Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. Spengler's model of history postulates that any culture is a superorganism with a limited and predictable lifespan.
|Born||Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler
29 May 1880
Blankenburg, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire
|Died||8 May 1936
Munich, Bavaria, Nazi Germany
|Alma mater||University of Munich
University of Berlin
University of Halle
|Era||20th century philosophy|
|Philosophy of history|
Spengler predicted that about the year 2000, Western civilization would enter the period of pre‑death emergency whose countering would necessitate Caesarism (extraconstitutional omnipotence of the executive branch of the central government).
Oswald Spengler was born in 1880 in Blankenburg (the Duchy of Brunswick, the German Reich) as the second child of Bernhard (1844–1901) and Pauline (1840–1910) Spengler. Oswald's elder brother was born prematurely (eight months) in 1879, when his mother tried to move a heavy laundry basket, and died at the age of three weeks. Oswald was born ten months after his brother's death. His younger sisters were Adele (1881–1917), Gertrud (1882–1957), and Hildegard (1885–1942).
Oswald's paternal grandfather, Theodor Spengler (1806–76), was a metallurgical inspector (Hütteninspektor) in Altenbrak. Oswald's father, Bernhard Spengler, held the position of a postal secretary (Postsekretär) and was a hard-working man with a marked dislike of intellectualism, who tried to instil the same values and attitudes in his son.
On 26 May 1799, Friedrich Wilhelm Grantzow, a tailor's apprentice in Berlin, married a Jewish woman named Bräunchen Moses (whose parents, Abraham and Reile Moses, were both deceased by that time). Shortly before the wedding, Bräunchen Moses (ca. 1769–1849) was baptized as Johanna Elisabeth Anspachin (the surname was chosen after her birthplace—Anspach). The couple gave birth to eight children (three before and five after the wedding), one of whom was Gustav Adolf Grantzow (1811–83)—a solo dancer and ballet master in Berlin, who in 1837 married Katharina Kirchner (1813–73), a nervously beautiful solo dancer from a Munich Catholic family; the second of their four daughters was Oswald Spengler's mother Pauline Grantzow. Like the Grantzows in general, Pauline was of a Bohemian disposition, and, before marrying Bernhard Spengler, accompanied her dancer sister on tours. She was the least talented member of the Grantzow family. In appearance, she was plump and a bit unseemly. Her temperament, which Oswald inherited, complemented her appearance and frail physique: she was moody, irritable, and morose.
When Oswald was ten years of age, his family moved to the university city of Halle. Here he received a classical education at the local Gymnasium (academically oriented secondary school), studying Greek, Latin, mathematics and sciences. Here, too, he developed his propensity for the arts—especially poetry, drama, and music—and came under the influence of the ideas of Goethe and Nietzsche:
|“||I feel urged to name once more those to whom I owe practically everything: Goethe and Nietzsche. Goethe gave me method, Nietzsche the questioning faculty ...||”|
After his father's death in 1901 Spengler attended several universities (Munich, Berlin, and Halle) as a private scholar, taking courses in a wide range of subjects. His private studies were undirected. In 1903, he failed his doctoral thesis on Heraclitus (titled Der metaphysische Grundgedanke der Heraklitischen Philosophie, The Metaphysical Fundamental Thought in Heraclitean Philosophy, and conducted under the direction of Alois Riehl) because of insufficient references, which effectively ended his chances of an academic career. He eventually received his Ph.D. from Halle on 6 April 1904. In December 1904, he set to write the secondary dissertation (Staatsexamensarbeit) necessary to qualify as a high school teacher. This became The Development of the Organ of Sight in the Higher Realms of the Animal Kingdom (Die Entwicklung des Sehorgans bei den Hauptstufen des Tierreiches). It was approved and he received his teaching certificate. In 1905 Spengler suffered a nervous breakdown.
Biographers report his life as a teacher was uneventful. He briefly served as a teacher in Saarbrücken and then in Düsseldorf. From 1908 to 1911 he worked at a grammar school (Realgymnasium) in Hamburg, where he taught science, German history, and mathematics.
In 1911, following his mother's death, he moved to Munich, where he would live until his death in 1936. He lived as a cloistered scholar, supported by his modest inheritance. Spengler survived on very limited means and was marked by loneliness. He owned no books, and took jobs as a tutor or wrote for magazines to earn additional income.
