movement and Generation Identity use a yellow lambda sign, a symbol that was painted on the shields of the Spartan army to commemorate the ancient Battle of Thermopylae.[1]

In August 2016 members of the identitarian movement in Germany scaled the iconic Brandenburg Gate in Berlin and hung a banner in protest at European immigration and perceived Islamisation.[64]

Members of the identitarian movement erected a new summit cross in a "provocative" act (as the Süddeutsche Zeitung reported) on the Schafreuter, after the original one had to be removed because of damage by an unknown person.[65]

In June 2017 the PayPal donations account of the identitarian "Defend Europe" was locked, and the identitarian account of the bank "Steiermärkische Sparkasse" was closed.[66] Defend Europe crowdfunded more than $178,000 to charter a ship in the Mediterranean.[67] It aimed to ferry any rescued migrants back to Africa, to observe any incursions by other NGO ships into Libyan waters, and to report them to the Libyan coastguard.[68] In the event, the ship chartered by GI suffered an engine failure, and had to be rescued by a ship from one of the NGOs rescuing migrants.[69]

On 11 July 2019, Germany's Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), the country's domestic intelligence agency, formally designated the Identitarian Movement as "a verified extreme right movement against the liberal democratic constitution." The new classification will allow the BfV to use more powerful surveillance methods against the group and its youth wing, Generation Identity. The Identitarian Movement has about 600 members in Germany.[70]

United KingdomEdit

In October 2017 key figures of the identitarian movement met in London in efforts to target the United Kingdom, and discussed the founding of a British chapter as a "bridge" to link with radical movements in the US.[71] In 2013, Markus Willinger spoke at the far-right Traditional Britain Group in London, out of which originated a YouTube video Generation Identity UK: A Declaration of War From The Students of Britain. In July 2017, a Facebook page for Generation Identity UK and Ireland was created; this branch was officially launched in late October 2017 with Tom Dupre and Ben Jones as its co-founders[72] after a banner was unfurled on Westminster Bridge reading "Defend London, Stop Islamisation".[73]

On 9 March 2018, Sellner and his girlfriend Brittany Pettibone were barred from entering the UK because their presence was "not conducive to the public good".[74]

Prior the ban, Sellner intended to deliver a speech to the Young Independence party, though they cancelled the event, citing supposed threats of violence from the far-left.[75] Prior to being detained and deported, Sellner intended to deliver his speech at Speakers' Corner in Hyde Park.[76] In June 2018 Tore Rasmussen, a Norwegian activist who had previously been denied entry to the United Kingdom, was working in Ireland to establish a local branch of Generation Identity.[77]

In August 2018, the leader of GI UK Tom Dupre resigned from his position after UK press revealed Rasmussen, who was a senior member in the UK branch, had an active past in neo-Nazi movements within Norway.[78]

Generation Identity UK has been conferencing with other organisations, namely Identity Evropa/American Identity Movement. Identity Evropa/American Identity Movement is known for its involvement in the deadly 11–12 August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States and its antisemitism.[79] Jacob Bewick, an activist with GI, had been exposed as a member of proscribed terror organisation National Action and was spotted at an NA march in 2016. At an after conference event, one GI UK member told a Hope not Hate informant that two members of the fascist National Front (and former NA members) were present.[80]

 
Activists from Identitarian Movement UK pose with a Lambda flag in Scotland.

The UK branch was condemned by the wider European movement on Twitter when it held its second annual conference and had invited numerous controversial alt-right speakers.[81] Speaking alongside the UK's new leader Ben Jones was alt-right YouTuber Millennial Woes and Nouvelle Droite writer Tomislav Sunić.[82] Millennial Woes has said in the past he opposes race-mixing and that the solution to the migrant crisis was to blow up the ships that African migrants were on.[83][84] Sunic has spoken at holocaust denial and British National Party events.[85][86]

This controversy led to a number of members leaving the organisation in disgust at what they perceived to be a shift towards the "Old Right". This led to concern that the British version may become more radicalised and dangerous. Simon Murdoch, Identitarianism researcher at Hope not Hate, said: "Evidence suggests we will be left with a smaller but more toxic group in the UK, open to engagement with the more antisemitic, extreme and thus dangerous elements of the domestic far right".[87]

According to Unite Against Fascism, the Identitarian Movement in the UK is estimated to have a membership of less than 200 activists as of June 2019.[88]

NordicsEdit

In Sweden, the organisation Nordiska förbundet [sv] (active from 2004 to 2010), which founded the online encyclopedia Metapedia in 2006, promoted identitarianism.[89]

The influence of Identitarian theories has been noted in the Sweden Democrats’ slogan "We are also a people!".[7]

Other European groupsEdit

The origin of the Italian chapter Generazione Identitaria dates from 2012.[90]