He began work on the first volume of Decline of the West intending at first to focus on Germany within Europe, but the Agadir Crisis of 1911 affected him deeply, and he widened the scope of his study:
|“||At that time the World-War appeared to me both as imminent and also as the inevitable outward manifestation of the historical crisis, and my endeavor was to comprehend it from an examination of the spirit of the preceding centuries—not years. ... Thereafter I saw the present—the approaching World-War—in a quite other light. It was no longer a momentary constellation of casual facts due to national sentiments, personal influences, or economic tendencies endowed with an appearance of unity and necessity by some historian's scheme of political or social cause-and-effect, but the type of a historical change of phase occurring within a great historical organism of definable compass at the point preordained for it hundreds of years ago.||”|
The book was completed in 1914, but publishing was delayed by World War I. Due to a congenital heart problem, Spengler was not called up for military service. During the war, however, his inheritance was largely useless because it was invested overseas; thus he lived in genuine poverty for this period.
The Decline of the West (1918)
When The Decline of the West was published in the summer of 1918, it was a wild success.[a] The national humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and the ensuing economic depression, caused by World War I reparations, seemed to prove Spengler right. The book comforted Germans by rationalizing their downfall as part of larger world-historical processes. It met with wide success outside of Germany as well, and by 1919 had been translated into several other languages. Spengler rejected a subsequent offer to become Professor of Philosophy at the University of Göttingen, saying he needed time to focus on writing.
Arguing by detailed analogies with three other civilizations, Spengler predicted that about the year 2000, the strongest Western nation would enter a 200-year period of Caesarism (extraconstitutional omnipotence of the executive branch of the central government) and then create a global empire.
After the year 2200, the global empire will pass through a period of "historyless stiffening and enfeeblement" (Geschichtsloses Erstarren und Ohnmacht), whose duration in the other civilizations was 145–200 years.
The body of the people, now essentially urban in constitution, dissolves into a formless mass. Cosmopolis and provinces. The Fourth Estate (the "masses")—inorganic, cosmopolitan
|1. Domination of money ("democracy"). Economic powers permeating the political forms and authorities|
|1675–1550: Hyksos period. Deepest decline. Dictatures of alien generals (Chian). After 1600, definitive victory of the rulers of Thebes||300–100: Political Hellenism. From Alexander to Hannibal and Scipio, royal all-power; from Cleomenes III and C. Flaminius (220) to C. Marius, radical demagogues||480–230: Period of the "contending states"
|2. Formation of Caesarism. Victory of force-politics over money. Increasing primitiveness of political forms. Inward decline of the nations into a formless population, and constitution thereof as an imperium of gradually increasing crudity of despotism|
|1580–1350: Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt||100 BC–100 AD: Sulla to Domitian||250 BC–26 AD: House of Wang-Cheng and Western Han dynasty
|3. Maturing of the final form. Private and family policies of individual leaders. The world as spoil. Egypticism, mandarinism, Byzantinism. Historyless stiffening and enfeeblement even of the imperial machinery, against young peoples eager for spoil, or alien conquerors. Primitive human conditions slowly thrust up into the highly civilized mode of living|
|1350–1205: Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt||100–300: Trajan to Aurelian
||25–220: Eastern Han dynasty
Mussolini and Hitler considered themselves as Nietzschean superhumans miraculously overcoming Spengler's prophecy of the downfall of the West. In reality, their attempt to establish Caesarism is an integral part of the above schedule of the West's decline: "XXth-century transition from constitutional to informal sway of individuals. Annihilation wars. Imperialism." The antidemocratic regimes of Mussolini and Hitler were short-lived because in Spengler's schedule, the domination of money (constitutional "democracy") continues until the year 2000.
Prussianism and Socialism (1919)
In late 1919, Spengler published Prussianism and Socialism (Preußentum und Sozialismus), an essay based on notes intended for the second volume of The Decline of the West. According to Spengler, mankind will spend the next and last several hundred years of its existence in a state of Caesarian socialism, when all humans will be synergized into a harmonious and happy totality by a dictator, like an orchestra is synergized into a harmonious totality by its conductor:
|“||German, or more precisely, Prussian instinct declares that power belongs to the totality. The individual serves the totality, which is sovereign. The king, as Frederick the Great maintained, is only the first servant of his people. Each citizen is assigned his place in the totality. He receives orders and obeys them. This is authoritarian socialism as we have known it since the eighteenth century.||”|
Prussian socialism is the only true socialism:
|“||I say German socialism, for there is no other. This, too, is one of the truths that no longer lie hidden. Perhaps no one has mentioned it before, but we Germans are socialists. The others cannot possibly be socialists. ...
The spirit of Old Prussia and the socialist attitude, at present driven by brotherly hatred to combat each other, are in fact one and the same. This is an incontrovertible fact of history, not just a literary figment. The elements that make up history are blood, race—which is created by ideas that are never expressed—and the kind of thought which coordinates the energies of body and mind.
|“||In order to overcome man’s inborn lethargy, the Prussian socialist ethic maintains that the chief aim of life is not happiness. "Do your duty," it says, "by doing your work." The English capitalist ethic says, "Get rich, and then you won’t have to work any more."||”|
From Spengler's point of view, Marxism, which takes on an "English" character, is offensively anti-German:
|“||Marxian morality is likewise of English origin. Marxism reveals in every sentence that the thought processes from which it sprang were theological and not political. ... Had Marx understood the meaning of Prussian work, of activity for its own sake, of service in the name of the totality, for "all together" and not for one's self, of duty that ennobles regardless of the type of work performed-had he been able to comprehend these things, his manifesto would probably never have been written. On this matter [Marx] was aided by his Jewish instinct, which he himself characterized in his essay on the Jewish question. The curse on physical labor pronounced in the beginning of Genesis, the prohibition against defiling the Sabbath by work—these things made him receptive to the Old Testament pathos of the English sensibility. Hence his hatred of those who do not need to work. The socialism of a Fichte would accuse such people of sloth, it would brand them as irresponsible, dispensable shirkers and parasites. But Marxian instinct envies them. They are too well-off, and therefore they should be revolted against. Marx has inoculated his proletariat with a contempt for work. His fanatical disciples wish to destroy all culture in order to decrease the amount of indispensable work.||”|
Spengler goes on to reject the cosmopolitan conception of internationalism, claiming that history proves imperialism is the only true internationalism. Thus true internationalism would entail domination of the world by the west:
|“||Only in Germany has socialism been a Weltanschauung. The Frenchman remains an anarchist, the Englishman a liberal. French and English workers regard themselves above all as Frenchmen and Englishmen, and only as an afterthought as supporters of the International. The Prussian worker, the only born socialist, has always played fool to the others. He alone has taken the pseudo-socialist language seriously, just as the German professors believed in the Paulskirche speeches...A true International is only possible as the victory of the idea of a single race over all the others, and not as the mixture of all separate opinions into one colorless mass. Let us have the courage of our skepticism and throw away the old ideology. In history as it really is, there can be no conciliations. Whoever believes that there can must suffer from a chronic terror at the absurd ways in which events do occur, and he is only deceiving himself if he thinks that he can control them by means of treaties. There is but one end to all the conflict, and that is death—the death of individuals, of peoples, of cultures. Our own death still lies far ahead of us in the murky darkness of the next thousand years. We Germans, situated as we are in this century, bound by our inborn instincts to the destiny of Faustian civilization, have within ourselves rich and untapped resources, but immense obligations as well. To the new International that is now in the irreversible process of preparation we can contribute the ideas of worldwide organization and the world state; the English can suggest the idea of worldwide exploitation and trusts; the French can offer nothing. We can vouch for our ideas, not with speeches but with our whole existence. The knightly idea of true socialism stands or falls with Prussianism. ...
The true International is imperialism, domination of Faustian civilization, i.e., of the whole earth, by a single formative principle, not by appeasement and compromise but by conquest and annihilation.
A 1928 Time review of the second volume of The Decline described the immense influence and controversy Spengler's ideas enjoyed during the 1920s: "When the first volume of The Decline of the West appeared in Germany a few years ago, thousands of copies were sold. Cultivated European discourse quickly became Spengler-saturated. Spenglerism spurted from the pens of countless disciples. It was imperative to read Spengler, to sympathize or revolt. It still remains so."