The founder of the far-right Croatian party Generation of Renovation has stated that it was originally formed in 2017 as that country's version of the alt-right and identitarian movements.[91]

The separatist party Som Catalans claims to defend the "identity of Catalonia" against "Spanish colonialism and the migrant invasion", as well as the "islamisation" of the Spanish autonomous community.[92]

In Belgium, in 2018, the State Security Service saw the rise of Schild & Vrienden [nl] in the context of identitarian groups emerging throughout Europe. A Europol terror report mentioned Soldaten van Odin and the defunct group La Meute.[93]

In the Netherlands, Identitair Verzet [nl] was founded in 2012. Its main goal is "preservation of the national identity". Training their members at camps in France, their protests in the Netherlands attract tens of participants.[94]

In Australia / New ZealandEdit

Australia has a local presence of the Identitarian movement in the form of an organisation known as Identity Australia which describes itself as "a youth-focused identitiarian organisation dedicated to giving European Australians a voice and restoring Australia's European character". The group has also published a manifesto detailing its beliefs.[95][96][97] Similarly, New Zealand had hosted the Dominion Movement, which labelled itself as "a grass-roots identitarian activist organisation committed to the revitalisation of our country and our people: White New Zealanders". The website for the group shutdown alongside New Zealand National Front in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings.[98][99] In late 2019 The Dominion Movement was largely replaced by a new group called Action Zealandia who is committed to European New Zealanders.[100][101][102][103]

Australia-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand, was a believer in the Great Replacement conspiracy theory, named his manifesto after it, and donated €1,500 to Austrian Identitarian leader Martin Sellner of Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ) a year prior to the terror attacks.[104] An investigation into the potential links between Tarrant and IBÖ was conducted by then Austrian Minister of the Interior Herbert Kickl. Other than the donation, no other evidence of contact or connections between the two parties has been found. The Austrian government is considering dissolving the group.[105][106][107] The shooter also donated €2,200 to Génération Identitaire, the French branch of the Generation Identity.[108] Tarrant exchanged emails with Sellner with one asking if they could meet for coffee or beer in Vienna and sent him a link to his YouTube channel. This was confirmed by the Sellner, but he denied interacting with Tarrant in person or knowing of his plans.[109][110][111] The Austrian government later opened an investigation into Sellner over suspected formation of a terrorist group with Tarrant and the former's fiancée Brittany Pettibone who met Australia far-right figure Blair Cottrell.[112]

In North AmericaEdit

 
Identity Evropa (now known as American Identity Movement) is a part of the American identitarian movement
 
Richard B. Spencer identifies himself as a leading member of the American identitarian movement.[113]

The now defunct neo-Nazi Traditionalist Youth Network/Traditionalist Worker Party was modelled after the European Identitarian movement, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center and the Anti-Defamation League.[114][115][116][117] Identity Evropa/American Identity Movement in the United States labels itself Identitarian, and is part of the alt-right.[118] Richard Spencer's National Policy Institute is also a white nationalist movement, which advocates an American version of identitarianism called "American Identitarianism".[11] The SPLC also reports that the Southern California-based Rise Above Movement "is inspired by identitarian movements in Europe and is trying to bring the philosophies and violent tactics to the United States".[119]

On 20 May 2017, two non-commissioned officers with the US Marines were arrested for trespassing after displaying a banner from a building in Graham, North Carolina, during a Confederate Memorial Day event. The banner included the identitarian logo, and the phrase "he who controls the past controls the future", a reference to George Orwell's novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, along with the initialism YWNRU, or "you will not replace us". The Marine Corps denounced the behaviour and investigated the incident. A marine spokesperson commented to local news: "Of course we condemn this type of behavior ... we condemn any type of behavior that is not congruent with our values or that is illegal." Both men plead guilty to trespassing. One received military administrative punishment. The other was discharged from the corps.[120][121][122]

The Canadian organisation IDCanada was formed in 2014 as Generation Identity Canada, and renamed in 2017 after the Charlottesville riots. The organisation has distributed propaganda in Hamilton, Ontario, and near McGill University in Montreal.[123][124]

Connection to the alt-rightEdit

The movement has been described as being part of the global alt-right,[125] or as the European counterpart of the American alt-right.[126][127] Hope Not Hate (HNH) has described identitarianism and the alt-right as "ostensibly separate" in origin, but with "huge areas of ideological crossover".[128] Many white nationalists and alt-right leaders have described themselves as identitarians,[129][128] and according to HNH, American alt-right influence is evident in European identitarian groups and events, forming an amalgamated "International Alternative Right".[128] Figures within the Identitarian movements and alt-right often cite Nouvelle Droite founder Alain de Benoist as an influence.[130][129] De Benoist rejects any alt-right affiliation, although he has worked with Richard B. Spencer, and once spoke at Spencer's National Policy Institute. As Benoist stated, "Maybe people consider me their spiritual father, but I don't consider them my spiritual sons".[129]

According to Christoph Gurk of Bayerischer Rundfunk, one of the goals of identitarianism is to make racism modern and fashionable.[131] Austrian identitarians invited radical right-wing groups from across Europe, including several neo-Nazis groups, to participate in an anti-immigration march, according to Anna Thalhammer of Die Presse.[132] There has also been Identitarian collaboration with the white nationalist activist Tomislav Sunić.[133]

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-021259-9.