In 1924, following the social-economic upheaval and inflation, Spengler entered politics in an effort to bring Reichswehr general Hans von Seeckt to power as the country's leader. The attempt failed and Spengler proved ineffective in practical politics.
In 1931, he published Man and Technics, which warned against the dangers of technology and industrialism to culture. He especially pointed to the tendency of Western technology to spread to hostile "colored races" which would then use the weapons against the West. This book contains the well-known Spengler quote "Optimism is cowardice".
In the German presidential election of 1932, Spengler voted for Hitler. The two men met at the Bayreuth Festival on Tuesday, 25 July 1933. The interview had been requested by Spengler and was arranged by Else Knittel, a friend of Winifred Wagner's. In his 1957 book, Ernst Hanfstaengl recounts Hitler's impressions of that hour-and-a-half conversation:
|“||I had often tried to bring Hitler and the great historian together, in the hope that his Olympian acidity would deflate Hitler a little. They did, in fact, meet without my intervention and I learnt of it one Sunday when the subject came up at a luncheon given to Hitler by the Wagners at Bayreuth. I could see Hitler had a bad conscience about it in my company, as he faked a sort of sleepiness, scratching his ear and asserting that Spengler had only talked in terms of compromise, that his whole background was too monarchist and conservative, and that he had no understanding of racial problems, "Hanfstaengl, you should have been there."||”|
Spengler, in his turn, condemned Hitler's version of socialism as "prolet-Aryan" for its anti-elitism. He believed that Hitler's distrust of the military elite would make the latter sheepishly initiativeless and thus would lead to the Third Reich's defeat in the next world war, because Hitler himself was merely a great demagogue (a "heroic tenor", i.e. a sheep in a lion's skin) but no strategist. In the first volume of The Hour of Decision (published on 19 August 1933), Spengler expounded the Athenian adage that an army of sheep commanded by a lion will beat an army of lions commanded by a sheep:
|“||The principle of inorganic equality was for them crucial. Men of the stamp of Jahn and Arndt had no notion that it was Equality that had first sounded the cry of "Vive la nation" in the September massacres of 1792.
They forgot, too, one basic fact. The Romanticism of their Volkslieder sang only the heroism of the common soldier, but the inner worth of these armies (at first amateurs in the calling of arms), their spirit, their discipline, and their training, depended upon the quality of the officer‑corps, whose adequacy was due entirely to eighteenth-century traditions. With the Jacobins also a body of soldiers was morally worth precisely as much as its officer, who had trained it by his example. Napoleon confessed at St. Helena that he would not have been beaten had he had for his superb fighting material a corps of officers like the Austrian, a corps in which chivalrous traditions of loyalty, honour, and silent self-discipline still survived. Once the command wavers in its intentions and its attitude—or itself abdicates, as in 1918—the bravest regiment becomes on the spot a cowardly and helpless herd.
He pictured Nazism as the German nation's cowardly escape from reality by regressing to a lower mental age:
|“||All young sects are at bottom hostile to State and property, class and rank, and are attracted to universal equality. ...
And these same everlasting "Youths" are with us again today, immature, destitute of the slightest experience or even real desire for experience, but writing and talking away about politics, fired by uniforms and badges, and clinging fantastically to some theory or other. There is a social Romanticism of sentimental Communists, a political Romanticism which regards election figures and the intoxication of mass-meeting oratory as deeds, and an economic Romanticism which trickles out from behind the gold theories of sick minds that know nothing of the inner forms of modern economics. They can only feel in the mass, where they can deaden the dull sense of their weakness by multiplying themselves. And this they call the Overcoming of Individualism.
In the first half of October 1933, the book was banned from discussion in the press. However, another edition was allowed to appear in 1934, which is the year when the book was attacked by a chorus of indignant Nazi voices. In a widely-circulated pamphlet, Johann von Leers, Leader of the Division of Foreign Policy and Foreign Information in the German High School for Politics, argued that The Hour of Decision was a counterrevolutionary tract, while its author was merely a negative sceptic, an enemy of the workers, with an "ice-cold contempt for the people", whose real desire was to return to the "old aristocratic society" of the eighteenth century. In addition, Spengler's chief racial doctrine of the "coloured" menace was undermining Germany's relations with her natural ally—Japan. Nevertheless, 200,000 copies of the book had been sold in Germany as of 1934.
Despite Spengler's polemic with Alfred Rosenberg and remarks about the Führer, on 13 October 1933 he became one of the 100 senators of the German Academy. After the Hitlerian ban of 1934, Spengler devoted the few remaining years of his life to a study of the second millennium B.C., of which he completed a few chapters.
In 1935, Spengler resigned from the board of the Nietzsche Archive. Although the Archive had already become increasingly sympathetic to the Nazi Party throughout the 1920s, a line was breached when it began distorting Nietzsche's philosophy to fit into National Socialist ideology. This was the reason Spengler gave for his resignation. In a letter to Walter Jesinghaus on 27 October 1935, Spengler explained that "I resigned from the Board of the Nietzsche Archive some weeks ago, because I did not approve of its procedure... Either one cultivates the philosophy of Nietzsche, or that of the Nietzsche Archive, and if both contradict one another to the extent which is the case as present, it is necessary to make up one's mind".. Elizabeth Forster-Nietzsche had same understanding of Spengler's resignation. In a letter to Spengler on 15 October 1935 she wrote that "To my great grief I hear that you are parting from the Nietzsche Archive, and do not wish to have any more to do with it. I regret this extremely and cannot imagine the reason. I have been informed that you are taking an attitude of strong oppoisition to the Third Reich and its Fuhrer, and that your departure from the Nietzsche Archive, which sincerely reveres the Fuhrer, is connected with this".
He spent his final years in Munich, listening to Beethoven, reading Molière and Shakespeare, buying several thousand books, and collecting ancient Turkish, Persian and Indian weapons. He made occasional trips to the Harz mountains, and to Italy. In the spring of 1936 (shortly before his death), he prophetically remarked in a letter to Reichsleiter Hans Frank that "in ten years, the German Reich will probably no longer exist" ("da ja wohl in zehn Jahren ein Deutsches Reich nicht mehr existieren wird!"). He died of a heart attack on 8 May 1936, in Munich, three weeks before his 56th birthday and exactly nine years before the fall of the Third Reich.
- Der metaphysische Grundgedanke der Heraklitischen Philosophie [The metaphysical idea of Heraclitus' philosophy] (in German), 1904
- Der Untergang des Abendlandes: Umrisse einer Morphologie der Weltgeschichte [The Decline of the West: Outlines of a Morphology of world history], Gestalt und Wirklichkeit; Welthistorische Perspektives (in German), 1918–22, 2 vols. – The Decline of the West; an Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner (tr. by F. Atkinson).
- "On the Style-Patterns of Culture." In Talcott Parsons, ed., Theories of Society, Vol. II, The Free Press of Glencoe, 1961.
- Preussentum und Sozialismus, 1920, Translated 1922 as Prussianism And Socialism by C.F.Atkinson (Prussianism and Socialism).
- Pessimismus?, G. Stilke, 1921.
- Neubau des deutschen Reiches, 1924.
- Die Revolution ist nicht zu Ende, c. 1924.
- Politische Pflichten der deutschen Jugend; Rede gehalten am 26. Februar 1924 vor dem Hochschulring deutscher Art in Würzburg, 1925.
- Der Mensch und die Technik, 1931 (Man and Technics: A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life, tr. C. T. Atkinson, Knopf, 1932).
- Die Revolution ist nicht zu Ende, 1932.
- Politische Schriften, 1932.
- Jahre der Entscheidung, 1933 (The Hour of Decision tr. CF Atkinson).
- Reden und Aufsätze, 1937 (ed. by Hildegard Kornhardt) – Selected Essays (tr. Donald O. White).
- Gedanken, c. 1941 (ed. by Hildegard Kornhardt) – Aphorisms (translated by Gisela Koch-Weser O’Brien).
- Briefe, 1913–1936, 1963 [The Letters of Oswald Spengler, 1913–1936] (ed. and tr. by A. Helps).
- Urfragen; Fragmente aus dem Nachlass, 1965 (ed. by Anton Mirko Koktanek and Manfred Schröter).