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ a b Nicht links, nicht rechts – nur national, Volker Weiß, Die Zeit, 21 March 2013.
  2. ^ * "How "identitarian" politics is changing Europe". The Economist. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  3. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Identitäre Bewegung als rechtsextrem eingestuft | DW | 11.07.2019". DW.COM.
  4. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (5 December 2016). Where Have All The Fascists Gone?. Routledge. p. 340. ISBN 9781351873130.
  5. ^ a b Stéphane, François. "La Nouvelle Droite et le nazisme. Retour sur un débat historiographique". Revue Française d'Histoire des Idées Politiques. 46: 93–115.
  6. ^ a b c d Hentges, Gudrun, Gürcan Kökgiran, and Kristina Nottbohm (2014). "Die Identitäre Bewegung Deutschland (IBD)–Bewegung oder virtuelles Phänomen" In: Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen 27(3): 1–26.
  7. ^ a b c d e Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780190212599. Channeling concepts of a French antiliberal school known as the Nouvelle Droite, Nordic identitarians [...]
  8. ^ See Vejvodová below.
  9. ^ Shane Burley (6 November 2017). Fascism Today: What It Is and How to End It. AK Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-84935-295-6.
  10. ^ a b "Your Handy Field Guide to the Many Factions of the Far Right, From the Proud Boys to Identity Evropa". Wired. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  11. ^ a b c d "American Racists Work to Spread 'Identitarian' Ideology". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b Knight, Ben (20 March 2017). "German right-wing Identitarians 'becoming radicalized'". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  13. ^ a b c Ebner, Julia (24 October 2017). "The Fringe Insurgency" (PDF). Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Identitarianism is a pan-European ethno-nationalist movement
  14. ^ [10][11][12][13]
  15. ^ "White nationalists charter ship to catch Muslims in the Mediterranean". miamiherald. Retrieved 5 August 2017. White nationalists charter ship to catch Muslims in the Mediterranean... Generation Identity, whose members call themselves Identitarians
  16. ^ "Antifa, alt-right, white supremacy: A glossary of terms to know". The Tennessean. Retrieved 20 October 2017. Identitarianism: A white nationalist movement with roots in Europe, popularized in the United States in the last couple years through groups like Identity Evropa fliering college campuses.
  17. ^ [13][15][16]
  18. ^ [10][11][12][13]
  19. ^ Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780190877613. Since the early 1990s, the French New Right has been influential beyond France, especially in Italy, Germany, and Belgium, [...]. Although this is questionable, de Benoist and Dominique Venner are also seen as the forefathers of the “identitarian” movement in Europe.
  20. ^ a b Camus, Jean-Yves (1 May 2018). "Le mouvement identitaire ou la construction d'un mythe des origines européennes". Fondation Jean-Jaurès (in French). Retrieved 16 August 2019. It was the transition from French nationalism to the promotion of European identity, theorised by Europe-Action in the mid-1960s, that disrupted the references of the French far-right by producing a schism that has not been repaired to date, separating integral sovereignists, for whom no level of sovereignty is legitimate except the nation state [...] from the identitarians, for whom the nation state is an intermediate framework between being rooted in a region (in the sense of the German "Heimat") and belonging to the framework of European civilisation.
  21. ^ a b Schlembach, Raphael (1 April 2016). Against Old Europe: Critical Theory and Alter-Globalization Movements. Routledge. ISBN 9781317183884.
  22. ^ Wilson, Jason (28 March 2019). "With links to the Christchurch attacker, what is the Identitarian Movement?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  23. ^ a b Spektorowski, Alberto (1 February 2003). "The New Right: Ethno-regionalism, ethno-pluralism and the emergence of a neo-fascist 'Third Way'". Journal of Political Ideologies. 8 (1): 111–130. doi:10.1080/13569310306084. ISSN 1356-9317.
  24. ^ Mammone, Andrea; Godin, Emmanuel; Jenkins, Brian (7 May 2013). Varieties of Right-Wing Extremism in Europe. Routledge. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781136167515.
  25. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674971530.
  26. ^ Pfahl-Traughber, Armin (9 March 2013). Konservative Revolution und Neue Rechte: Rechtsextremistische Intellektuelle gegen den demokratischen Verfassungsstaat (in German). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9783322973900.
  27. ^ a b c d "How "identitarian" politics is changing Europe". The Economist. 28 March 2018. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  28. ^ Ullrich, Wolfgang (7 November 2017). "Die Wiederkehr der Schönheit Über einige unangenehme Begegnungen". Pop-Zeitschrift. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  29. ^ Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2 January 2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 9780190212612.