- Frühzeit der Weltgeschichte: Fragmente aus dem Nachlass, 1966 (ed. by A. M. Koktanek and Manfred Schröter).
- Der Briefwechsel zwischen Oswald Spengler und Wolfgang E. Groeger. Über russische Literatur, Zeitgeschichte und soziale Fragen, 1987 (ed. by Xenia Werner).
- The original Preface is dated December 1917 and ends with Spengler expressing hope that "his book would not be unworthy of the German military achievements".
- Preussische Jahrbücher. V. 192, issue 93, Georg Stilke, 1923, p. 130
- Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit, Beck, 1968, p. 10
- Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit. Beck, 1968, pp. 3, 517
- Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit. Beck, 1968, p. 5
- Awerbuch, Marianne; Jersch-Wenzel, Stefi (1992). Bild und Selbstbild der Juden Berlins zwischen Aufklärung und Romantik [Image and self-image of the Jews of Berlin between the Enlightenment and Romanticism] (in German). Berlin: Colloquium. p. 91.
- Koktanek, Anton Mirko, Oswald Spengler in seiner Zeit. Beck, 1968, p. 5
- Spengler, Oswald (2007). Ich beneide jeden, der lebt [I envy anyone who lives] (in German). Lilienfeld. p. 126.
- Fischer, Klaus P., History and Prophecy: Oswald Spengler and The Decline of the West. P. Lang, 1989, p. 27
- Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. V. 1, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926, p. xiv
- K. Stimely, "Oswald Spengler: An Introduction to his Life and Ideas", The Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 17, Institute for Historical Review, 1998.
- Spengler, Oswald. The Decline of the West. V. 1, Alfred A. Knopf, 1926, pp. 46–47
- Richard Wolin. The Seduction of Unreason: The Intellectual Romance with Fascism from Nietzsche to Postmodernism. Princeton University Press, 2009. p. 323
- Vrekhem, Georges van. Hitler and His God: The Background of the Hitler Phenomenon. Rupa & Company, 2006, p. 448. "Hitler was quite aware of this incongruity and did not hesitate to put things straight after having given, as the new Chancellor of the nation, an audience to Spengler in Bayreuth. “I am not a supporter of Oswald Spengler! I don't believe in the decline of the West. On the contrary, I consider it my task, conferred upon me by Providence, to contribute to its prevention.” For he, Hitler, was convinced that “the old Aryan culture, under the leadership of Nordic man, would experience a rebirth”."
- Spengler, Oswald. Prussianism and Socialism. 1919. Translated by Donald O. White
- Spengler, Oswald. Prussianism and Socialism. 1919. Translated by Donald O. White. "It is the heritage of anguished centuries, and it distinguishes us from all other people—us, the youngest and last people of our culture."
- Dhooria, Ram Lall. I was a Swayamsewak: An Inside View of the RSS. Sampradayikta Virodhi Committee, 1969, p. 31. "In his last political book 'The Hour of Decision', Oswald Spengler, the celebrated rightist philosopher of Germany characterised the Nazis as a party of 'everlasting youths'."
- "Patterns in Chaos". Time Magazine. 10 December 1928. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- Hughes, H. Stuart (1 January 1991). Oswald Spengler. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412830348. (Reprint of the 1952 edition with a new introduction by Hughes)
- Wheaton, Eliot Barculo. The Nazi Revolution 1933–35. Doubleday, 1968, p. 103
- Der Untergang des Abendlandes. Bde 1 und 2, AuraBooks, 2013, S. 3
- Hanfstaengl, Ernst. Hitler: The Missing Years. Arcade Publishing, 1957, p. 189
- The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies. OUP, 2013, p. 487
- Catalog of Copyright Entries. Books, Group 1. For the Year 1934. Library of Congress, 1935, p. 823
- Spengler, Oswald. The Hour of Decision. Part II, 1933
- Spengler, Oswald. The Hour of Decision. Part I, 1933
- Klemperer, Klemens Von. Germany's New Conservatism: Its History and Dilemma in the Twentieth Century. PUP, 2015, p. 208. "It is interesting that in its issue of October 1, 1933 the Hitler Youth mouthpiece Wille und Macht carried a full-page photograph of a bust of Spengler accompanied by excerpts from The Hour of Decision. Also, it promised its readers an extensive discussion of the book in the following issue. The latter, however, made no mention of Spengler. On May 15, 1934, finally, Wille und Macht came out with a full-fledged attack upon Spengler; Kif, "Deutsche Jugend und Oswald Spengler," Wille und Macht, ii (May 15, 1934), 25ff."