  30. ^ McCulloch, Tom (1 August 2006). "The Nouvelle Droite in the 1980s and 1990s: Ideology and Entryism, the Relationship with the Front National". French Politics. 4 (2): 158–178. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200099. ISSN 1476-3427.
  31. ^ McCulloch, Tom (1 August 2006). "The Nouvelle Droite in the 1980s and 1990s: Ideology and Entryism, the Relationship with the Front National". French Politics. 4 (2): 160. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200099. ISSN 1476-3427.
  32. ^ François, Stéphane (23 May 2013). "Dominique Venner et le renouvellement du racisme". Fragments sur les Temps Présents (in French). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  33. ^ Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2 January 2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780190212612.
  34. ^ Beirich, Heidi. "Key bridge-building conference for U.S. and European Racists Slated for Hungary Oct. 3-5". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  35. ^ "D'où vient l'expression "remigration"?". Le Soleil. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  36. ^ "Au Bloc Identitaire, l'apologie de la "remigration"". FIGARO. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  37. ^ ""Réémigration", négationnisme, "race congoïde"... Les mauvaises ondes d'Henry de Lesquen, le patron de Radio Courtoisie". Franceinfo (in French). 7 December 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  38. ^ DUPIN, Éric (2 February 2017). La France identitaire: Enquête sur la réaction qui vient (in French). La Découverte. pp. 41–42. ISBN 9782707194848.
  39. ^ a b Camus, Jean-Yves (1 May 2018). "Le mouvement identitaire ou la construction d'un mythe des origines européennes". Fondation Jean-Jaurès (in French). Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  40. ^ Ganley, Elaine (16 May 2019). "Taboos fall away as far-right EU candidates breach red line". AP NEWS. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  41. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (9 November 2017). "Generation Identity: Far-right group sending UK recruits to military-style training camps in Europe". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. ...claims it represents "indigenous Europeans" and propagates the far-right conspiracy theory that white people are becoming a minority in what it calls the "Great Replacement"
  42. ^ Mulhall, Joe (2019), "The Identitarian movement and the alt-right" HopeNotHate. (read online)
  43. ^ Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2 January 2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780190212612.
  44. ^ Faye, Guillaume (7 January 2016). "La guerre civile ethnique est-elle évitable ? Probablement pas". Blog de Guillaume Faye (in French). Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  45. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (2014). "A Response to Alain de Benoist". Journal for the Study of Radicalism. 8 (2): 141. doi:10.14321/jstudradi.8.2.0123. ISSN 1930-1189. JSTOR 10.14321/jstudradi.8.2.0123.
  46. ^ a b Zúquete, José Pedro (30 October 2018). The Identitarians: The Movement against Globalism and Islam in Europe. University of Notre Dame Pess. ISBN 9780268104245.
  47. ^ Shields, James (7 May 2007). The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 9781134861118.
  48. ^ Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. p. 141. ISBN 9780674971530. He is obsessed with the ineluctability of a physical confrontation on European soil between “native-born” ethnic groups and “non-natives.” The violence of the views he expresses, which earned him a criminal conviction after the publication of The colonization of Europe: True discourse on immigration and Islam [...]
  49. ^ Sedgwick, Mark (8 January 2019). Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780190877613. When Faye published The Colonization of Europe in 2000, de Benoist disavowed Faye’s “strongly racist” ideas with regard to Muslims.
  50. ^ Lee, Benjamin (21 October 2016). "Why we fight: Understanding the counter-jihad movement" (PDF). Religion Compass. 10 (10): 257–65. doi:10.1111/rec3.12208.
  51. ^ "Occupy le mosque: France's new far-right nativism". Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
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Further reading

  • Dupin, Éric (2017). La France identitaire : enquête sur la réaction qui vient. Paris: La Découverte. ISBN 978-2707194848.
  • Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (2017). Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190212599.
  • Virchow, Fabian (2015). "The 'Identitarian Movement': What Kind of Identity? Is it Really a Movement?". In Simpson, Patricia Anne; Druxes, Helga (eds.). Digital Media Strategies of the Far Right in Europe and the United States. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. pp. 177–90. ISBN 978-0739198810.
  • Vejvodová, Petra (September 2014). The Identitarian Movement – renewed idea of alternative Europe (PDF). ECPR General Conference. Masaryk University, Brno: Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Studies. Retrieved 10 May 2017.

External linksEdit