- Klemperer, Klemens Von. Germany's New Conservatism: Its History and Dilemma in the Twentieth Century. PUP, 2015, p. 208
- Leers, Johann von. Spenglers weltpolitisches System und der Nationalsozialismus, Berlin, 1934
- Hughes, H. Stuart. Oswald Spengler. Transaction Publishers, 1991, p. 131
- The New York Times Book Review. V. l, Arno Press, 1934
- Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Karl-Marx-Universität Leipzig. V. 17, 1968, p. 71
- Mitteilungen. Deutsche Akademie, 1936, p. 571. "Dr. Oswald Spengler, München, Senator der Deutschen Akademie"
- Oswald Spengler, Spengler Letters: 1913-1936, (trans. Arthur Helps) [London: 1966], p.306
- Oswald Spengler, Spengler Letters: 1913-1936, (trans. Arthur Helps) [London: 1966], pp. 304-305
- Bronder, Dietrich (1964). Bevor Hitler kam: eine historische Studie [Before Hitler came: a historical study] (in German). Pfeiffer. p. 25.
- Falke, Konrad. "A Historian's Forecast," The Living Age, Vol. 314, September 1922.
- Stewart, W. K. (1924). "The Decline of Western Culture," The Century Magazine, Vol. CVIII, No. 5.
- Mumford, Lewis (1932). "The Decline of Spengler," The New Republic, 9 March.
- Dewey, John (1932). "Instrument or Frankenstein?," The Saturday Review, 12 March.
- Vasilkovsky, G. "Oswald Spengler's 'Philosophy of Life'," The Communist, April 1932.
- Reis, Lincoln (1934). "Spengler Declines the West," The Nation, 28 February.
- Theodor W. Adorno Prisms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1967.
- Jerry H. Bentley Shapes of World History in Twentieth Century Scholarship. Essays on Global and Comparative History Series. (1996).
- Thomas F. Bertonneau (18 August 2009). "Snapshots of The Continent Entre Deux Guerres: Keyserling's Europe (1928) and Spengler's Hour of Decision (1934)". The Brussels Journal.
- Bertonneau, Thomas F. (31 May 2012). "Oswald Spengler on Democracy, Equality, and 'Historylessness'". The Brussels Journal,.
- Chisholm, A. R. (September 1935). "Oswald Spengler and the Decline of the West". Australian Quarterly. 7 (27).
- Chisholm, A. R. (September 1942). "No Decline of the West: Sorokin's Reply to Spengler". Australian Quarterly,. 14 (3).
- R. G. Collingwood (1927). "Oswald Spengler and the Theory of Historical Cycles". Antiquity. 1.
- David E. Cooper. 'Reactionary Modernism'. In Anthony O'Hear (ed.) German Philosophy Since Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 291–304.
- Costello, Paul. World Historians and Their Goals: Twentieth-Century Answers to Modernism (1993).
- Dakin, Edwin F. Today and Destiny: Vital Excepts from the Decline of the West of Oswald Spengler. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.
- Christopher Dawson (1956). Oswald Spengler and the Life of Civilizations In The Dynamics Of World History. Sheed And Ward.
- Farrenkopf, John (2001), Prophet of Decline: Spengler on world history and politics, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-8071-2653-5
- John Farrenkopf (Jul–Sep 1991). "The Transformation of Spengler's Philosophy of World History". Journal of the History of Ideas. 52 (3).
- Farrenkopf, John (October 1991). "Spengler's 'Der Mensch und die Technik: An Embarrassment or a Significant Treatise?". German Studies Review. 14 (3).
- Farrenkopf, John (June 1993). "Spengler's Historical Pessimism and the Tragedy of Our Age". Theory and Society. 22 (3).
- Fennelly, John F. (1972). Twilight of the Evening Lands: Oswald Spengler — A Half Century Later. New York: Brookdale Press. ISBN 0-912650-01-X.
- Fischer, Klaus P. History and Prophecy: Oswald Spengler and the Decline of the West. Durham: Moore, 1977.
- Frye, Northrop. "Spengler Revisited." In Northrop Frye on Modern Culture (2003), pp 297–382, first published 1974.
- Goddard, E. H. Civilisation or Civilisations: An Essay on the Spenglerian Philosophy of History, Boni & Liveright, 1926.
- Paul Gottfried (March 1982). "Spengler and the Inspiration of the Classical Age". Modern Age. XXVI (1).
- H. Stuart Hughes (1952). Oswald Spengler: A Critical Estimate. Charles Scribner's Sons.
- Hughes, H. Stuart (1991). Preface to the Present Edition". The Decline of the West: An Abridged Edition, by Oswald Spengler. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506751-7.
- Kidd, Ian James. "Oswald Spengler, Technology, and Human Nature: 'Man and Technics' as Philosophical Anthropology". In The European Legacy, (2012) 17#1 pp 19–31.
- Kogan, Steve. "'I See Further Than Others': Reflections On Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West and The Hour of Decision," Part 2(A), Part 2(B), Part 3, Part 4(A), Part 4(B), Part 5(A), Part 5(B), The Brussels Journal, 2010–11.
- Kroll, Joe Paul. "'A Biography of the Soul': Oswald Spengler's Biographical Method and the Morphology of History German Life & Letters (2009) 62#1 pp 67-83.
- Robert W. Merry "Spengler's Ominous Prophecy," National Interest, 2 January 2013.
- Nicholls, Roger A. (Summer 1985). "Thomas Mann and Spengler". The German Quarterly. 58 (3).
- Rees, Philip (ed.) (1991). Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890. ISBN 0-13-089301-3.
- Weigert, Hans W. (October 1942). "Oswald Spengler, Twenty-five Years After: The Future in Retrospect". Foreign Affairs.
In foreign languages
- Baltzer, Armin. Philosoph oder Prophet? Oswald Spenglers Vermächtnis und Voraussagen [Philosopher or Prophet?], Verlag für Kulturwissenschaften, 1962.
- Caruso, Sergio. "Lo Spätwerk storico-filosofico di Oswald Spengler" [Oswald Spengler’s Historic-Philosophical Spätwerk]. In Antologia Vieusseux, Vol. 11, No. 41–42, Jan.–June 1976, pp. 67–72.
- Caruso, Sergio. La politica del Destino. Relativismo storico e irrazionalismo politico nel pensiero di Oswald Spengler [Destiny’s politics. Historical relativism & political irrationalism in Oswald Spengler’s thought]. Firenze: Cultura 1979.
- Caruso, Sergio. "Oswald Spengler: un centenario dimenticato?". In Nuova Antologia, Vol. 115, No. 2136, Oct.–Dec. 1980, pp. 347–54.
- Caruso, Sergio. "Minoranze, caste e partiti nel pensiero di Oswald Spengler". In Politica e società. Scritti in onore di Luciano Cavalli, ed. by G. Bettin. Cedam: Padova 1997, pp. 214–82.
- Felken, Detlef. Oswald Spengler; Konservativer Denker zwischen Kaiserreich und Diktatur. Munich: CH Beck, 1988.
- Messer, August. Oswald Spengler als Philosoph, Strecker und Schröder, 1922.
- Reichelt, Stefan G. "Oswald Spengler". In: Nikolaj A. Berdjaev in Deutschland 1920–1950. Eine rezeptionshistorische Studie. Universitätsverlag: Leipzig 1999, pp. 71–73. ISBN 3-933240-88-3.
- Schroeter, Manfred. Metaphysik des Untergangs: eine kulturkritische Studie über Oswald Spengler, Leibniz Verlag, 1949.
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- Works by or about Oswald Spengler at Internet Archive
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- The Oswald Spengler Collection
- Timeline of Spengler's life Translated from the German
- Works by Spengler, including his books, essays and lectures (in German)
- Complete bibliography of Spengler's essays, lectures, and books, including translations, arranged chronologically
- The Modernism Lab: Oswald Spengler
- Works by Oswald Spengler at Unz